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外文翻译原文和译文.doc

中国计量学院本科毕业论文外文文献翻译原文1MicroPowerRelationsbetweenTeachersandStudentsusingFivePerspectivesonTeachinginHigherEducationDavidGoslingAbstractInrecentyears,therehasbeenlittlediscussionintheliteratureaboutteachingandlearningofpowerrelationsbetweenteachersandstudents.Indeedthereisasuggestionthatteachershavebeenlosingpowerinrecenttimesbothbecauseofsocalledstudentcenteredapproachesbutalsobecausestudentsareobeseenasconsumers.ThispaperbeginsbyconsideringFoucaultscommentsonpoweranddevelopsthesetoexplorethemicrotechnologiesofpowerusedbyteachersinhighereducationintheirrolesassubjectexpert,designeroflearningtasks,designerofthecurriculumandasassessor.Aframeworkoffiveperspectivesonteaching,introducedbyPrattetal1998,isusedtoexaminesomedifferentwaysinwhichpowerisexercisedwithindifferentteachingandlearningregimes.MicroPowerRelationsbetweenTeachersandStudentsusingFivePerspectivesonTeachinginHigherEducationPowerrelationshipswithintheacademywasafashionabletopicinthe1960sand70sbutintherecentliteratureonlearningandteachingpowerhasrarelybeendiscussedatanylength.Powerismainlyconsideredinthecontextofthedisadvantagingofcertaingroupsbyvirtueoftheirgender,ethnicity,class,disabilityorsexualorientationforexample,hook,1989.Theexerciseofpowerwithinpedagogicalrelationshasnotbeenexploredtoanylargeextent,andthepopularityofstudentcenteredapproachesseemstosuggestashiftofpowerinfavorofstudents.Inrecentyearstheideathatstudentsshouldbeseenasconsumersofhighereducationhasalsoseemtoimplyadiminutioninthepoweroflecturers.Morley200386quotesalecturerwhosaysthatyouareinapositionwhereyoucantrefusethestudentsanything,youknowyoureallycant,iftheyknockonyourdooratanytimeofthedayyouhavetosayPleasecomein,whatwouldyouliemetodoforyou.Thepowerlessnessexpressedbythislecturerhidesamorecomplexrealityinwhichbothstudentsandteachersexercisepowerindifferentandcomplexways.InthispaperIwanttoexploresomeofthewaysinwhichteachersexercisepowerovertheir中国计量学院本科毕业论文studentsthepowerthatstudentshavewillbethesubjectofasecondpaper.Aftersomegeneralremarksaboutpower,IwillconsiderhowdifferentperspectivesonteachingPratt1998implydifferentkindsofpowerrelationshipswithstudents.Letusconsidersomefactorsthatinfluencethedistributionofpowerbetweenstudentsandteachers.TeacherasexpertTherelationbetweenpowerandknowledge,discussedextensivelybyFoucault,isanimportantconsiderationforthisdiscussionbecauseofthewayinwhichdifferentregimesoftruthinfluencetheauthorityofteacherinhighereducation.Poweroverstudentsisassignedtotheteacherasexpertbyvirtueofhis/herclaimtosuperiorknowledge.Theextenttowhichthispowerisexerciseddependsonbothhowteachersregardtheirclaimtoknowledgeandtheirconceptionofteaching,apointtowhichweshallreturnshortly.Butclassification,strongorweak,alwayscarriespowerrelations.Evenwithincontestedareasofknowledgewhichareweaklyframed,teachersexercisepowerbyvirtueoftheirinterpretationofthenatureofthesubject.PostmodernistEnglishlecturers,forexample,mayquestionthenatureoftraditionalliterarycriticism,buttheyalsoexpectstudentstooperatewithintheconceptualframeworkdefinedbytheirunderstandingofthesubject.MeyerandLand2003421talkingabouttroublesomeknowledgeciteEagletontalkingaboutlanguageasasprawlinglimitlesswebwherethereisaconstantinterchangeandcirculatingofelements,wherenoneoftheelementsisabsolutelydefinableandeverythingiscaughtupandtracedthroughbyeverythingelse.Nevertheless,withinareaswherethereisnotsuchclearlyidentifiedbodyofknowledge,itmightstillbethecasethatwaysofthinkingandpracticeconstitutesacrucialthresholdfunction.2003421Whenthelecturer,quotedbyMeyerandLand,assertsthatwehavetoinstillinstudentsakindofacceptanceofmodelingwhichisquitefundamentaltothewayinwhichweapproachmostofouranalysisphraseslikeinstillindicateaonewaypowersystem.TeacherasthedesigneroflearningtasksLecturesalsohavesignificantpowerincreatingthelearningenvironmentinwhichstudentsfindthemandindesigningthelearningtaskswithwhichstudentsareexpectedtoengage.Beingagoodteacherisverymuchaboutbeingagooddesigneroftasksandasensitivefacilitatorofstudentengagementwiththem.Thatstudentsdonotalwaysdowhatthetutorexpectsshowsonlythatthelecturespoweriscircumscribedandhastobesomeextentnegotiated.Butlecturersnormallydeterminethenatureofthetaskforexample,listeningtoa中国计量学院本科毕业论文lecture,observingademonstration,undertakingagrouptask,engaginginaseminardiscussionwhilestudentpowerislimitedtotheextenttowhichtheyengagewiththesetasks,thoughinsomecircumstancesstudentsmayexercisecollectivepowertoresisttheteachersinstructions.Themannerinwhichteachersimposetheirwillvaries.Themostdirective,didacticlecturersspeakinanauthoritativemannerwhichindicatesthattheyexpecttobeobeyed.Somemaybelessassertivebutachievetheirdominancebybeingtheguru.Hereforceofpersonalityorcharisma,ensuresthatthestudentsaremaintainedinasubjugatedposition.Thiscanbeaverypowerfulformofcontrolthatsomeofthemostinfluentialteachershavepossessed.Someexercisetheirpowerthroughteachingasaperformance,fillinglectureswithnarratives,anecdotesandjokes.Butequallytheoppositestyletheabdicationofstructureisalsoanexerciseofpower.Equallypowerfularelecturerswhopresentstudentswithabrief,acasestudyorprojectandthenabsentthemselveswhilethestentsinterprettheirintentionandtrytointuitwhatwillearnmarks.SomeofthesetechnologiesofpowerasFoucaultmightcallthemrequirefacetofacecontact,butsocalledelearningisequallycontrollingofstudents.Indeed,itcanbearguedthatmuchcomputermoderatedlearningismoreclosedandlessresponsivetostudentsthanmuchtraditionaltutormoderatedlearning.Theexerciseofpowerinthesewaysisneithernecessarilygoodnorbad.Indeedsuchvaluablejudgmentsaboutthepowerofteachersarealmostalwayscontestedthoughthisisnotpubliclyacknowledgedintherecentrushtowardsidentifyingexcellenceinteaching.VisitingResearchfellowUniversityofPlymouthVol.3,2002DavidGosling中国计量学院本科毕业论文外文文献翻译原文1高等教育中五方面关于教师和学生的微权力关系大卫高斯林摘要近些年来,在文献资料上很少有关于教师和学生之间权力关系的讨论和研究。