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基于PLC控制的带式输送机自动张紧装置设计说明书.doc

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基于PLC控制的带式输送机自动张紧装置设计说明书.doc

中国矿业大学2008届本科生毕业设计第1页目录1概述.....................................................................................................................11.1张紧装置的作用................................................................................................................................51.2张紧装置的类型及其介绍...............................................................................................................61.3液压张紧装置的基本介绍及其特点.............................................................................................61.3.1液压张紧装置的特点..............................................................................................................61.3.2新型自动控制液压张紧装置的主要技术特点..................................................................71.3.3液压传动的特点.......................................................................................................................71.4带式输送机张紧装置的PLC控制系统介绍................................................................................81.4.1PLC的介绍................................................................................................................................81.4.2带式输送机张紧装置的控制原理......................................................................................102带式输送机的工作原理...................................................................................132.1带式输送机的组成及工作原理....................................................................................................132.1.1带式输送机的组成.................................................................................................................132.1.2带式输送机的工作原理........................................................................................................152.2带式输送机的驱动原理摩擦传动原理..............................................................................152.2.1单滚筒驱动情况.....................................................................................................................162.2.2多滚筒驱动情况.....................................................................................................................203带式输送机的选型设计计算...........................................................................253.1设计参数............................................................................................................................................253.2带式输送机的机型选择.................................................................................................................253.3输送带的选择设计..........................................................................................................................253.3.1选取带速...................................................................................................................................253.3.2选择带宽...................................................................................................................................263.4运行阻力的计算..............................................................................................................................273.5输送带张力的计算..........................................................................................................................293.6校核.....................................................................................................................................................313.7张紧行程及张紧力的计算.............................................................................................................323.7.1张紧行程...................................................................................................................................323.7.2张紧力.......................................................................................................................................323.8机型布置............................................................................................................................................343.8.1布置原则...................................................................................................................................343.8.2布置形式...................................................................................................................................343.9滚筒的选择.......................................................................................................................................35中国矿业大学2008届本科生毕业设计第2页3.10电机、减速器的选型及有关驱动装置部件的选用..............................................................373.10.2减速器的选型........................................................................................................................383.10.3有关驱动装置部件的选用.................................................................................................404带式输送机的起动分析...................................................................................414.1带式输送机的起动曲线.................................................................................................................414.2起动时的动张力计算......................................................................................................................434.3起动时间............................................................................................................................................465张紧装置选择方案...........................................................................................475.1张紧装置的类型..............................................................................................................................475.2方案比较与选择..............................................................................................................................486张紧装置的设计...............................................................................................526.1张紧装置组成...................................................................................................................................526.2主要技术问题...................................................................................................................................536.3张紧装置参数的确定......................................................................................................................546.3.1