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2011XDF考研英语新题型冲刺讲义((张销民)).pdf

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2011XDF考研英语新题型冲刺讲义((张销民)).pdf

圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播1填空式阅读新题型部分考研复习更多资料参见http/iask.sina.com.cn/u/1509085965/ish三种备选题型从命题形式看命题原理一篇填空式阅读的文章也是由两大信息板块组成的已知信息(原文在空缺之外的没有被挖掉的信息)未知(待选信息)(就是后面的待选选项中的信息,而这些信息实际上也不是未知的,也是考生通过阅读可以把握的信息,所以称为待选信息更合适)这个题型也是在考生对这两个信息板块之间互动关系的把握测试点分析判断和把握两个信息板块之间相近性的能力判断和把握两个信息板块之间衔接性的能力做题大原则–就近原则、衔接原则最终的评判原则连贯性–把握了衔接原则一致性–把握了就近原则推荐的解题步骤根据填空式阅读的命题形式,建议考生按照以下步骤来解题①先阅读原文文章的首段②阅读后面的备选选项③再阅读原文的信息,进行解题7选5排序匹配圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播2④最后,通读全文解题方法的基本设计思路由点入面、以点串面破解新题型的八大解题方法体系方法1复现结构定位法方法2上下文逻辑关系定位法方法3总分/分总结构法方法4举例定位法方法5时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法方法6排比结构衔接法方法7无关词排除法方法8代词指代关系定位法大纲样题解析DirectionsInthefolwingarticle,somesenteceshavebenremoved.ForQuestions415,chosethemostsuitableonefromthelistAGtofitintoeachofthenumberdblank.Theraretwoextrachoices,whichdontfitinayofthegaps.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHET1.0pointsLongbeforeManlivedontheEarth,therwerfishes,reptiles,birds,insects,andsomeamals.Althoughsomeoftheseanimalswerancestorsofkindslivingtoday,othersarenowextinct,thatis,theyhavenodescendantsalivenow.41Veryoccasionalytherocksshowimpressionfskin,sothat,partfromcolor,wecanbuildupareasonablyacuratepictureofanimalthatdiemilionsofyearsago.Thatkindofrckinwhichthermainsarefoundtelsu圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播3muchabouthenatureoftheoriginalnd,oftenoftheplantsthatgrewonit,andevnofitsclimate.42_Nearlyalofthefossilsthatweknowerpreservedinrocksformedbywateraction,andmostoftheseareofanimalsthatlivedinornearwater.Thusitfolwsthatherustbemanykindsofamals,birds,andinsectsofwhicheknownoting.43Therweralsocrablikecreatures,whosebodieswercoverdwithahornysubstance.Thebodysegmentseachhadtwopairsoflegs,onepairforwalkingonthesandybot,theotherforswiming.Theheadwaskindofshieldwithapirofcompoundeys,oftenwithtousandsoflenses.Theywerusualyanichortwolngbutsomewre2fet.4_Ofthes,theamonitesarevryinterstingandimportant.Theyhaveashelcomposedofmanychambers,eachreprsentigatemporayhomeoftheanial.Astheyoungrewlargeritgrewanewchaberandsealedofthepreviousone.ThousandsofthesecanbeseenitherocksontheDorsetCoast.45_About75milionyearsagotheAgeofReptileswasoverandmostofthegroupsdieout.Themaalsquicklydevloped,andwecantracethevolutionfmanyfailarnialssuchasthelephantandhorse.Manyofthelateraalsthoughnowextinct,werknowntoprimitvemanandwerfeaturedbyhimincavepaintigsandonbonecarvings.ATheshelfishavealonghistoryintherockandmanydiferntkindsareknown.BNevrthels,weknowagreatdealboutmanyofthembecausetheirbonesandshelshavebenpreservedintherocksasfossils.Fromthemwecanteltheirsizeandshape,howtheywalked,thekindofodtheyate.圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播4CThefirstanimalswithtruebackboneswerthefishes,firstknownitherocksof375ilionyearsago.About30milionyearsagotheamphibians,theanimalsbletolivebothonlandandinwater,apeard.Theywergiant,soeties8fetlong,andmanyofthemlivedintheswampyolsinwhichourcoalseam,orlayer,orfred.Theaphibiansgaverisetotherptilesandfornearly150milionyearsthesewertheprincipalformsoflifeonland,inthesea,ndintheair.DThebstindexfossilstendtobemarinecreature.Theranimalsevoledrapidlyandspreadoverlargeoverlargearesoftheworld.EThearliestanimalswhoseremainshavebenfoundweralverysimplekindsandlivedinthesea.Laterforaremorecomplex,andamongthesearethesealies,relationsofthestarfishes,whichhadlongarsandweratchedbyalongstalktotheseabed,ortrocks.FWhenanimaldies,thebody,itsbones,orshel,mayoftenbecariedawybstreasintolakesorthesandthergetcoverdupbymud.Iftheanimalivedintheseaitsbodywouldprobalysinkandbecoverdwithmud.Moreandmoremudwouldfaluponituntilthebonesorshelbecomeebededandpreserved.GManyfactorscanifluencehowfossilsarepreservedinrocks.Remainsofanorganismmayberplacedbyminerals,dissolvedbyancidicsolutiontoleaveonlytheiripression,orsiplyreducedtoamorestableform.41题分析–逻辑关系定位法/复现结构定位法42题分析–复现结构定位法43题分析–复现结构定位法圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播544题分析–举例定位法出题方式一被例子所指的信息例子信息设定在原文信息中设定在待选信息中出题方式二被例子所指的信息例子信息设定在待选信息中设定在原文信息中例题ThemainproblemindiscussingAmericanpopularcultureisalsooneofitsmaincharacteristicsitwontstayAmerican.nomaterwhatitis,whetritisfilms,foodandfashion,music,casualsportsorslang,itsoonathomeelshereintheworld.TherearesveraltheorieswhyAmericanpopularculturehashadthisappeal.OnetheoryisthatishasbeenadvertisedandmarketedthroughAmericanfilms,popularmusic,andmorerectly,telvision.41Theyare,afteral,incompetionwiththoseproducedbyothercountries.Anothertheory,probablyamorecommonone,isthatAmericanpopularcultureisinternationalyasociatedwithsomethingcaledthespiritofmerica.42___ThefinaltheoryislescomplexAmericanpopularcultureispopularbecausealotofpeopleintworldlikeit.Regardlesofwhyitspreads,Americanpopularcultureisusualyquiterapidlyadoptedandthenadaptedinmanyothercountries.43____BlackleatherjacketswornbymanyroesiAmericanmoviescouldbefound,agenerationlater,onalthoseyoungmenwhoantedtomakethismanlylooktheirown.Twoareswherethiscontinuingprocesismostclearlysenareclothingandmusic.Somepeoplecanstilremmberatime.WhenTshirts,joggiclothes,tennisshoes,denimjackets,andbluejeanswernotcommondailyweareverywre.Onlytwentyearsago,itwaspossibletospotanAmericaninParisbyhisorherclothes.Nolongersothosebrightcolors,checkeredjacketsandtrousers,hatsandsockswhichweroncemadefunincartoonsarebackaginiParisathelatestfashion.44____.圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播6ThesituationwithAmericanpopularmusicismorecomplexbecauseinthebeginning,whenitastilclearlyAmerican,itwasoftenstronglyresited.Jazwasoncethoughttobeagreatdangertoouthandtheirmorals,andwasctualyoutlaedinseveralcountries.Today,whilestilshowingitsratherAmericanroots,ithasbecomesowelestablished.Rocknrolandalitsvariations,countrywestrnmusic,alhavemoreorlesimlarhistories.Theywerfirstresited,ofteniAmericaaswel,asbeinglowclass,andthenasadangertoournationsyouth.45____Andthenthemusicbecameaceptandwasextndedandwasextndedanddeveloped,andexportedbacktotheU.S.Asaresult,itsAmericanorignsandrootsareoftenquicklyforgotten.happybirthdaytoyou,forinstance,isuchaneverydaysongthatitsource,