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网络工程毕业论文外文翻译-数字图像处理与边缘检测.doc

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网络工程毕业论文外文翻译-数字图像处理与边缘检测.doc

班级学号本科毕业设计论文题目扫描仪色彩增强及可视化系统设计与实现学院计算机学院专业网络工程学生姓名导师姓名DigitalImageProcessingandEdgeDetectionDigitalImageProcessingInterestindigitalimageprocessingmethodsstemsfromtwoprincipalapplicationareasimprovementofpictorialinformationforhumaninterpretationandprocessingofimagedataforstorage,transmission,andrepresentationforautonomousmachineperception.Animagemaybedefinedasatwodimensionalfunction,fx,y,wherexandyarespatialplanecoordinates,andtheamplitudeoffatanypairofcoordinatesx,yiscalledtheintensityorgrayleveloftheimageatthatpoint.Whenx,y,andtheamplitudevaluesoffareallfinite,discretequantities,wecalltheimageadigitalimage.Thefieldofdigitalimageprocessingreferstoprocessingdigitalimagesbymeansofadigitalcomputer.Notethatadigitalimageiscomposedofafinitenumberofelements,eachofwhichhasaparticularlocationandvalue.Theseelementsarereferredtoaspictureelements,imageelements,pels,andpixels.Pixelisthetermmostwidelyusedtodenotetheelementsofadigitalimage.Visionisthemostadvancedofoursenses,soitisnotsurprisingthatimagesplaythesinglemostimportantroleinhumanperception.However,unlikehumans,whoarelimitedtothevisualbandoftheelectromagneticEMspectrum,imagingmachinescoveralmosttheentireEMspectrum,rangingfromgammatoradiowaves.Theycanoperateonimagesgeneratedbysourcesthathumansarenotaccustomedtoassociatingwithimages.Theseincludeultrasound,electronmicroscopy,andcomputergeneratedimages.Thus,digitalimageprocessingencompassesawideandvariedfieldofapplications.Thereisnogeneralagreementamongauthorsregardingwhereimageprocessingstopsandotherrelatedareas,suchasimageanalysisandcomputervision,start.Sometimesadistinctionismadebydefiningimageprocessingasadisciplineinwhichboththeinputandoutputofaprocessareimages.Webelievethistobealimitingandsomewhatartificialboundary.Forexample,underthisdefinition,eventhetrivialtaskofcomputingtheaverageintensityofanimagewhichyieldsasinglenumberwouldnotbeconsideredanimageprocessingoperation.Ontheotherhand,therearefieldssuchascomputervisionwhoseultimategoalistousecomputerstoemulatehumanvision,includinglearningandbeingabletomakeinferencesandtakeactionsbasedonvisualinputs.ThisareaitselfisabranchofartificialintelligenceAIwhoseobjectiveisto4Chapter1■Introductionemulatehumanintelligence.ThefieldofAIisinitsearlieststagesofinfancyintermsofdevelopment,withprogresshavingbeenmuchslowerthanoriginallyanticipated.Theareaofimageanalysisalsocalledimageunderstandingisinbetweenimageprocessingandcomputervision.Therearenoclearcutboundariesinthecontinuumfromimageprocessingatoneendtocomputervisionattheother.However,oneusefulparadigmistoconsiderthreetypesofcomputerizedprocessesinthiscontinuumlow,mid,andhighlevelprocesses.Lowlevelprocessesinvolveprimitiveoperationssuchasimagepreprocessingtoreducenoise,contrastenhancement,andimagesharpening.Alowlevelprocessischaracterizedbythefactthatbothitsinputsandoutputsareimages.Midlevelprocessingonimagesinvolvestaskssuchassegmentationpartitioninganimageintoregionsorobjects,descriptionofthoseobjectstoreducethemtoaformsuitableforcomputerprocessing,andclassificationrecognitionofindividualobjects.Amidlevelprocessischaracterizedbythefactthatitsinputsgenerallyareimages,butitsoutputsareattributesextractedfromthoseimagese.g.,edges,contours,andtheidentityofindividualobjects.Finally,higherlevelprocessinginvolvesmakingsenseofanensembleofrecognizedobjects,asinimageanalysis,and,atthefarendofthecontinuum,performingthecognitivefunctionsnormallyassociatedwithvision.Basedontheprecedingcomments,weseethatalogicalplaceofoverlapbetweenimageprocessingandimageanalysisistheareaofrecognitionofindividualregionsorobjectsinanimage.Thus,whatwecallinthisbookdigitalimageprocessingencompassesprocesseswhoseinputsandoutputsareimagesand,inaddition,encompassesprocessesthatextractattributesfromimages,uptoandincludingtherecognitionofindividualobjects.Asasimpleillustrationtoclarifytheseconcepts,considertheareaofautomatedanalysisoftext.Theprocessesofacquiringanimageoftheareacontainingthetext,preprocessingthatimage,extractingsegmentingtheindividualcharacters,describingthecharactersinaformsuitableforcomputerprocessing,andrecognizingthoseindividualcharactersareinthescopeofwhatwecalldigitalimageprocessinginthisbook.Makingsenseofthecontentofthepagemaybeviewedasbeinginthedomainofimageanalysisandevencomputervision,dependingonthelevelofcomplexityimpliedbythestatementmakingsense.Aswillbecomeevidentshortly,digitalimageprocessing,aswehavedefinedit,isusedsuccessfullyinabroadrangeofareasofexceptionalsocialandeconomicvalue.Theareasofapplicationofdigitalimageprocessingaresovariedthatsomeformoforganizationisdesirableinattemptingtocapturethebreadthofthisfield.Oneofthesimplestwaystodevelopabasicunderstandingoftheextentofimageprocessingapplicationsistocategorizeimagesaccordingtotheirsourcee.g.,visual,Xray,andsoon.Theprincipalenergysourceforimagesinusetodayistheelectromagneticenergyspectrum.Otherimportantsourcesofenergyincludeacoustic,ultrasonic,andelectronicintheformofelectronbeamsusedinelectronmicroscopy.Syntheticimages,usedformodelingandvisualization,aregeneratedbycomputer.Inthissectionwediscussbrieflyhowimagesaregeneratedinthesevariouscategoriesandtheareasinwhichtheyareapplied.ImagesbasedonradiationfromtheEMspectrumarethemostfamiliar,especiallyimagesintheXrayandvisualbandsofthespectrum.Electromagneticwavescanbeconceptualizedaspropagatingsinusoidalwavesofvaryingwavelengths,ortheycanbethoughtofasastreamofmasslessparticles,eachtravelinginawavelikepatternandmovingatthespeedoflight.Eachmasslessparticlecontainsacertainamountorbundleofenergy.Eachbundleofenergyiscalledaphoton.Ifspectralbandsaregroupedaccordingtoenergyperphoton,weobtainthespectrumshowninfig.below,rangingfromgammarayshighestenergyatoneendtoradiowaveslowestenergyattheother.ThebandsareshownshadedtoconveythefactthatbandsoftheEMspectrumarenotdistinctbutrathertransitionsmoothlyfromonetotheother.Imageacquisitionisthefirstprocess.Notethatacquisitioncouldbeassimpleasbeinggivenanimagethatisalreadyindigitalform.Generally,theimageacquisitionstageinvolvespreprocessing,suchasscaling.Imageenhancementisamongthesimplestandmostappealingareasofdigitalimageprocessing.Basically,theideabehindenhancementtechniquesistobringoutdetailthatisobscured,orsimplytohighlightcertainfeaturesofinterestinanimage.Afamiliarexampleofenhancementiswhenweincreasethecontrastofanimagebecauseitlooksbetter.Itisimportanttokeepinmindthatenhancementisaverysubjectiveareaofimageprocessing.Imagerestorationisanareathatalsodealswithimprovingtheappearanceofanimage.However,unlikeenhancement,whichissubjective,imagerestorationisobjective,inthesensethatrestorationtechniquestendtobebasedonmathematicalorprobabilisticmodelsofimagedegradation.Enhancement,ontheotherhand,isbasedonhumansubjectivepreferencesregardingwhatconstitutesagoodenhancementresult.ColorimageprocessingisanareathathasbeengaininginimportancebecauseofthesignificantincreaseintheuseofdigitalimagesovertheInternet.Itcoversanumberoffundamental8Chapter1■Introductionconceptsincolormodelsandbasiccolorprocessinginadigitaldomain.Colorisusedalsoinlaterchaptersasthebasisforextractingfeaturesofinterestinanimage.Waveletsarethefoundationforrepresentingimagesinvariousdegreesofresolution.Inparticular,thismaterialisusedinthisbookforimagedatacompressionandforpyramidalrepresentation,inwhichimagesaresubdividedsuccessivelyintosmallerregions.Compression,asthenameimplies,dealswithtechniquesforreducingthestoragerequiredtosaveanimage,orthebandwidthrequiredtotransmiit.Althoughstoragetechnologyhasimprovedsignificantlyoverthepastdecade,thesamecannotbesaidfortransmissioncapacity.ThisistrueparticularlyinusesoftheInternet,whicharecharacterizedbysignificantpictorialcontent.Imagecompressionisfamiliarperhapsinadvertentlytomostusersofcomputersintheformofimagefileextensions,suchasthejpgfileextensionusedintheJPEGJointPhotographicExpertsGroupimagecompressionstandard.Morphologicalprocessingdealswithtoolsforextractingimagecomponentsthatareusefulintherepresentationanddescriptionofshape.Thematerialinthischapterbeginsatransitionfromprocessesthatoutputimagestoprocessesthatoutputimageattributes.Segmentationprocedurespartitionanimageintoitsconstituentpartsorobjects.Ingeneral,autonomoussegmentationisoneofthemostdifficulttasksindigitalimageprocessing.Aruggedsegmentationprocedurebringstheprocessalongwaytowardsuccessfulsolutionofimagingproblemsthatrequireobjectstobeidentifiedindividually.Ontheotherhand,weakorerraticsegmentationalgorithmsalmostalwaysguaranteeeventualfailure.Ingeneral,themoreaccuratethesegmentation,themorelikelyrecognitionistosucceed.Representationanddescriptionalmostalwaysfollowtheoutputofasegmentationstage,whichusuallyisrawpixeldata,constitutingeithertheboundaryofaregioni.e.,thesetofpixelsseparatingoneimageregionfromanotherorallthepointsintheregionitself.Ineithercase,convertingthedatatoaformsuitableforcomputerprocessingisnecessary.Thefirstdecisionthatmustbemadeiswhetherthedatashouldberepresentedasaboundaryorasacompleteregion.Boundaryrepresentationisappropriatewhenthefocusisonexternalshapecharacteristics,suchascornersandinflections.Regionalrepresentationisappropriatewhenthefocusisoninternalproperties,suchastextureorskeletalshape.Insomeapplications,theserepresentationscomplementeachother.Choosingarepresentationisonlypartofthesolutionfortransformingrawdataintoaformsuitableforsubsequentcomputerprocessing.Amethodmustalsobespecifiedfordescribingthedatasothatfeaturesofinterestarehighlighted.Description,alsocalledfeatureselection,dealswithextractingattributesthatresultinsomequantitativeinformationofinterestorarebasicfordifferentiatingoneclassofobjectsfromanother.Recognitionistheprocessthatassignsalabele.g.,vehicletoanobjectbasedonitsdescriptors.Asdetailedbefore,weconcludeourcoverageofdigitalimageprocessingwiththedevelopmentofmethodsforrecognitionofindividualobjects.SofarwehavesaidnothingabouttheneedforpriorknowledgeorabouttheinteractionbetweentheknowledgebaseandtheprocessingmodulesinFig2above.Knowledgeaboutaproblemdomainiscodedintoanimageprocessingsystemintheformofaknowledgedatabase.Thisknowledgemaybeassim

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