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CJK6200数控车床设计说明书.doc

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CJK6200数控车床设计说明书.doc

I摘要2l世纪,随着计算机技术的快速发展,数控机床在机械工业中的应用比例逐渐增大,其中数控车床的应用最为广泛。数控车床与普通车床相比,在提高生产减轻工人劳动强度、降低生产成本和增加效益方面都有其优越性。因此,设计一种功能全面、操作方便、安全可靠、价格经济的数控车床具有重要意义。本文主要从经济实用上对数控车床的总体机械结构进行了设计。电动机通过变速箱与主轴进行联接,使主轴的功率、扭矩特性和电机的功率扭矩特性相匹配,这样适用范围就更宽,在使用方面也容易控制。为使数控车床具有更好的定位精度,本系统采用半闭环伺服系统。设计不仅对横向进给系统,纵向进给系统进行了设计和详细计算。还对数控系统、导轨的设计、液压传动以及润滑与冷却系统进行了阐述。关键词数控车床电动机调速箱轴定位精度IIAbstract21stcentury,withthefastdevelopmentofcomputertechnology,CNCmachinetoolsareenlargedinapplicationproportionamongmechanicalindustry,amongwhichthenumericalcontrollatheisthemostpopularapplication.Comparingwithordinarylathe,thenumericalcontrollathehasitssuperiorityinboostingproductivity,lighteningworkerslaborintensity,reducingtheproductioncostandincreasingbenefit.Therefore,itismeaningfultodesignakindofnumericaicontrollatewithoverallfunctions,safeandreliable,priceeconomyeasytooperate.Theoverallinechanicalstructureofnumericalcontrollatehasbeendesignedinthispaper,mainlyfromeconomyandpracticalvalue.Themotorislinkedtospindle,makingpowerandtorsioncharacteristicofmatchtotorsioncharacteristicpoweroftheelectricalmachinery.Inthiscasethescopeofapplicationiswideranditiseasytocontrolduringmachining.Inordertomakethenumericalcontrollathehavethebetterprecisionoflocalization,thissystemadoptsservosystemthehalfclosedloop.Horizontalfeedsystemandverticalfeedsystemaredesignedandcalculatedindetailsinthisdesign.Inaddition,numericalcontrolsystem,guidedesign,hydraulictransmission,lubricationandcoolingsystemareexpounde.KeywordnumericallycontrolledlathethetransmissionshaftPositioningaccuracyIII目录摘要........................................................................................................................IAbstract....................................................................................................................II第1章绪论...........................................................................................................11.1数控技术......................................................................................................11.1.1数字控制...............................................................................................11.1.2数控机床...............................................................................................11.1.3数控系统...............................................................................................11.1.4数控程序...............................................................................................11.1.5数控编程...............................................................................................11.1.6数控加工...............................................................................................21.2数控机床的产生和发展..............................................................................21.3我国数控技术发展概况..............................................................................31.4数控机床的特点及适用范围......................................................................41.4.1数控机床的特点...................................................................................41.4.2数控机床的适用范围...........................................................................41.5数控车床的分类..........................................................................................51.6简易数控车床的特点..................................................................................5第2章数控车床的总体方案设计.......................................................................62.1数控车床的组成..........................................................................................62.2工艺范围的确定..........................................................................................62.3数控车床的安全防护................................................................................62.3.1热变形的防止.......................................................................................62.3.2噪声的防止...........................................................................................62.3.3振动的防止...........................................................................................72.4基本参数的确定..........................................................................................72.4.1主参数和尺寸参数...............................................................................72.4.2运动参数的确定...................................................................................72.4.3动力参数...............................................................................................8IV第3章机床主传动系统设计...............................................................................113.1主传动方案................................................................................................113.2主轴转速的确定........................................................................................113.2.1计算主轴转速.....................................................................................113.2.2计算主轴的变速范围.........................................................................123.3传动轴转速的确定....................................................................................123.4变速箱的设计............................................................................................123.4.1选取变速箱公比.................................................................................123.4.2计算变速箱的变速级数.....................................................................123.4.3分级变速箱转速图的绘制.................................................................133.5主传动系统结构设计及校核....................................................................133.5.1带传动的结构设计.............................................................................133.5.2Ⅰ轴上的齿轮结构设计及校核.........................................................153.5.3Ⅱ轴上齿轮的结构设计.....................................................................21第4章机床主轴部件设计.................................................................................234.1主轴组件的设计........................................................................................234.1.1对主轴组件的基本要求.....................................................................234.1.2主轴参数的确定.................................................................................244.1.3轴承的选择及校核.............................................................................254.1.4主轴的结构设计预校核.....................................................................274.2传动轴的设计............................................................................................304.2.1传动轴应满足的要求.........................................................................304.2.2传动轴的材料和构造.........................................................................304.2.3轴径的确定和轴承的选择.................................................................31第5章伺服进给传动系统设计.........................................................................325.1伺服进给系统的设计要求........................................................................325.1.1纵向进给系统传动方案.....................................................................325.1.2横向进给系统方案.............................................................................325.2伺服进给系统的设计要求........................................................................33V5.2.1稳定性.................................................................................................335.2.2精度.....................................................................................................335.2.3快速响应性.........................................................................................335.3纵向进给系统的设计................................................................................335.3.1主要工作条件的确定.........................................................................335.3.2传动系统设计.....................................................................................335.3.3滚珠丝杠的选择.................................................................................345.3.4丝杠支撑方式的选择.........................................................................355.3.5选择伺服电动机.................................................................................355.3.6伺服系统增益.....................................................................................365.3.7精度验算.............................................................................................375.4横向进给系统的设计................................................................................395.4.1主要工作条件的确定.........................................................................395.4.2传动系统设计.....................................................................................395.4.3滚珠丝杠的选择.................................................................................405.4.4丝杠支承方式的选择.........................................................................405.4.5选择伺服电动机.................................................................................415.4.6伺服系统增益.....................................................................................425.4.7精度验算.............................................................................................435.4.8同步齿形带的设计计算.....................................................................44第6章机床总体结构与布局.............................................................................476.1机床床身结构............................................................................................476.1.1对床身结构的基本要求.....................................................................476.1.2床身的结构.........................................................................................476.2机床导轨的选择........................................................................................486.2.1导轨的作用.........................................................................................486.2.2导轨应满足的要求.............................................................................486.2.3导轨的主要失效形式.........................................................................486.2.4选择导轨.............................................................................................49

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