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外文翻译--切削液的绿色设计及应用.doc

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外文翻译--切削液的绿色设计及应用.doc

附录1英文原文THEGREENDESIGNANDTHEAPPLICATIONOFCUTTINGFLUIDABSTRACTCuttingfluidsaretheimportantassistmaterialsformachining.Howeverasapplyingcuttingfluidsasalsobringsaboutseveralenvironmentproblems.Inordertorealizegreenmanufacturing,studyonthegreendesignandgreenapplicationofthecuttingfluidswillbemosteffectiveway.Thegreendesignoffluidsisdesignfortheenvironmentprotection.Itcontainsthatthewatersolublecuttingfluidswillgoinsteadofcuttingoils,thevegetableoilsandsyntheticesteraresubstitutedformineraloilandthegreenadditivesaredeveloped.Thegreenapplicationdemandsthecuttingfluidsdoesntharmoperatorandthepollutionofenvironmentisthelowestinmetalcutting.Theconcretestepistostrengthenthecuttingfluidsmanagementandsafeguard,tospreadtheconcentratedcoolingandlubricatingsystems,tousetheprotectingdeviceandtoadoptthesealingcutting.Moreover,thenewtechnologiesofdisposingwastercuttingfluidswillbewidelyspreadedanddeveloped.1INTRODUCTIONAsdevelopingindustryleadstonewmaterialcivilizationitalsobringsaboutseveralenvironmentproblems.Withthepollutionmoreserioustheseproblemsofenvironmentandnaturalresourceshavebeengenerallyrealized.Consequently,manynationalgovernmentshaveproclaimedalotofmainstayofcreatingthewealthofthesocietymechanicalmanufacturingindustriesarealsothemainsourceoftheenvironmentpollution.Howtodecreaseoreliminatethemanufacturingpollutionbecomesanewsubject.Then,thegreenmanufacturingistheimportantpartofthesustaineddevelopmentstrategyandisthemodernmanufacturingmodelofoverallconsideringenvironmentprotectionandnaturalresourcesutilizationratio.Seekingfortheaimisthatinfluenceofproductsonenvironmentpollutionistheleastandresourceutilizationratioisthehighestduringthewholeperiodfromdesigningandmanufacturingandusingtoscrappingofproducts.Itisconsideredthatthemachiningwillhaveoccupyingthemechanicalworkingamountoverninetypercentinthe21stcentury.Cuttingfluidsaretheimportantassistmaterialsformachining.Applyingcuttingfluidrationallycanmarkedlyimprovethemachiningqualityandproductivityreducethetoolwearandthemachiningcosts.Inconsequence,thecuttingfluidsarewidelyappliedinthemachining.Withmansenvironmentprotectionconsciousnessenhanced,reverseinfluenceofapplyingcuttingfluidswasclearlyrecognized.Theharmofcuttingfluidsisasfollows1endangeringmanshealth.Inasmachascuttingfluidsincludechemicalingredientpernicioustomanshealth,inapplyingthecuttingfluidstheymadeoperatorsbeharmedperhaps.Becauseofoperatorsdirectlytouchingthecuttingfluids,manykindsofskindiseasemaybecausedtohappen.Moreover,hightemperatureproducinginthemetalcuttingfluidbeheated,sothatformingthevaporandthesmell,maymakeoperatorsrespiratorytractandlungdiseasebeinfected.2Environmentpollution.Inmetalcuttingtheleakandthespilloverofthecuttingfluidsmaypolluteenvironmentandaffectsafeproduction.Todrainwastecuttingfluidswhichwerenotdisposedordidntachievethedrainstandard,considerablypolluteslend,riverandlakeandseriouslyinfluencethegrowthofanimalandplant,andecologicalenvironmentandecologicalbalanceweredestroyed.Then,thecuttingfluidsareenvironmentpollutionresourcesinthemachining.Thewayofrealizinggreenmanufacturingistoadoptdrycutandtodevelopanewtypecuttingfluidsgoodforenvironment.Thedrycutdoesntapplycuttingfluidsinthemachining,buttoolslifeisshortened,forthemachiningconditionisbadtheproductioncostsisincreased,theproductionefficiencyisreducedandthesurfacequalitymachinedworsened.Consequently,todevelopgreencuttingfluidwillbenefitthemachiningandisanurgenttaskalso.Wehopethecuttingfluidhasthefollowingproperties1Harmlessforoperatorsandenvironment.2Excellentcooling,lubrication,rustprotectionandcleaningability.3Thewastecuttingfluidwasdisposedeasily.Inthefollowingthegreendesignandthegreenapplicationofthecuttingfluidwillbeconsidered.2THEGREENDESIGNOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDSThetraditiondesignonlyconsidersthequalityandcostsothatitdoharmtotheoperatorandtheenvironmentalpollutionandwastetheresources,hamperingthesustaineddevelopment.Thegreendesignofthecuttingfluidgoesroundtheenvironmentprotection,andobeysfollowingrules.1Nontoxic.Thisismostimportant.Thegreencuttingfluiddidntcontaintheadditivespernicioustomanshealthandtoenvironmentprotection,anditsingredientswerebiologicallydissociatedandthewastefluidwaseasilydisposed.2Highfunction.Thegreencuttingfluidpossessesexcellentcooling,lubricationandcleanabilityanditcansatisfytheneedsofmodernmachining.3Longlife.Thegreencuttingfluidcanmaintainexcellentpropertiesinthelongerperiodofuse,sothattheefficacyofthecuttingfluidcanenoughutilizedandthedrainageamountofwastefluidisreduced.4Goodeconomy.Inorderthatthegreencuttingfluidiswidelyappliedtothemachiningthepriceofthegreencuttingfluidcanbeaccepted.Thetaskofthegreendesignisasfollows2.1ThewaterSolubleCuttingFluidswillGoInsteadofthecuttingOilsThecuttingoilscomprisemineraloils,rustinhibitors,biocidesandboundarylubricants.Itsadvantagesareexcellentlubricatingability,goodwettabilityofsurfaces,goodrustprotection,however,itslimitationsarehighercost,poorcoolingability,smokegeneration,firehazards,messinessandpossiblehealthhazard.Furthermore,mineraloilresourcesarebecominglessandlessandhumanitywillfacethatpetroleumresourcewasexhausted.Theadvantagesofwatersolublecuttingfluidarelowercost,goodheatremoval,higherspeedcapability,cleanlinessandfreedomfromoilmist.Consequently,thesubstitutionofthewatersolublecuttingfluidsforcuttingoilscanmeetthedemandsofhumanityhealthandenvironmentfriendly.Syntheticfluidsandsemisyntheticfluidsoughttobegreatlydeveloped.2.2TheSubstitutionofVegetableOilsandSyntheticEsterforMineralOilIncuttingfluidsthemineraloilismaincomponentandplaylubricantpart,butitswasteliquidbiologicallydissociatedandmakeenvironmentbepollution.Naturalvegetableoilssuchassunfloweroil,rapeoil,castoroilandSoyabeanoiletc.Havetheadvantageswhicharenonpoisonforhumanityandenvironment,goodbiodegradationandreprocessingproperty,butthelimitationsarepoorstabilityandhighcost.Table1BaseoilsbiodegradationBaseoilsBiodegradationratioMineraloils0~40Naturalvegetableoils90~100Esteroils90~100Syntheticesterscomprisepolyatomicalcoholester,binaryandcompoundeateretc.,anditsadvantagesarenonpoison,goodhightemperaturepropertyandoxidationresistanceandlubricatingability,whileitsdefectsarehighcostandpoorhydrolysisstability.Then,thevegetableoilscooperatewithsyntheticestersissubstitutedformineraloils,sothatnotonlydoesthecuttingfluidpropertiesremainthesamebuttheenvironmentaswellisnotpolluted.2.3StudyonGreenAdditivesCuttingfluidscomprisemineraloil,extremepressurelubricants,oilnessagents,rustinhibitors,surfactantsandbiocidesetcandthepropertiesdependmainlyonthefunction.Then,thestudyontheadditivesisthekeyofthegreendesign.2.3.1LimitingAdditivesofuseasFollowsTherustinhibitorsnamelysodiumnitrite,phenol,phosphate,chromate,etcThesurfactantsratherdifficulttobiodegradeforexamplepolyethersurfactantsExtremepressureagentssuchassulphideandchlorinated.2.3.2TheDevelopmentofNewAdditivesBoricacidestersarenewadditives,theadvantagesaretodonotharmtopeopleandenvironmentanditpossessexcellentantiwearproperty,goodrustprotection,anticorrosionandsterilization,butitslimitationsispoorhydrolysisstability.Boraxisalsoamultifunctionaladditivetocertainextent,anditsapplicationneedsstudyingfurther.Suchsubstancesasmolybdenates,citratesandborateetcaregoodrustinhibitorsnow.Studyontheircooperatingeffectwillgreatlycontributetoresearchingandproducing

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