张紧力和张紧行程.................................................................................................................546.3.2启动加速度..............................................................................................................................546.3.3起动时间...................................................................................................................................546.4液压站及有关元件的设计与选用...............................................................................................546.4.1液压油缸的设计.....................................................................................................................546.4.2齿轮泵及电机..........................................................................................................................586.4.3蓄能器.......................................................................................................................................596.4.4液压油箱的设计.....................................................................................................................596.4.5电液比例溢流阀及其放大器...............................................................................................606.4.6电磁换向阀、单向阀............................................................................................................616.5机械结构设计...................................................................................................................................626.5.1张紧车架...................................................................................................................................626.5.2滑轮............................................................................................................................................626.6注意事项与要求..............................................................................................................................626.6.1张紧装置的振动.....................................................................................................................626.6.2设备使用要求..........................................................................................................................627电控系统...........................................................................................................637.1控制系统的硬件组成......................................................................................................................637.1.1PLC及扩展模块....................................................................................................................637.1.2测速传感器..............................................................................................................................657.1.3压力变送器..............................................................................................................................667.1.4PLC控制系统的硬件配置图...............................................................................................68中国矿业大学2008届本科生毕业设计第3页7.2软件设计............................................................................................................................................697.2.1思路及流程图..........................................................................................................................697.2.2输入输出点地址分配............................................................................................................697.2.3参数设定...................................................................................................................................697.2.4带式输送机张紧装置PLC程序.........................................................................................73结论...................................................................................................................80参考文献...............................................................................................................81致谢...................................................................................................................82摘要本设计主要是带式输送机全自动液压张紧装置的设计。它是在吸收国、内外输送机张紧技术的基础上,根据国内带式输送机的运行特点及要求研制的。它采用比例控制技术及可靠性较高的可编程控制技术,可以对张紧力进行多点控制,根据不同工作情况随时调节张紧力的大小。能最大程度的延长皮带的寿命,大大节约了成本。在设计中,用一个动滑轮使液压缸的行程减少了一半,避免使用行程较长的液压缸,减少了制造液压缸的难度。同时,系统中增加了若干个蓄能器,可以最大限度的吸收液压冲击,减小对皮带的冲击力提高胶带的使用寿命。本设计在总结其它常规皮带张紧装置的基础上,设计了能够满足皮带机的皮带长度变化较大时的皮带拉紧装置。此装置在皮带机启动阶段,能提供足够大的启动张力启动完毕后,又可使皮带的张力恢复到额定值以维持皮带机的正常运行。本文根据液压自动张紧装置的液压原理,详细阐述了自动张紧装置的结构组成、控制原理及功能特点,并阐明了控制系统的设计关键在于压力值和最大拉力值的设定。介绍了带式输送机运行系统要求,并运用PLC可编程控制技术对带式输送机的起动、制动和拉紧部分实时监控,完全实现了带式输送机自动控制运行方式,构成了一个高可靠性的设备运行控制系统。中国矿业大学2008届本科生毕业设计第4页关键词带式输送机自动液压张紧装置自动控制可编程控制PLCABSTRACTThisdesignismainlyaboutfullautomatichydraulictensionstationforbeltconveyer.Itisdesignedonthefoundationofopeningtechnologyinandoutside,accordingtothedomesticoperationcharacteristicofbeltconveyerandrequirement.Theequipmentisalsomadeondomesticbelttypeconveyermovementcharacteristicandrequestment.Itusestheproportionalcontroltechnologyandthereliablehigherprogrammablecontroltechnology,Itmaycarryonthemultispotscontroltostrictthestrength,adjustspressingthestrengthsizeasnecessaryaccordingtothedifferentworkingcondition.Itcanbethegreatestdegreelengthentheleatherbeltthelife,greatlysavedthecost.Inthedesign,Itcausesthehydrauliccylinderwithamovablepulleythestroketoreduceonehalf,andavoidesusingastrokelongerhydrauliccylinder.Inthisway,itreducesdifficultyofthehydrauliccylindersproduce.Atthesametime,itincreasescertainaccumulatorsinthesystem,andlimitsabsorptionhydraulicpressureimpact,whichreducestheleatherbeltimpulseandenhancestheadhesivetapeslife.Inthisissue,thebeltconveyerdevicewhosetensionforcevariedgreatlyisdesigedtosatisfythere2quirementsofthestressedbeltinvariedlength.Itstersionisgreaterinstartingstate,andsmallerinnormalstatemoving.Inthebasisofworkingprincipleofautomatichydraulictensioningdevice,structurecomposing,controlprincipleandfunctioncharacteristicsofthedevicewereintroducedinthispaper.Italsoexpoundedthedesignkeyofthecontrolsystemistosetpressurevalueandmaximdrawingvalue.Introducesrequirementofbeltconveyeroperatingsystem.PLCisutilizedtomonitorthedrive,brakeandtensionpartofbeltconveyerinrealtimeandtorealizeautocontroloperatingmodecompletely,constructingacontrolsystemwithsuperreliabilityforequipmentoperation.

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