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女性语言文体特征 - female language(英文) .doc

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女性语言文体特征 - female language(英文) .doc

1Contents摘要......ⅢAbstract.....Ⅳ1.Introduction.......12.TheCharacteristicsofFemaleLanguage....22.1PronunciationandIntonation.......22.2Vocabulary.......42.3Grammar.62.4ConversationTopics...83.TheInterpretationoftheFemaleLanguageCharacteristics...103.1PhysiologicalandPsychologicalFactors....103.2CulturalFactors.....113.3SocialFactors........123.4EducationalFactors...124.TheDevelopmentsandChangesofFemaleLanguage.....154.1DegradationofSexualDiscriminationinLanguage...154.2SocialEffectofFemaleLanguage164.3ChangesinWomensStyleofSpeech..195.TheReasonsfortheChangesinFemaleLanguage..246.Conclusion...272Bibliography....28Acknowledgements31IntroductionTheexistenceanddevelopmentoflanguageareintendedtomeettheneedsofcommunicationinsociety.Peopleindifferentsocialgroupshavetheirownspeciallanguages.IntheEnglishspeakingcountries,wecandiscoverthatfemalelanguagealwaysshowssomeinterestingandexternalfeaturesofthelanguageconsciouslyorunconsciouslyinthecourseoflanguagecommunication.Withtheriseoffeminismandthecontinuousimprovementoffemalesocialstatus,agreatofchangeshavetakenplaceinfemalelanguage.Thesechangesarecloselylinkedwiththedevelopmentofsociety.Sotheresearchoffemalelanguageisasubjectveryworthytobestudied.Thispaperattemptstodiscussthecharacteristicsandsomenewchangesoffemalelanguageandanalyzesthereasonofthisphenomenonfromthesocial,culturalandeducational,etc.aspects.42TheCharacteristicsofFemaleLanguageFemalelanguagehasitsownfeatures.Thefollowingpartwillfocusonpronunciation,intonation,vocabulary,grammarandtopicstomakeabriefanalysis.2.1PronunciationandIntonation2.1.1PronunciationPhonologicaldifferencesbetweenmenandwomenhavebeennoticedinvarietiesoflanguages.Womenspronunciationsoundsmoreaccuratethanmens.InEnglishspeakingcountries,womenspronunciationisclosertoStandardEnglishPronunciationthanmens.Whenwereading,generallywomencanpronouncetheaccuratebacknasalconsonant/iη/.Butaconsiderablenumberofmenbecomemoreaccustomedtopronouncefrontnasalconsonant/in/.InAustralia,theEnglishwithAustralianaccentedisnotusuallyconsideredStandardEnglish.Afterinvestigation,researcherscometotheconclusionthatwomenarefarlessoftenthanmenwhentheyspeakthenonstandardEnglish.Thereasonisthatmorewomenpayattentiontotheaccuracyofpronunciationthanmen,whichisanimportantmarkoftheiridentityandcultureforwomen.InthenortheastAsianlanguage,Yukaghir,women5have/ts/and/dz/wheremenhave/tj/and/dj/.InBengalimenoftensubstitute/l/for/n/butwomendonotdothis.Likewise,inaSiberianlanguage,Chukchi,men,butnotwomen,oftendrop/n/and/t/whentheyoccurbetweenvowels,e.g.femalenitvaqenatandmalenitvaqeat.2.1.2IntonationGenerallyspeaking,womensintonationishigherthanmens,whichiscausedbyphysiologicalfactorsinfact.Womensvocalcordsarelongerthanmen,sotheirpronunciationfrequencyishigher.However,peopleoftenconsiderthehighpitchisconnectedwithwomenscowardiceandunsteadyemotion.Therangeofintonationvarietyislarge,whichisanotherdistinctivefeature.Womenaregoodatusingthevariousintonationstoexpresstheirfeelings.Lakoffsaysthatwomenmayansweraquestionwithastatementthatemploystherisingintonationpatternusuallyassociatedwithaquestionratherthanthefallingintonationassociatedwithmakingafirmstatement.Andwomenareusuallyinclinedtobetactfulandgentleandoftenuselowrisingintonationattheendofsentences,whichseemstoshowthattheylackofconfidenceandseektheopinionsoftheothers.Incontrast,menusuallylikeusinghighfallingintonationattheendofthesentences,sotheirintonationsoundsresoluteandaffirmative.Forexample,whenspeakingthefollowingsentence,menandwomenmayusedifferentintonations.Iwishyoudtryit.6Men..﹨.Women../.Menusuallyspeakendingwithahighfallingintonationandtheirtonesarestronglyfirm.However,womenwillusethelowrisingintonationtoendtheirspeechandtheirtoneismoremoderatethanmens.Besides,womenusedtoanswerquestionswithrisingintonationtoexpressthattheirviewsisnotaverdictandtheyarewillingtolistentoothersviews.SuchasHusbandwhenwilldinnerbereadyWifeoharoundsixoclockThewifeistheonlyonetoknowtheanswer.ButsheusedanintonationwithconsultingmeaningWillthatdoOfcourse,wecannotgetridofheruncertainpossibility.2.2VocabularySpecialfemininevocabularyinEnglishthatmanmaynot,darenotandwillnotuse.Womenliketalkingaboutthingsexaggeratedly,sotheylikeusingtheexaggeratedadjectivesandadverbsandotherwordstoemphasizethepoint.2.2.1ExtravagantAdjectivesWomeninUnitedStatesandBritainlikeusingsomeexaggeratedadjectivesfrequently,likeadorable,divine,gorgeous,charming,and7lovelyandsoon.Butmenseldomusethesewords.WhatadivineideaItsmanifestlyoutofafemalesmouth.Butmenwillsaywhataterrificidea2.2.2IntensifiedAdverbsSuchasso,much,quite,terribly,etc.womenusethesewordsmorefrequentlythanmen.Forexample,womenwouldsay,Itwassointeresting,ItwasterriblycoldButmenoftenusevery,reallytointensifytheirtones.2.2.3AccurateColourWordsWomenaregoodatportrayingcoloraccuratelyincomparisonwiththemen.Furthermore,theycanusesomeunusualcolorvocabularysuchasmauve,magenta,beige,andlavenderandsoon.Whenfacingalightpurpleskirt,womancannothelpspeaking,Itsabeautifullavenderskirt2.2.4InterjectionInterjectionsusedbywomenaremorecautiousandimplicitthanmen.Whenusingcursingwords,womenareusuallymorecautiousandimplicit.SomefilthywordsorphrasessuchasGoddamnit,Damn,Fuckyou,FuckyouCharley,Shitetc.oftenappearinmensspeech.Incontrast,womenoftenuseOh,dear,Oh,God,Godblessme,MyGod,GreatGod,Godetc.toexpresstheiranger

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