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三坐标数控磨床设计论文.doc

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三坐标数控磨床设计论文.doc

第1页中文摘要本次设计为三坐标数控磨床,该机床能通过三轴联动,实现曲线直线等不同的加工路线,同时可以通过更换砂轮来加工不同的型腔和轮廓提高其表面质量。另外该机床也能够对其它一些工具零件进行表面加工。所设计的三坐标数控磨床,磨头与立柱之间用鼠齿器相连,可以改变主轴与工作台的角度。三个坐标方向的移动均由交流伺服电机带动丝杠驱动,所选用的联轴器为十字滑块联轴器,工作台选用双推与双推轴承组成两端固定支承,达到所要求的高精度。三个方向通过速度反馈和位置反馈实现闭环系统。主轴电机采用交流电机,由变频器对其进行无级调速。所有电机均有单片机进行控制。此设计主要对数控磨床的机构进行设计,了解单片机的工作原理,主要有以下几个方面X、Y工作台的传动机构设计,主要是滚珠丝杠的运用伺服系统应用开环控制,了解它的工作原理机床整体结构的设计,了解优缺点,充分考虑主要矛盾,择优选取数控装置的设计,了解其控制原理。设计中充分考虑经济性、工艺性、适用性等要求,选择最好的方案,以达到最佳的效果。关键词数控三坐标铣床第2页英文摘要Thisdesignisfortricoordinatenumericalcontrolgrindingmachine.Thismachinetoolcanworkalongthecurveandstraightlinethroughcooperationofthreeaxles.Bychangingtheabrasivewheelitcanalsoprocessdifferenttypeandoutline.Andthusimprovethequalityofitssurface.Furthermore,thismachinetoolcanhandlethefaceimprovingprocessofothertoolsandcomponents.ThetricoordinateNCcurvedsurfacegrindingmachineworkheadisconnectedwithstandpostbymeansofamousetoothdevice.Itcanchangetheanglebetweenthemainaxleandworkdesk.ThemotionoftricoordinatedirectionisurgedbyDC.Theworkdeskisfixedatbothends,thusitcanreachthehighaccuracy.Threecoordinatedirectionmoveandurgebydirectcurrentserveelectricalmachineryandrealizehalfcloseringsystemthroughspeedfeedbackandpositionfeedback.Mainshaftadoptandexchangeelectricalmachinerybyelectricalmachinery,goonstepspeedregulationtotheirbyconverter.Allelectricalmachineriesarecontrolledbytheonechipcomputer.Inthiswaytheproductproducedarewithhighqualitywemainlydesignthestructureofthenumericallycontrolledmillingmachine,andfindoutcontrolprncipleofsingletoolmachineThedesignofthetransmissionstructureofX、Yworktable.MainlytheapplicationofbollbeanyAssitingsystemwiththecontrolofopenloopsystemanditsworkingprinplesThedesignofthewholemachinestructureanditadvantagesanddisadvantagesThedesignofthenumericallycontrolleddevice,anditscontrolprinciples.Inthisdesign,wefullyconsiderthepracticalordersofeconomy,technologyandapplicabilityandchoosetheleastplantogettheleasteffect.KeyWordsNumericalControlTricoordinateMillingMachine第3页目录中文摘要....................................................................................................................................................1英文摘要....................................................................................................................................................2目录.............................................................................................................................................................3第一章概论...........................................................................................................................................11.1数控机床的产生与发展.............................................................................................................11.2何谓数控机床..............................................................................................................................11.3数控机床的应用范围.................................................................................................................11.4数控机床的基本组成.................................................................................................................21.5数控机床的分类.........................................................................................................................21.6数控机床的工作过程.................................................................................................................21.7数控机床的特点....................................................................................................................21.8磨削概论.......................................................................................................................................21.9三坐标数控磨床........................................................................................................................3第二章总体结构设计.........................................................................................................................62.1提高机床的结构刚度的设计....................................................................................................62.2提高机床的抗振性的措施........................................................................................................72.3提高机床灵敏度..........................................................................................................................7第三章进给伺服系统结构设计..........................................................................................................83.1进给伺服系统的作用.................................................................................................................83.2进给伺服系统的设计要求........................................................................................................83.2.1对进给伺服系统的基本要求.............................................................................................83.2.2进给伺服系统的设计要求................................................................................................93.3进给伺服系统的组成.................................................................................................................93.4进给伺服系统的分类...............................................................................................................93.5给伺服系统的数学模型。......................................................................................................103.5.1数控机床的位置调节系统............................................................................................103.5.2进给伺服系统的数字模型............................................................................................103.6进给伺服系统的动态响应特性及伺服性能分析..............................................................103.6.1时间响应性.......................................................................................................................103.6.2频率响应特性..................................................................................................................113.6.3稳定性分析.......................................................................................................................113.6.4快速性分析.......................................................................................................................113.6.5伺服精度...........................................................................................................................113.7驱动元件的设计.......................................................................................................................123.7.1.选用伺服电动机............................................................................................................123.7.2选用交流伺服电机...........................................................................................................123.8机械传动部件的设计...............................................................................................................14第四章床身与导轨............................................................................................................................204.1床身设计.....................................................................................................................................204.1.1床身结构的基本要求.....................................................................................................204.1.2床身的结构.......................................................................................................................204.1.3床身的截面形状..............................................................................................................204.1.4钢板焊接结构...................................................................................................................214.1.5箱体封沙结构...................................................................................................................21第4页4.2导轨设计.....................................................................................................................................214.2.1对导轨的要求...................................................................................................................214.2.2滑动导轨.........................................................................................................................214.2.3贴塑滑动导轨..................................................................................................................214.2.4导轨结构...........................................................................................................................224.2.5导轨设计...........................................................................................................................224.2.6导轨的材料........................................................................................................................22第五章主传动系统结构设计........................................................................................................235.1主传动系统的设计要求...........................................................................................................235.2主传动变速系统的设计...........................................................................................................235.3主轴组件设计.............................................................................................................................235.3.1对主轴组件的性能要求.................................................................................................235.3.2主轴组件的组成和轴承选型........................................................................................245.3.3主轴组件的技术要求.....................................................................................................255.3.4主轴组件的动态特性......................................................................................................265.3.5主轴轴承的润滑..............................................................................................................265.4选择主轴电机.............................................................................................................................275.5高速带的设计计算...................................................................................................................29第六章控制系统设计.......................................................................................................................316.1确定硬件电路的总体方案......................................................................................................316.2主控制器CPU的选择...............................................................................................................316.3存储器扩展电路设计...............................................................................................................316.4I/O口扩展电路设计................................................................................................................326.5交流伺服电机驱动电路..........................................................................................................326.6主轴电机驱动电路...................................................................................................................326.7越界报警.....................................................................................................................................32程序.........................................................................................................................................................33设计小结...........................................................................................................................................36参考文献..................................................................................................................................................37

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