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捷进英语语法项目高考复习融合串讲学案 03形容词和副词及其用法.doc

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捷进英语语法项目高考复习融合串讲学案 03形容词和副词及其用法.doc

1捷进英语语法项目高考复习专题融合串讲学案03模块三形容词和副词如果说英语是一道”味道鲜美的大菜’’,形容词和副词不象”主料”那样举足轻重,他们只能跻身于”辅料”的狭窄空间但他们却是大厨们最爱的”盐”和”味精”没有他们,大厨们做不出味道鲜美的大菜,你更享受不到大菜的鲜美马春利1通过例句与讲解掌握形容词和副词在句中所做的语法成分及其可以修饰的成分2通过语篇语境理解形容词和副词所表示出的人与事物的生动鲜活3正确使用形容词和副词形容词及其用法1形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。1直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如HOT热的。2叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以A开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如AFRAID害怕的。(错)HEISANILLMAN(对)THEMANISILL(错)SHEISANAFRAIDGIRL(对)THEGIRLISAFRAID这类词还有WELL,UNWELL,ILL,FAINT,AFRAID,ALIKE,ALIVE,ALONE,ASLEEP,AWAKE等。3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以THING为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如SOMETHINGNICE2以LY结尾的形容词1)大部分形容词加LY可构成副词。但FRIENDLY,DEADLY,LOVELY,LONELY,LIKELY,LIVELY,UGLY,BROTHERLY,仍为形容词。改错错)SHESANGLOVELY(对)HERSINGINGWASLOVELY(错)HESPOKETOMEVERYFRIENDLY(对)HESPOKETOMEINAVERYFRIENDLYWAY2)有些以LY结尾既为形容词,也为副词。DAILY,WEEKLY,MONTHLY,YEARLY,EARLYTHETIMESISADAILYPAPERTHETIMESISPUBLISHEDDAILY3用形容词表示类别和整体1)某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如THEDEAD,THELIVING,THERICH,THEPOOR,THEBLIND,THEHUNGRY。THEPOORARELOSINGHOPE2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。THEBRITISH,THEENGLISH,THEFRENCH,THECHINESETHEENGLISHHAVEWONDERFULSENSEOFHUMOR4多个形容词修饰名词的顺序多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为限定词数词描绘词大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色出处材料性质,类别名词ASMALLROUNDTABLEATALLGRAYBUILDINGADIRTYOLDBROWNSHIRTAFAMOUSGERMANMEDICALSCHOOLANEXPENSIVEJAPANESESPORTSCAR典型例题1)TONYISGOINGCAMPINGWITH___BOYSALITTLETWOOTHERBTWOLITTLEOTHERCTWOOTHERLITTLEDLITTLEOTHERTWO答案C。由限定词数词描绘词大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色性质名词的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。2ONEDAYTHEYCROSSEDTHE____BRIDGEBEHINDTHEPALACEAOLDCHINESESTONEBCHINESEOLDSTONECOLDSTONECHINESEDCHINESESTONEOLD答案A几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是年龄,形状,大小颜色来源质地用途国家名词。