itsAmericancopyright,stospeak,isnotremmbered.ButthistheoryfailstoexplainwhyAmericanfilms,music,andtelvision,programsaresopopularinthemselves.CAmericaninorign,informalclothinghasbecometheworldsfirstrulyuniversalstyle.DTheBC,forexample,bannedrockandroluntil1962.EAmericanfoodhasbecomepopularroundtheworldtoo.FThispiritisvariouslydescribedasbeingyoungandfre,optimsticandconfident,informalanddisrespectful.GItishardlysurprisngthathepubliconcerncontributesalottothespreadoftheculture.45题分析时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法例题2006年考研英语PARTB部分41题OnthenorthbankoftheOhioriversitEvansvile,Ind.,homeofDavidWiliams,52,andofariverboatcasinoaplacewheregamblinggamesareplayed.Duringseveralyearsofgamblinginthatcasino,Wiliams,astaeauditorearning35,000ayear,lostapproximately175,000.Hehadnevergambledbeforethecasinosenthimacouponfor20worthofgambling.Hevisitedthecasino,losthe20andleft.Onhisecondvisithelost800.Thecasinoisuetohim,asagoodcustomer,aFunCard,whichwnusedint圆圆工作室http//bz10.5d6d.com内部版本仅供学习,禁止传播7casinoearnspointsformealsanddrinks,andenablesthecasinototracktheusersgamblingactivities.ForWiliams,thoseactivitiesbecomewhathecalselctronicheroin.41________.In1997helost21,000tooneslotmachineintwodays.InMarch1997helost72,186.Hesometimsplayedtwoslotmachisattime,alnight,untiltboatdockedat5a.m.,thenwentbackaboardwhenthecasinoopenedat9a.m.Nowheisuingthecasino,chargingthatitshoulhaverefusedhispatronagebecauseitknewhewasddicted.Itdidknowhehadaproblem.InMarch1998afriendofWiliamssgothiminvoluntarilyconfinedtoatreatmntcentrforaddictions,awrotetoinformthecasinoofWiliamssgamblingproblem.Thecasinoincludedaphotoofiliamsamongthoseofbannedamblers,andwrotetohimaceaseadmisionsletr.Notingthemedical/psychologicalnatureofproblemgamblingbehavior,theletrsaidthatbeforebeingreadmitedtothecasinohewouldhavetopresntmedical/psychologicalinformationdemonstratingthatpatronizingthecasinowouldposenothreathisafetyorwelbeing.42________.TheWalStretJournalreportsthathecasinohas24signswarningEnjoythefun...andalwaysbetwithyourhead,notoverit.EveryentranceticketlistatollfrenumberforcounselingfromtIndianaDepartmentofMentalHealth.Nevertheles,Wiliamssuitchargesthatthecasino,knowinghewashelpleslyaddictedtogambling,intentionalyworkedtolurehimtoeageinconductaginsthiswil.el.43________.ThefourtheditionoftheDiagnosticandStaisticalManualofMentalDisordersayspathologicalgamblinginvolvespersitent,recurringanduncontrollablepursuitlesofmoneythanofthriloftakingrisksinquestofawindfal.44________.Pushedbyscience,orwhatclaimstobescience,societyisreclasifyingwhatoncewerconsideredcracterflawsormoralfailngsaspersonalitdisordersakintophysicaldisabilites.45________.Fortyfourstaeshavelotteris,29havecasinos,andmostofthesestaesaretovaringdegresdependentonyoumightsayddictedtorevenuesfromwagering.AndsincethefirstInternetgamblingsitewascreatin1995,competionforgamblersdollarshasbecomeintense.TheOct.28isueofNewsekreportedthat2miliongamblerspatronize1,800virtualcasinoseverywek.With3.5bilionbeinglostInternetwagersthisyear,gamblinghaspasedpornographyastheWebsmost

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