事实上,也有意见表明,近段时间,高等教育中的老师的地位正在逐步丧失其原有的权力。这样的转变不仅仅只是社会提倡的学生中心论的理念要求,同时也是因为学生现在更多的时候被视为所谓的消费者,而不仅仅只是学生这样一种单纯的概念。本文以福柯关于权力的解说作为开始,并且将其作为进一步发展从而研究高等教育中教师包括课程专家,课题研究制定者,课程计划者以及一些顾问等所使用的权力的微观技术。波特尔曾介绍过一种五角度的教学框架,旨在审查权力是在不同的教学和学习制度中实行不同的方式。在二十世纪的60和70年代,学术领域中的权力关系是一个非常流行的话题,但近些年来,关于教与学的权力关系却很少在文献资料中被讨论到。权力通常被认为是在某些特定的不利的情况下产生,如性别,种族,阶级,残疾,性取向等方面。关于权力在教学关系中的探讨尚未有任何大的程度的进展,同时,以学生为中心的办法,广受欢迎,似乎意味着权力的转移更有利于学生。近年来,学生应被视为高等教育的消费者的理念似乎也暗示着讲师的权力的缩减。莫理曾引用过一位讲师的话你所在的位置让你不能拒绝关于学生的任何事,你也知道你不能拒绝。如果你的学生在一天中的任何一个时间叩响你的门,你必须很礼貌地说请进,请问我有什么可以帮助你的吗。这位讲师所表达的无力感实际上隐含着更复杂的事实。这种事实是教师和学生在行驶权力的方式是不同的,复杂的。本文,笔者将探求教师对于他们的学生行使权力的一些方式。在论述一些对权力的一般性意见之后,我将思考不同方式的教学意味着与学生之间各种的权力关系是如何不同的。让我们来研究下影响教师和学生之间权力分配的一些因素教师意味着专家权力与知识的关系,在此讨论中是一个重要的因素,因为不同方式的政权的真理影响着高等教育中教师的威信。这也被福柯广泛地讨论。对于学生的权力行使程度是由教师对于卓越的知识的主张来确定的。在何种程度上行驶这项权力是由两方面决定的教师对于知识的见解和他们的教学理念。关于这一点,我们稍后再谈。但是对于分类,无论是强是弱,通常决定着权力关系。甚至在框架体系较弱的有争议的知识领域,教师也是凭借他们对于问题本性的理解行使权力。例如一个英国的后现代讲师,可以质疑传统文学批评的中国计量学院本科毕业论文性质。但也希望他们的学生在对他们自己所理解的概念框架作出定义。谈论一些麻烦的知识援引伊格尔的关于语言作为一种杂乱无限延伸的网络,那里存在着持续的观点、思想的交流和元素循环,那里的元素都不是绝对地定义,一切都是通过其他的事物被追踪和赶上。虽然如此,在没有明确的知识体系的领域,它仍然可能是这样的思维方式和实践构成一个关键的阈值函数。当一个讲师,声称我们必须向学生灌输接受成功的事物的观念,这样的事物是我们临近分析的基本方式。这被迈耶和兰德所引用。教师意味着学习任务的设计者讲座对于创造学生的学习环境,一种学生认识自己并且设计出预期被希望的学习任务的环境,是具有重要意义的。成为一名好的教师更大程度上是作一位理想的学习任务设计者和一位敏感的让学生参与的促进者。学生经常不按照导师所希望的做,只表明讲座的力量是有限的,其需要做一定程度的谈判商定。但是,讲师通常决定任务的性质,比如,听一个讲座,观察一个示范演示,承担一项小组任务,从事一个专题讨论。对于这些,学生对于他们所要的任务的范围程度的权力都是很有限的,尽管在有些情况下,学生会行使集体联合的权力抵制教师的指示。教师以何种方式将自己的意愿强加于学生是不同的。最直接教诲的讲师会以一种权威的说话方式告知,希望你可以遵从他的意思。一些讲师也许没有那么断定,但是通过作为领袖来确定自己的优势。这就需要人格魅力或感召力,确保学生在一个被征服的地位得以维持。这是一种非常有力量的控制方式,一些最有影响力的教师是必须具备的。一些教师通过表演式的教学,充斥着叙事性的讲述、趣闻、玩笑的讲座来行使他们的权力。但是,同样的,相反的形式,退位的结构,也是行使权力的方式。同样强大的讲师是那些将简单、案例研究或项目呈现给学生,然后在学生阐释他们自己的观点,感知怎样能得分的时候缺席的讲师。一些权力的技术,如福柯所称的要求面对面的交流。但是一些所谓的电子学习,也能同样地控制好学生。事实上,电脑主宰的学习方式相比于传统导师主持的学习方式而言,跟学生的联系更紧密以及要求学生作出的回应更少。行使权力的这些方式并不一定是好或坏。事实上,对教师权力的价值评判,历来都是有争议的,尽管这还未被公开承认在最近急于走向的界定优秀教学。资料来源大卫高斯林.高等教育中五方面关于教师和学生的微权力关系J,高等教育的研究和发展,对普利茅斯大学研究员的访问20023.中国计量学院本科毕业论文外文文献翻译原文2ImpactsofGlobalizationonHigherEducationReforminChinaATrendofDecentralizationandAutonomyShihongXuAbstractBytracingbackthehistoricalcontextofeducationalchanges,thisarticleexploresindetailtheimpactsofglobalizationonChinashighereducationreform.AtrendofDecentralizationinbothrightsandresponsibilitiesisrevealedintermsofstructuraladjustment,humanresourceexploitationandretention,curriculumdevelopment,andeducationprovision.AlsosomeremainingproblemsandnewchallengesfromtheprogressofglobalizationarediscussedtodrawaconclusionthatthereisaneedofcombiningbothcentralizationdecentralizationapproachesinChinasbothpresentandfuturereforms.KeyWordsautonomy,decentralization,globalization,highereducationreformChronicallytheyearof1978isregardedasamilestoneinChinashistory.ItwasinthisyearthatChinasgovernmentannouncedafullrangofreforms,includingthehigheducationsystem.TheextremelydecentralizedstatedominatingtheperiodoftheCulturalRevolutionwastotallyreversed.Centralizationinformofregulationbecameanurgentneedoftheearly1980s.TwodecadesoffollowingpracticehasprovedthattheinfluenceoftheWestisstrongerthanitwasonanyofChinaspreviousreforms.Theprogressofglobalization,whichisoftennamedWesternization,refreshedtheUnderstandingofeducationreform.AsRobertsays,globalizationasaconceptrefersbothtothecompressionoftheworldandtheintensificationofConsciousnessoftheworldasawholeRobertson,1992,quotedinDu2001,p.33.BecauseofthebackwardstateofChinasmodernsciencethefailureoftheSovietmodel,andtheprogressofglobalization,ChinaisWiseenoughtolearnfromtheadvancedWest.VariouschannelshavebeenopenedforChinesetolookintotherestoftheworld,andfortheoutsidetolookintothechangingChinaaswell.Internationalcommunicationistakenasthewaytoobtainadvanced中国计量学院本科毕业论文internationalstandards.TomodernizethesocialistsocietyandtoformavirtuouscycleSteward,1996p.332ofglobalization,thecentralgovernmentselectedthehighereducationasthepioneerofeducationreform.AsDengXiaopingoftensaysChinasmodernizationhingesupondevelopmentofscienceandtechnologyandthefoundationtotraintalentedpersonnelofscienceandtechnologyiseducation.EducationhelpstoenrichhumanlivestoempowerpeopleandtherebytoraisehumanwellbeingSteward,1996p.328.Asmentionedintheabovesection,theproblemofChinashighereducationreformisseatedinthedegreeofdecentralization.Dilemmascomefromthreeaspects1Ishighereducationarealeconomicentity2Shouldthenationalentranceexaminationkeeponfunctioningintheeducationalmarket3HowtoevaluatetheprospectofteachereducationLetusdiscussTheseconddilemma,itisthefunctionofthenationalentranceexaminationNEE.Ononehand,astandardizedexaminationcanhelptokeepThequalityofthesecondaryeducationandtoselectelitesforthetertiaryeducation.Debatesarousedonthevalidityoftheexam,sinceitisactuallyoneevaluativeassessmentofthesecondaryeducation.Theusualcritiquerevealsthatthearbitrarynatureoftheexammaywellturndownastudentwhohasagoodacademicrecordbutfailstheexam.Ontheotherhand,togiveequalchancetodifferentprovincesanddistrictsofunequaleducationqualities,thestandardizationoftheexamhaslongbeenspoiltanddistorted.Theexamisstandardandunique,butitsinterpretationisvariedandmultibased.WhatsthefunctionofNEEIsitthesymbolofacentralizedpowerDoesitmeanatickettothehighereducationMarketsneedtheinvestmentofmoney,soisthehighereducation.Thismakesitpossibleandeasyforastudenttobuyhishighereducation.Thescoresoftheexamdohelptodeterminewhocanbuytheeducationalservice.Butitseemsareferenceratherthanacriterion.ToovercomethedisadvantageofNEESarbitrariness,asetofexperimentalprojectswasfirstintroducedinShanghaifrom1984Pepper,1990.In1999,anothernewpolicywasannouncedtoreformtheprocessofhighereducationenrolment.StudentswerepermittedtoselecttheirPreferenceoftertiaryeducationinstitutionsor

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