3HOWWASYOURRECENTVISITTOQINGDAOITWASGREATWEVISITEDSOMEFRIENDS,ANDSPENTTHE___DAYSATTHESEASIDEAFEWLASTSUNNYBLASTFEWSUNNYCLASTSUNNYFEWDFEWSUNNYLAST答案B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照下表限定词数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)性状形容词大小、长短、高低等形体THOSETHREEBEAUTIFULLARGESQUARE新旧颜色国籍材料名词OLDBROWNWOODTABLE副词及其基本用法副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。1副词的位置1)在动词之前。2)在BE动词、助动词之后。3)多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。注意A大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。WECOULDSEEVERYCLEARLYASTRANGELIGHTAHEADOFUSB方式副词WELL,BADLY糟、坏,HARD等可放在句尾,也可放于助动词之后实义动词之前。HESPEAKSENGLISHWELLSTUDENTSWEREWELLPREPAREDFORTHEFOLLOWINGEXAMS2副词的排列顺序1)时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用AND或BUT等连词连接。PLEASEWRITESLOWLYANDCAREFULLY3)多个不同副词排列程度地点方式时间副词。注意副词VERY可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。改错错IVERYLIKEENGLISH2对ILIKEENGLISHVERYMUCH注意副词ENOUGH要放在形容词的后面,形容词ENOUGH放在名词前后都可。IDONTKNOWHIMWELLENOUGHTHEREISENOUGHFOODFOREVERYONETOEATTHEREISFOODENOUGHFOREVERYONETOEAT3兼有两种形式的副词1CLOSE与CLOSELYCLOSE意思是近;CLOSELY意思是仔细地HEISSITTINGCLOSETOMEWATCHHIMCLOSELY2LATE与LATELYLATE意思是晚;LATELY意思是最近YOUHAVECOMETOOLATEWHATHAVEYOUBEENDOINGLATELY3DEEP与DEEPLYDEEP意思是深,表示空间深度;DEEPLY时常表示感情上的深度,深深地HEPUSHEDTHESTICKDEEPINTOTHEMUDEVENFATHERWASDEEPLYMOVEDBYTHEFILM4HIGH与HIGHLYHIGH表示空间高度;HIGHLY表示程度,相当于MUCHTHEPLANEWASFLYINGHIGHITHINKHIGHLYOFYOUROPINION5WIDE与WIDELYWIDE表示空间宽度;WIDELY意思是广泛地,在许多地方HEOPENEDTHEDOORWIDEENGLISHISWIDELYUSEDINTHEWORLD6FREE与FREELYFREE的意思是免费;FREELY的意思是无限制地YOUCANEATFREEINMYRESTAURANTWHENEVERYOULIKEYOUMAYSPEAKFREELY;SAYWHATYOULIKE4形容词与副词的比较级大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。1规则变化单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾ER,EST来构成比较级和最高级。构成法原级比较级最高级1。一般单音节词TALL高的TALLERTALLEST末尾加ER,ESTGREAT巨大的GREATERGREATEST2。以不发音的E结尾NICE好的NICERNICEST的单音词和少数LARGE大的LARGERLARGEST3。以LE结尾的双ABLE(有能力的ABLERABLEST音节词只加R,ST4。以一个辅音字母BIG大的BIGGERBIGGEST结尾的闭音节单HOT热的HOTTERHOTTEST音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加ER,EST5。以辅音字母YEASY容易的EASIEREASIEST结尾的双音节词,BUSY忙的BUSIERBUSIEST改Y为I,再加ER,EST6。少数以ER,OWCLEVER聪明的CLEVERERCLEVEREST结尾的双音节词NARROW窄的NARROWERNARROWEST末尾加ER,EST7。其他双音节词和IMPORTANT重要的MOREIMPORTANTMOSTIMPORTANT多音节词,在前面加EASILY容易地MOREEASILYMOSTEASILYMORE,MOST来构成比较级和最高级。2不规则变化原级比较级最高级GOOD好的/BETTERBESTWELL健康的BAD坏的/WORSEWORSTILL有病的OLD老的OLDER/ELDEROLDEST/ELDESTMUCH/MANY多的MOREMOSTLITTLE少的LESSLEASTFAR远的FARTHER/FURTHERFARTHEST/FURTHEST5AS形容词或副词原级AS1)在否定句或疑问句中可用SOAS。