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ZLG-0.4型试验用冻干机的设计论文[带图纸].doc

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ZLG-0.4型试验用冻干机的设计论文[带图纸].doc

本科毕业设计论文题目ZLG0.4型试验用冻干机的设计系(部)机电信息系专业机械设计制造及其自动化班级学生学号指导教师2013年05月IZLG0.4型试验用冻干机的设计摘要真空冷冻干燥(VaccumFreezeDrying,简称冻干)是将物体冻结到共晶点温度以下,然后在较高的真空条件下通过升华干燥除去物体中水分的一种干燥方法。随着制冷、真空、生物、电子等技术的发展,真空冷冻干燥设备现在已广泛的应用于医学、生物学、药学、农业等领域,目前还应用于分子生物学、基因工程学、新型生物医学、中药新制剂、高品质方便食品、考古学、粉末材料制造等领域。目前对冻干设备性能的研究已引起广泛的兴趣和重视。该机广泛用于食品工业、化学工业、医药工业、电子工业等行业的实验研究部门,已是基础科学研究中必不可少的基本手段,为生产小样生物制品与实验研究提供了一种新型加工设备。本文介绍了ZLG0.4型试验用真空冷冻干燥机的工作原理、结构特点、设计计算。ZLG0.4型冻干机是冻干合一型。本机具有加热和制冷的功能。能对物料进行干燥。它由干燥箱、水汽凝结器(捕水器)、加热系统、真空系统、制冷系统和电气控制系统六大部件组成。设计的主要部分是干燥箱、水汽凝结器(捕水器)、真空系统和制冷系统。冻干箱中设工件架,工件架上设有搁板,用来搁置冻干的物料。冻干箱工作温度范围60℃80℃左右。搁板工作温度范围12555℃。水汽凝结器用来凝结物料升华产生的水汽,用接管和冻干箱相连。制冷循环一般为复叠式,制冷系统中涉及两个热力膨胀阀和两个电磁截止阀,分别通向冻干箱和捕水器,两个电磁截止阀相互连锁,一个开启时,两一个关闭状态。真空系统包括冻干箱,捕水器和真空管道,选择真空泵,选旋叶泵。加热系统,冻干箱的隔板的升温采用管状加热器直接加热。关键词冻干机性能结构设计IIZLG0.4ExperimentalDesignoftheLyophilizerAbstractVacuumfreezedryingisakindofdrymethod,whichistofreezetheobjectbelowtheeutecticpointtemperature,thenpassthesublimationtoobviatethemoisturefromtheobjectundertheconditionofhighervacuum.Withthedevelopmentofrefrigeration,vacuum,biology,electronics,etc.,nowvacuumfreezedryingequipmentshavealreadyappliedtotherealmsextensively,suchasmedicalscience,biology,pharmacyandagriculture,etc,sofartheystillapplytothemolecularbiology,geneticengineering,newbiomedicalscience,newtypeChineseherbalmedicine,highqualityconvenientfood,archeologyandthepowdermaterialmanufacturingetc.Researchesonthefunctionofvacuumfreezedryingequipmenthavealreadycausedtheextensiveinterestandvalue.ThisarticledescribestheZLG0.4typetestwithvacuumfreezedryingmachineworks,structuralfeatures,designcalculations.ZLG0.4scalefreezedriedunity.Thismachinehasaheatingandcoolingfunction.Thematerialtodry.Itconsistsofoven,condensationwatercatching,heatingsystem,vacuumsystem,coolingsystemandelectricalcontrolsystemcomposedofsixparts.Theprimarycomponentsoftheoven,condensationwatercatching,vacuumandcoolingsystems.Thefreezedriedboxsettheframeoftheworkpiece,theworkpiecerackhasashelfusedtoshelvethelyophilizedmaterial.LyophilizedboxOperatingtemperaturerange60℃80°C.Theshelfoperatingtemperaturerange12555℃.Thecondensationisusedtocondensethematerialsublimationofwatervaporgeneratedwithtakeoversandlyophilizedboxconnected.Refrigerationcycleisgenerallycomplexcascade,involvingtwothermalexpansionvalveandtwosolenoidshutoffvalveinthecoolingsystem,leadingtothefreezedriedboxandwatercatchingthetwosolenoidshutoffvalvechaintoeachother,anopen,Closestate.Thevacuumsystemconsistsoffreezedriedcaseofwatertrapsandvacuum,toselectvacuumpump,selectedrotaryvanepump.Heatingsystem。KeywordsFreezedryingPerformanceStructureDesigIII目录1绪论......................................................................................................................................11.1真空冷冻干燥的原理、特点及其应用领域...................................................................11.2冻干历史和发展概况.......................................................................................................21.3真空冷冻干燥的发展概况...............................................................................................31.4我国冻干的历史...............................................................................................................31.5我国冻干的现状及发展前景...........................................................................................51.6实验用冻干机的国内外研究现状.................................................................................61.7本课题研究内容...............................................................................................................72真空冷冻干燥的理论基础............................................................................................82.1冻干的基本原理...............................................................................................................82.2真空冷冻干燥的基本过程...............................................................................................82.2.1物料制品的准备及预冻过程.................................................................................82.2.2一次干燥(升华干燥)过程.................................................................................92.2.3二次干燥(解析干燥)过程...............................................................................102.2.4后处理...................................................................................................................123ZLG0.4型真空冷冻干燥机.......................................................................................133.1整体结构.......................................................................................................................133.2干燥室的设计.................................................................................................................143.2.1搁板的设计...........................................................................................................153.2.2搁物架架体的设计...............................................................................................163.2.3水管的设计...........................................................................................................173.2.4箱体强度的计算...................................................................................................203.2.5保温层厚度的确定...............................................................................................213.2.6观察窗...................................................................................................................213.2.7真空规...................................................................................................................213.2.8干燥室热负荷的计算...........................................................................................213.3真空系统的设计与计算.................................................................................................223.3.1真空体放气量的计算...........................................................................................233.3.2真空泵的选择.......................................................................................................233.3.3真空泵和真空阀门...............................................................................................233.4水汽凝结器的设计与计算.............................................................................................24IV3.4.1对水汽凝结器的要求...........................................................................................253.4.2水汽凝结器的结构...............................................................................................253.4.3水汽凝结器所需冷量的计算...............................................................................253.4.4水汽凝结器所需传热面积的计算.......................................................................263.5制冷系统的选择.............................................................................................................263.6控制系统.........................................................................................................................274结论....................................................................................................................................28参考文献...............................................................................................................................29致谢.........................................................................................................................................30

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