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外文翻译--切削液的绿色设计及应用.doc

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外文翻译--切削液的绿色设计及应用.doc

附录1英文原文THEGREENDESIGNANDTHEAPPLICATIONOFCUTTINGFLUIDABSTRACTCUTTINGFLUIDSARETHEIMPORTANTASSISTMATERIALSFORMACHININGHOWEVER;ASAPPLYINGCUTTINGFLUIDSASALSOBRINGSABOUTSEVERALENVIRONMENTPROBLEMSINORDERTOREALIZEGREENMANUFACTURING,STUDYONTHEGREENDESIGNANDGREENAPPLICATIONOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDSWILLBEMOSTEFFECTIVEWAYTHEGREENDESIGNOFFLUIDSISDESIGNFORTHEENVIRONMENTPROTECTIONITCONTAINSTHATTHEWATERSOLUBLECUTTINGFLUIDSWILLGOINSTEADOFCUTTINGOILS,THEVEGETABLEOILSANDSYNTHETICESTERARESUBSTITUTEDFORMINERALOILANDTHEGREENADDITIVESAREDEVELOPEDTHEGREENAPPLICATIONDEMANDSTHECUTTINGFLUIDSDOESN’THARMOPERATORANDTHEPOLLUTIONOFENVIRONMENTISTHELOWESTINMETALCUTTINGTHECONCRETESTEPISTOSTRENGTHENTHECUTTINGFLUIDSMANAGEMENTANDSAFEGUARD,TOSPREADTHECONCENTRATEDCOOLINGANDLUBRICATINGSYSTEMS,TOUSETHEPROTECTINGDEVICEANDTOADOPTTHESEALINGCUTTINGMOREOVER,THENEWTECHNOLOGIESOFDISPOSINGWASTERCUTTINGFLUIDSWILLBEWIDELYSPREADEDANDDEVELOPED1INTRODUCTIONASDEVELOPINGINDUSTRYLEADSTONEWMATERIALCIVILIZATIONITALSOBRINGSABOUTSEVERALENVIRONMENTPROBLEMSWITHTHEPOLLUTIONMORESERIOUSTHESEPROBLEMSOFENVIRONMENTANDNATURALRESOURCESHAVEBEENGENERALLYREALIZEDCONSEQUENTLY,MANYNATIONALGOVERNMENTSHAVEPROCLAIMEDALOTOFMAINSTAYOFCREATINGTHEWEALTHOFTHESOCIETY;MECHANICALMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRIESAREALSOTHEMAINSOURCEOFTHEENVIRONMENTPOLLUTIONHOWTODECREASEORELIMINATETHEMANUFACTURINGPOLLUTIONBECOMESANEWSUBJECTTHEN,THEGREENMANUFACTURINGISTHEIMPORTANTPARTOFTHESUSTAINEDDEVELOPMENTSTRATEGYANDISTHEMODERNMANUFACTURINGMODELOFOVERALLCONSIDERINGENVIRONMENTPROTECTIONANDNATURALRESOURCESUTILIZATIONRATIOSEEKINGFORTHEAIMISTHATINFLUENCEOFPRODUCTSONENVIRONMENTPOLLUTIONISTHELEASTANDRESOURCEUTILIZATIONRATIOISTHEHIGHESTDURINGTHEWHOLEPERIODFROMDESIGNINGANDMANUFACTURINGANDUSINGTOSCRAPPINGOFPRODUCTSITISCONSIDEREDTHATTHEMACHININGWILLHAVEOCCUPYINGTHEMECHANICALWORKINGAMOUNTOVERNINETYPERCENTINTHE21STCENTURYCUTTINGFLUIDSARETHEIMPORTANTASSISTMATERIALSFORMACHININGAPPLYINGCUTTINGFLUIDRATIONALLYCANMARKEDLYIMPROVETHEMACHININGQUALITYANDPRODUCTIVITY;REDUCETHETOOLWEARANDTHEMACHININGCOSTSINCONSEQUENCE,THECUTTINGFLUIDSAREWIDELYAPPLIEDINTHEMACHININGWITHMAN’SENVIRONMENTPROTECTIONCONSCIOUSNESSENHANCED,REVERSEINFLUENCEOFAPPLYINGCUTTINGFLUIDSWASCLEARLYRECOGNIZEDTHEHARMOFCUTTINGFLUIDSISASFOLLOWS1ENDANGERINGMAN’SHEALTHINASMACHASCUTTINGFLUIDSINCLUDECHEMICALINGREDIENTPERNICIOUSTOMAN’SHEALTH,INAPPLYINGTHECUTTINGFLUIDSTHEYMADEOPERATORSBEHARMEDPERHAPSBECAUSEOFOPERATORSDIRECTLYTOUCHINGTHECUTTINGFLUIDS,MANYKINDSOFSKINDISEASEMAYBECAUSEDTOHAPPENMOREOVER,HIGHTEMPERATUREPRODUCINGINTHEMETALCUTTINGFLUIDBEHEATED,SOTHATFORMINGTHEVAPORANDTHESMELL,MAYMAKEOPERATOR’SRESPIRATORYTRACTANDLUNGDISEASEBEINFECTED2ENVIRONMENTPOLLUTIONINMETALCUTTINGTHELEAKANDTHESPILLOVEROFTHECUTTINGFLUIDSMAYPOLLUTEENVIRONMENTANDAFFECTSAFEPRODUCTIONTODRAINWASTECUTTINGFLUIDSWHICHWERENOTDISPOSEDORDIDN’TACHIEVETHEDRAINSTANDARD,CONSIDERABLYPOLLUTESLEND,RIVERANDLAKEANDSERIOUSLYINFLUENCETHEGROWTHOFANIMALANDPLANT,ANDECOLOGICALENVIRONMENTANDECOLOGICALBALANCEWEREDESTROYEDTHEN,THECUTTINGFLUIDSAREENVIRONMENTPOLLUTIONRESOURCESINTHEMACHININGTHEWAYOFREALIZINGGREENMANUFACTURINGISTOADOPTDRYCUTANDTODEVELOPANEWTYPECUTTINGFLUIDSGOODFORENVIRONMENTTHEDRYCUTDOESN’TAPPLYCUTTINGFLUIDSINTHEMACHINING,BUTTOOLS’LIFEISSHORTENED,FORTHEMACHININGCONDITIONISBADTHEPRODUCTIONCOSTSISINCREASED,THEPRODUCTIONEFFICIENCYISREDUCEDANDTHESURFACEQUALITYMACHINEDWORSENEDCONSEQUENTLY,TODEVELOPGREENCUTTINGFLUIDWILLBENEFITTHEMACHININGANDISANURGENTTASKALSOWEHOPETHECUTTINGFLUIDHASTHEFOLLOWINGPROPERTIES1HARMLESSFOROPERATORSANDENVIRONMENT2EXCELLENTCOOLING,LUBRICATION,RUSTPROTECTIONANDCLEANINGABILITY3THEWASTECUTTINGFLUIDWASDISPOSEDEASILYINTHEFOLLOWINGTHEGREENDESIGNANDTHEGREENAPPLICATIONOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDWILLBECONSIDERED2THEGREENDESIGNOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDSTHETRADITIONDESIGNONLYCONSIDERSTHEQUALITYANDCOSTSOTHATITDOHARMTOTHEOPERATORANDTHEENVIRONMENTALPOLLUTIONANDWASTETHERESOURCES,HAMPERINGTHESUSTAINEDDEVELOPMENTTHEGREENDESIGNOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDGOESROUNDTHEENVIRONMENTPROTECTION,ANDOBEYSFOLLOWINGRULES1NONTOXICTHISISMOSTIMPORTANTTHEGREENCUTTINGFLUIDDIDN’TCONTAINTHEADDITIVESPERNICIOUSTOMAN’SHEALTHANDTOENVIRONMENTPROTECTION,ANDITSINGREDIENTSWEREBIOLOGICALLYDISSOCIATEDANDTHEWASTEFLUIDWASEASILYDISPOSED2HIGHFUNCTIONTHEGREENCUTTINGFLUIDPOSSESSESEXCELLENTCOOLING,LUBRICATIONANDCLEANABILITYANDITCANSATISFYTHENEEDSOFMODERNMACHINING3LONGLIFETHEGREENCUTTINGFLUIDCANMAINTAINEXCELLENTPROPERTIESINTHELONGERPERIODOFUSE,SOTHATTHEEFFICACYOFTHECUTTINGFLUIDCANENOUGHUTILIZEDANDTHEDRAINAGEAMOUNTOFWASTEFLUIDISREDUCED4GOODECONOMYINORDERTHATTHEGREENCUTTINGFLUIDISWIDELYAPPLIEDTOTHEMACHININGTHEPRICEOFTHEGREENCUTTINGFLUIDCANBEACCEPTEDTHETASKOFTHEGREENDESIGNISASFOLLOWS21THEWATERSOLUBLECUTTINGFLUIDSWILLGOINSTEADOFTHECUTTINGOILSTHECUTTINGOILSCOMPRISEMINERALOILS,RUSTINHIBITORS,BIOCIDESANDBOUNDARYLUBRICANTSIT’SADVANTAGESAREEXCELLENTLUBRICATINGABILITY,GOODWETTABILITYOFSURFACES,GOODRUSTPROTECTION,HOWEVER,IT’SLIMITATIONSAREHIGHERCOST,POORCOOLINGABILITY,SMOKEGENERATION,FIREHAZARDS,MESSINESSANDPOSSIBLEHEALTHHAZARDFURTHERMORE,MINERALOILRESOURCESAREBECOMINGLESSANDLESSANDHUMANITYWILLFACETHATPETROLEUMRESOURCEWASEXHAUSTEDTHEADVANTAGESOFWATERSOLUBLECUTTINGFLUIDARELOWERCOST,GOODHEATREMOVAL,HIGHERSPEEDCAPABILITY,CLEANLINESSANDFREEDOMFROMOILMISTCONSEQUENTLY,THESUBSTITUTIONOFTHEWATERSOLUBLECUTTINGFLUIDSFORCUTTINGOILSCANMEETTHEDEMANDSOFHUMANITYHEALTHANDENVIRONMENTFRIENDLYSYNTHETICFLUIDSANDSEMISYNTHETICFLUIDSOUGHTTOBEGREATLYDEVELOPED22THESUBSTITUTIONOFVEGETABLEOILSANDSYNTHETICESTERFORMINERALOILINCUTTINGFLUIDSTHEMINERALOILISMAINCOMPONENTANDPLAYLUBRICANTPART,BUTIT’SWASTELIQUIDBIOLOGICALLYDISSOCIATEDANDMAKEENVIRONMENTBEPOLLUTIONNATURALVEGETABLEOILSSUCHASSUNFLOWEROIL,RAPEOIL,CASTOROILANDSOYABEANOILETCHAVETHEADVANTAGESWHICHARENONPOISONFORHUMANITYANDENVIRONMENT,GOODBIODEGRADATIONANDREPROCESSINGPROPERTY,BUTTHELIMITATIONSAREPOORSTABILITYANDHIGHCOSTTABLE1BASEOILSBIODEGRADATIONBASEOILSBIODEGRADATIONRATIOMINERALOILS0~40NATURALVEGETABLEOILS90~100ESTEROILS90~100SYNTHETICESTERSCOMPRISEPOLYATOMICALCOHOLESTER,BINARYANDCOMPOUNDEATERETC,ANDIT’SADVANTAGESARENONPOISON,GOODHIGHTEMPERATUREPROPERTYANDOXIDATIONRESISTANCEANDLUBRICATINGABILITY,WHILEIT’SDEFECTSAREHIGHCOSTANDPOORHYDROLYSISSTABILITYTHEN,THEVEGETABLEOILSCOOPERATEWITHSYNTHETICESTERSISSUBSTITUTEDFORMINERALOILS,SOTHATNOTONLYDOESTHECUTTINGFLUIDPROPERTIESREMAINTHESAMEBUTTHEENVIRONMENTASWELLISNOTPOLLUTED23STUDYONGREENADDITIVESCUTTINGFLUIDSCOMPRISEMINERALOIL,EXTREMEPRESSURELUBRICANTS,OILNESSAGENTS,RUSTINHIBITORS,SURFACTANTSANDBIOCIDESETCANDTHEPROPERTIESDEPENDMAINLYONTHEFUNCTIONTHEN,THESTUDYONTHEADDITIVESISTHEKEYOFTHEGREENDESIGN231LIMITINGADDITIVESOFUSEASFOLLOWSTHERUSTINHIBITORSNAMELYSODIUMNITRITE,PHENOL,PHOSPHATE,CHROMATE,ETC;THESURFACTANTSRATHERDIFFICULTTOBIODEGRADEFOREXAMPLEPOLYETHERSURFACTANTS;EXTREMEPRESSUREAGENTSSUCHASSULPHIDEANDCHLORINATED232THEDEVELOPMENTOFNEWADDITIVESBORICACIDESTERSARENEWADDITIVES,THEADVANTAGESARETODONOTHARMTOPEOPLEANDENVIRONMENTANDITPOSSESSEXCELLENTANTIWEARPROPERTY,GOODRUSTPROTECTION,ANTICORROSIONANDSTERILIZATION,BUTIT’SLIMITATIONSISPOORHYDROLYSISSTABILITYBORAXISALSOAMULTIFUNCTIONALADDITIVETOCERTAINEXTENT,ANDIT’SAPPLICATIONNEEDSSTUDYINGFURTHERSUCHSUBSTANCESASMOLYBDENATES,CITRATESANDBORATEETCAREGOODRUSTINHIBITORSNOWSTUDYONTHEIRCOOPERATINGEFFECTWILLGREATLYCONTRIBUTETORESEARCHINGANDPRODUCING

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