HECANNOTRUNSO/ASFASTASYOU2)当ASAS中间有名词时采用以下格式。AS形容词A单数名词ASMANY/MUCH名词THISISASGOODANEXAMPLEASTHEOTHERISICANCARRYASMUCHPAPERASYOUCAN3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在AS的前面。THISROOMISTWICEASBIGASTHATONEYOURROOMISTHESAMESIZEASMINE4倍数ASADJAS倍数THENOFTHISBRIDGEISTHREETIMESASLONGASTHATONETHISBRIDGEISTHREETIMESTHELENGTHOFTHATONEYOURROOMISTWICEASLARGEASMINEYOURROOMISTWICETHESIZEOFMINE6比较级形容词或副词THANYOUARETALLERTHANITHEYLIGHTSINYOURROOMAREASBRIGHTASTHOSEINMINE3注意1)要避免重复使用比较级。错HEISMORECLEVERERTHANHISBROTHER对HEISMORECLEVERTHANHISBROTHER对HEISCLEVERTHANHISBROTHER2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。错CHINAISLARGERTHATANYCOUNTRYINASIA对CHINAISLARGERTHANANYOTHERCOUNTRIESINASIA3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。THEPOPULATIONOFSHANGHAIISLARGERTHANTHATOFBEIJINGITISEASIERTOMAKEAPLANTHANTOCARRYITOUT4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面有冠词。比较WHICHISLARGE,CANADAORAUSTRALIAWHICHISTHELARGERCOUNTRY,CANADAORAUSTRALIASHEISTALLERTHANHERTWOSISTERSSHEISTHETALLEROFTHETWOSISTERS7可修饰比较级的词1)ABIT,ALITTLE,RATHER,MUCH,FAR,BYFAR,MANY,ALOT,LOTS,AGREATDEAL,ANY,STILL,EVEN等2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。3)以上词除BYFAR外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。典型例题1)AREYOUFEELING____YES,IMFINENOWAANYWELLBANYBETTERCQUITEGOODDQUITEBETTER答案BANY可修饰比较级,QUITE修饰原级,WELL的比较级为BETTER2)THEEXPERIMENTWAS____EASIERTHANWEHADEXPECTEDAMOREBMUCHMORECMUCHDMOREMUCH答案CMUCH可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但EASIER本身已是比较级,不需MORE,因此C为正确答案。3)IFTHEREWERENOEXAMINATIONS,WESHOULDHAVE___ATSCHOOLATHEHAPPIESTTIMEBAMOREHAPPIERTIMECMUCHHAPPIESTTIMEDAMUCHHAPPIERTIME答案D。8MANY,OLD和FAR1如果后接名词时,MUCHMORE不可数名词;MANYMORE可数名词复数2OLD有两种比较级和最高级形式OLDER/OLDEST和ELDER/ELDEST。ELDER,ELDEST只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。MYELDERBROTHERISANENGINEERMARYISTHEELDESTOFTHETHREESISTERS3FAR有两种比较级,FARTHER,FURTHER在英语中两者都可指距离。在美语中,FATHER表示距离,FURTHER表示进一步。IHAVENOTHINGFURTHERTOSAY9THE最高级比较范围1THESAHARAISTHEBIGGESTDESERTINTHEWORLD形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词THE,副词最高级前可不用。形容词MOST前面没有THE,不表示最高级的含义,只表示非常。ITISAMOSTIMPORTANTPROBLEMITISAVERYIMPORTANTPROBLEM注意使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。错TOMISTHETALLESTOFHISTHREEBROTHERS对TOMISTHETALLESTOFTHETHREEBROTHERS2下列词可修饰最高级,BYFAR,FAR,MUCH,MOSTLY,ALMOSTTHISHATISNEARLY/ALMOSTTHEBIGGEST注意AVERY可修饰最高级,但位置与MUCH不同。THISISTHEVERYBESTTHISISMUCHTHEBESTB序数词通常只修饰最高级。AFRICAISTHESECONDLARGESTCONTINENT3句型转换MIKEISTHEMOSTINTELLIGENTINHISCLASSMIKEISMOREINTELLIGENTTHANANYOTHERSTUDENTSINHISCLASS4否定词语比较级,否定词语SOAS结构表示最高级含义。NOTHINGISSOEASYASTHISNOTHINGISEASIERTHANTHISTHISISTHEEASIESTTHING10和MORE有关的词组1THEMORETHEMORE越就越THEHARDERYOUWORK,THEGREATERPROGRESSYOULLMAKE2MOREBTHANA与其说A不如说B;LESSATHANBHEISMORELAZYTHANSLOWATHISWORKHEISLESSSLOWTHANLAZYATHISWORK3NOMORETHAN与一样不,仅仅THEOFFICIALSCOULDSEENOMORETHANTHEEMPERORNOLESSTHAN与一样HEISNOLESSDILIGENTTHANYOU4MORETHAN不只是,非常SHEISMORETHANKINDTOUSALL典型例题1)THEWEATHERINCHINAISDIFFERENTFROM____AINAMERICABONEINAMERICACAMERICADTHATINAMERICA答案D本题意为中国的天气比美国热。比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的ONE常用来代替可数名词,而THAT可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。2)AFTERTHENEWTECHNIQUEWASINTRODUCED,THEFACTORYPRODUCED___TRACTORSIN1988ASTHEYEARBEFOREAASTWICEMANYBASMANYTWICECTWICEASMANYDTWICEMANYAS答案C此句意为这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍。表示倍数用倍数AS形容词原形AS比较对象的句型。所以此句答案为C。THISRULERISTHREETIMESASLONGASTHATONE练习题基础部分41BYLOOKINGATAPROBLEMIN_____ASPOSSIBLE,CREATIVETHINKERSCANFINDSOLUTIONSTHATWOULDOTHERWISEREMAININVISIBLEASOMANYWAYSBASMANYWAYSCTOOMANYWAYSDMOREWAYS2WHATDOYOUTHINKOFFRENCHINMYOPINION,FRENCHIS_____ENGLISHAASUBJECTSODIFFICULTASBASDIFFICULTASUBJECTASCASASUBJECTDIFFICULTASDDIFFICULTASSUBJECTAS3MYNEWGLASSES_____ME_____THELASTPAIRTHATIBOUGHTASPENT,THREETIMESASLESSASBCOST,THREETIMESASMUCHASCCOST,ASMUCHASTHREETIMESDTOOK,THREETIMESMANYMORETHAN4MRSSMITHWASSOABOUTEVERYTHINGTHATNOSERVANTSCOULDPLEASEHERAPRECISEBPARTICULARCSPECIALDSPECIFIC5YOUKEEPONCOUGHINGWHAT’STHEMATTEROH,I’VEGOTACOLDNOTHINGSERIOUS,AYETBTHOUGHCINDEEDDANYWAY6DOYOUREALLYWANTTOGOOUTITMAYRAIN,ISHALLGOOUT;IDON’TMINDTHERAINAANYWAYBOTHERWISECSOMEHOWDTHEREFORE7HAVEYOURWORKINGCONDITIONSIMPROVEDNO,THANBEFORE,I’MAFRAIDANOBETTERBALITTLEBETTERCNOTWORSEDNOWORSE8THISBOOKBYTONYGARRISONISOFGREATUSEFOROURCOURSEBUTITHINKHISLATESTONEISWORTHREADINGABETTERBMORECMOSTDVERY9ITISTHATHISENGLISHISPERFECTACERTAIN;QUITEBSURE;VERYCEXACT;FAIRLYDRIGHT;RATHER10MYBROTHERWASSTILLSTUDYINGINTOTHENIGHTWHILEIWASASLEEPALATE;SOUNDBLATELY;WIDECDEEPLY;WIDEDFAR;LATE11HAVEYOURECEIVEDJACK’SPLANYES,BUTIDON’TTHINKHISPLANISAWORTHBEINGCONSIDEREDBWORTHYTOBECONSIDEREDCWORTHYOFCONSIDERINGDWORTHTOBECONSIDERED巩固部分1INCHINESECULTURE,MARRIAGEDECISIONSWEREOFTENMADEBYPARENTSFORTHEIRCHILDRENAREMOTEBHISTORICCTRADITIONALDINITIAL2EVERYBODYSAIDITWASANIDEALMARRIAGE;NOONEHADEVERKNOWNCOUPLEATHEHAPPIERBAHAPPIERCAHAPPYDTHEHAPPIEST3HEISINTHECLASSASOTHERSTUDENTSHADPOOREREXAMRESULTSABETTERBWORSECTHEWORSTDTHEBEST4NEEDILOCKBOTHTHEFRONTDOORANDTHEBACKDOORCERTAINLYYOUCANNEVERBEAVERYCAREFULBTOOCAREFULCENOUGHCAREFULDMORECAREFUL5JUDYISSECONDTONONEINENGLISHINOURCLASS,BUTBELIEVEITORNOT,SHEPASSEDTHELASTENGLISHEXAMAEASILYBACTUALLYCSURPRISINGLYDHARDLY6ILOSTMYWALLETLASTWEEK,BUTIDIDN’THAVEANYMONEYORCREDITCARDSINITATTHATTIMEALUCKILYBHOPEFULLYCGLADLYDNORMALLY7WHYAREYOUSOHURRIEDMOTHERWILLGETABITIFIDON’TGETBACKONTIMEAASHAMEDBWEAKCANXIOUSDPATIENT8NOWTHATYOULIKETHEPORTABLEPERSONALCOMPUTERSOMUCH,WHYNOTBUYONEITISOFGREATUSETOYOURWORKWELL,ICAN’TAFFORDCOMPUTERATPRESENTATHATEXPENSIVEABASUCHCHEAPCTHATANEXPENSIVEDSOCHEAP9DRWHITEHASGOTPLENTYOFINFORMATIONABOUTUFOHE’SPROMISEDTOOFFERITTOMEIHAVEASMUCHWOULDYOULIKETOHAVEMINEAASWELLBASPOSSIBLECSOFARDIFSO10WITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEINTERNET,COMMUNICATIONISDONEBYREGULARMAILAMOREBLESSCLITTLEDMUCH11TERRORISMINTHEWORLDMEANSMOREDEATHSANDHEAVIERLOSSESAND,ITISOURDUTYTOFIGHTAGAINSTITATHEREFOREBALTOGETHERCOTHERWISEDMOREOVER提升部分1DOYOUALLOWYOURSONTOGOTOANYINTERNETCAFEONHOLIDAYSNOTAEXTREMELYBTHOROUGHLYCABSOLUTELYDCOMPLETELY2OFYANGZHOUHASMR,SMITHCOVEREDSINCEHECAMEHERELASTMONTHABOUTHALFOFIT,ITHINKAHOWMUCHBHOWFARCHOWWIDEDHOWLARGE3YOUNGMAN,IFYOUHURRYUP,ITHINKQUITETHATYOUWILLCATCHTHENEXTTRAINATHAT;PROBABLYBTHIS;CERTAINLYCIT;LIKELYDYOU;NEARLY4IMOVEDTOASMALLTOWNANDCHANGEDMYJOBYEARSAGOIDON’TMAKEAMONEYASMUCHASIUSEDTOBMONEYASMUCHASIWASUSEDTOCASMUCHMONEYASIUSEDTODASMUCHMONEYASIWASUSEDTO5THEINCREASEOFTHENUMBEROFTHESTUDENTSMAKESTHELIMITEDCOMPUTERSNOTTOEACHSTUDENTAAVAILABLEBAFFORDABLECHELPFULDACCEPTABLE6MRSBUSHSTOODFORAMOMENTWHENANOLDSOLDIERSUDDENLYAPPEAREDBEFOREHERASURPRISEDBSURPRISINGCBEINGSURPRISEDDTOBESURPRISED7T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