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CA6140普通车床数控改造设计说明书[带图纸].doc

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CA6140普通车床数控改造设计说明书[带图纸].doc

中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第1页1摘要数控机床在机械制造业中发挥着巨大的作用,但数控机床一次性投资较大,对机床进行数控化改造不失为一良策。本设计利用数控装置对CA6140普通车床进行控制,主传动系统部分采用交流调频主轴电动机经带轮及分级齿轮变速箱驱动主轴,通过变频器和齿轮变速箱实现分段无级变速进给系统采用步进电机通过减速后驱动滚珠丝杠运动,在纵向进给系统中通过一级齿轮减速后驱动滚珠丝杠,在横向进给系统中通过二级齿轮减速驱动滚珠丝杠刀架改为自动转位刀架四工位从而实现自动换刀通过MCS51系列8051单片机对数据进行计算处理,由I/O接口输出步进脉冲信号控制进给速度和行程为了保持切削螺纹的功能,要在主轴外端或其它适当部位装上脉冲发生器将车床的手动尾座改造成为可控电动尾座。本次设计的数控改造为经济适用型,改造简单易行,可降低劳动强度,提高生产效率。主要介绍了经济型数控机床进给伺服系统设计计算。阐述了CA6140普通数控车床的主轴系统的改进及机床纵向、横向进给系统的改造设计及计算。关键词CA6140车床数控改造滚珠丝杠步进电动机中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第2页2ABSTRACTTheNCmachineplaysaverygreatroleinmechanicalengineering.Althoughtheinvestmentneedsagreatdealofmoney,itisagoodwaytotrydigitalmodificationforordinarylathe.ThespindlespeedofCA6140remainsthemanualfunctionofshiftinggears.Thealterationiseasyanditcanreducelaborintensityandimproveproductiveefficiency.buttheNCMachinelargeronetimeinvestment,NCmachinetoolsforthetransformationofagoodafterall.ThedesignofthedeviceusingNCLatheCA6140control,partofthemaintransmissionsystemusingACspindlemotorandgradedbythepulleydrivenspindlegearbox,throughtheinverterandgearboxtoachievesubFeedSystemusedbysteppermotordrivenballscrewslowdownaftercampaignverticalfeedsystemthroughagearaftertheballscrewdrive,inthehorizontalfeedsystemthroughtwogeardrivenballscrewTooltoautomaticallytransfertoolcarrier4position,thusachievingautomatictoolchangebyMCS51series8051datatobedealtwith.fromtheI/OinterfacestepperpulseoutputsignaltocontrolthefeedrateanditinerariesInordertomaintainthefunctionofcuttingthread,totheouterendofspindleorotherappropriatelocationloadedpulsegeneratorLathewillbetransformedintoTailstockmanuallycontrolledelectricTailstock.ThedesignoftheNCtransformationoftheeconomytheapplication,transformingsimple,canreducelaborintensity,improveproductionefficiency.IntroducedamajoreconomicNCmachinetoolservosystemdesign.ExpoundedtheCA6140ordinaryNClathespindlesystemimprovementsandverticalmachine,horizontalfeedsystemofthedesignandcalculation.KeywordsCA6140lathedigitalmodificationballscrewsteppingmotor中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第3页3目录第一章概述............................................................................................................................11.O引言..........................................................................................................................61.1经济型数控改造的实际意义..................................................................................61.1.1技术分析......................................................................................................61.1.2经济分析......................................................................................................61.1.3市场分析......................................................................................................71.1.4生产分析......................................................................................................71.1.5综合分析......................................................................................................71.2数控机床的基本结构及工作原理..........................................................................71.3数控机床的分类.......................................................................................................81.3.1按加工工艺方法分类..................................................................................81.3.2按控制运动的方式分类..............................................................................91.3.3按驱动装置的特点分类..............................................................................91.4数控机床的特点及应用范围.................................................................................111.4.1数控机床的加工特点.................................................................................111.4.2数控机床的应用范围.................................................................................12第二章经济型车床数控改造总体方案的确定..................................................................132.1设计任务.................................................................................................................132.2总体数控改造方案设计.........................................................................................13第三章主传动系统设计........................................................................................................153.1概述.........................................................................................................................153.1.1数控机床主传动系统的特点.....................................................................153.2主传动系统的配置方式.........................................................................................163.2.1主传动系统的主轴电动机的选型............................................................163.2.2交流主轴电机的调速.................................................................................173.2.3分级变速齿轮箱的传动系统设计.............................................................183.2.4主传动系统组件的结构形式.....................................................................22第四章伺服进给系统的结构设计与计算............................................................................244.1伺服进给传动系统概述.........................................................................................244.2步进电动机及开环进给控制.................................................................................254.2.1步进电动机的驱动控制.............................................................................254.2.2、步进电机的驱动放大电路......................................................................284.2.3步进电动机参数说明.................................................................................31中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第4页44.3纵向进给系统的设计计算.....................................................................................324.3.1设计参数....................................................................................................324.3.2纵向进给切削力的确定.............................................................................334.3.3纵向进给滚珠丝杠螺母副的计算和选型................................................334.3.4纵向进给减速齿轮的设计与校核.............................................................364.3.5纵向进给步进电动机的计算和选型.........................................................374.4横向进给系统的设计计算.....................................................................................404.4.1横向进给切削力的确定.............................................................................404.4.2横向进给切削力的确定.............................................................................404.4.3横向进给滚珠丝杠螺母副的计算和选型................................................404.4.4横向进给减速齿轮的设计与校核.............................................................424.4.5横向进给步进电动机的计算和选型.........................................................454.5滚珠丝杠的安装....................................................................................................474.5.1滚珠丝杠的安装形式.................................................................................474.5.2滚珠丝杠轴承的校核.................................................................................484.5.3消除齿轮间隙的措施.............................................................................51第五章自动回转刀架的设计................................................................................................535.1自动回转刀架主要类型及特点.............................................................................535.2自动回转刀架的设计计算.....................................................................................535.2.1自动回转刀架步进电动机的选用.............................................................545.2.2自动回转刀架的蜗轮蜗杆设计计算.........................................................54第六章电动尾座的设计........................................................................................................586.1设计方案.................................................................................................................586.2电动尾座改造部分设计计算.................................................................................586.2.1电动尾座驱动电动机的选择.....................................................................586.2.2电动尾座用的齿轮设计.............................................................................58第七章主轴编码器的设计....................................................................................................617.1编码器工作原理...................................................................................................617.2主轴编码器的安装...............................................................................................62第八章数控车床数控系统设计............................................................................................638.1概述.........................................................................................................................638.2计算机数控(CNC)系统的简介..........................................................................648.2.1概述.............................................................................................................648.2.2微处理器数控(MNC)系统的组成...........................................................658.3CNC系统的硬件结构.............................................................................................678.3.1单微处理机与多微处理机结构................................................................678.3.2大板式结构与功能模块式结构.................................................................688.4CNC系统的软件.....................................................................................................698.4.1CNC系统软件的组成与功能.....................................................................69中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第5页58.4.2CNC系统软件的特点和结构.....................................................................728.4.3.CNC系统软件结构的分类.........................................................................748.5CNC系统的工作过程...............................................................................................758.5.1CNC系统的数据段历程...........................................................................758.5.2CNC系统自动工作时的总体流程.............................................................758.6运动轨迹的插补原理............................................................................................768.6.1运动轨迹插补的概念................................................................................768.6.2运动轨迹插补的方法................................................................................778.6.3逐点比较法................................................................................................77结论........................................................................................................................................84参考文献................................................................................................................................85致谢........................................................................................................................................86

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