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中型货车变速器设计说明书[带图纸].doc

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中型货车变速器设计说明书[带图纸].doc

辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)1目录前言...........................................................................................................................11概述.......................................................................................................................61.1汽车的诞生和发展............................................................................................61.2变速器简介........................................................................................................81.3典型变速器举例分析........................................................................................91.3.1通用HydraMatic..........................................................................................91.3.2奥迪Multitronic变速器...........................................................................101.3.3雷诺R25F1赛车变速器............................................................................111.4变速器的要求及功能......................................................................................112汽车总体参数的选择及计算.............................................................................132.1汽车主要尺寸的确定......................................................................................132.2汽车质量参数的确定......................................................................................142.2.1整车装备质量...............................................................................................142.2.2汽车的载客量和装载质量...........................................................................142.2.3汽车性能参数的确定...................................................................................152.3发动机的选择..................................................................................................162.3.1发动机形式的选择.......................................................................................162.3.2发动机主要性能指标的确定.......................................................................173变速器结构方案的选择.....................................................................................193.1变速器轴式的选择..........................................................................................193.1.1变速器的径向尺寸.....................................................................................193.1.2变速器的寿命.............................................................................................193.1.3变速器的效率.............................................................................................193.2变速器的工作原理..........................................................................................20程宇丹中型货车变速器设计23.2.1变速器动力传递路线.................................................................................203.3齿轮安排.........................................................................................................213.4换档的结构方式..............................................................................................223.5倒档的结构方案及倒档轴的位置..................................................................234变速器主要参数的确定.....................................................................................244.1变速器档数及各档传动比..............................................................................244.1.1根据最大爬坡度确定一档传动比...............................................................244.1.2根据驱动轮与路面的附着力确定一档传动比...........................................254.1.3根据最低稳定车速确定一档传动比...........................................................264.2变速器齿轮参数的确定..................................................................................274.2.1齿数...............................................................................................................274.2.2模数...............................................................................................................274.2.3中心距...........................................................................................................274.2.4齿宽...............................................................................................................284.2.5各档齿轮齿数的计算...................................................................................284.2.6确定各档齿轮基本参数...............................................................................315轮齿强度.............................................................................................................345.1齿轮坏损形式..................................................................................................345.2齿轮折断..........................................................................................................345.3齿面点蚀..........................................................................................................345.4齿面胶合..........................................................................................................345.4.1齿轮强度计算...............................................................................................355.4.1弯曲强度计算...............................................................................................366变速器轴的计算.................................................................................................386.1轴的功用及设计要求......................................................................................386.2轴尺寸初选......................................................................................................38辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)37轴的强度与刚度计算.........................................................................................407.1轴的结构设计..................................................................................................407.2轴的强度校荷..................................................................................................407.2.1绘制轴的受力...............................................................................................417.2.2计算轴上的作用力.......................................................................................417.2.3计算支反力及弯矩.......................................................................................417.2.4确定危险截面以及校核其强度...................................................................428同步器的选型...................................................................................................459结论.....................................................................................................................47致谢.........................................................................................................................48参考文献.................................................................................................................49附录A.......................................................................................错误未定义书签。附录B........................................................................................错误未定义书签。摘要汽车迄今已有100余年的历史了,在历史的长河中也给我们留下了许许多多的经验,从第一辆三轮汽车以每小时18公里的速度,跑到现在,从速度为零到加速到100公里/小时只需要三秒钟多一点的超级跑车。这一百年,汽车发展的速度是如此惊人现代汽车的动力装置,几乎都采用往复活塞式内燃机。它具有体积小,质量轻,工作可靠,使用方便等优点。其性能与汽车的动力性之间存在着较大的矛盾。发动机的扭矩,转速与汽车的牵引力,车速要求之间的矛盾,传动系中设置了变速靠现代汽车的内燃机本身是无法解决的。为此,在汽车传动系中设置了变速器。本设计是中型货车变速器的设计,采用的是机械式变速器,我们通过中型货车的总体性能参数,确定较合适的变速器结构方案、变速器的主要参数,其次对变速器各档齿轮参数、齿轮强度进行计算和校核对变速器轴的计算及其校核,最后对同步器进行选型。关键词汽车变速器齿轮轴同步器强度程宇丹中型货车变速器设计4AbstractTheautomobileuptonowhadmorethan100yearsthehistory,hasalsoleftbehindmanyexperiencesinthehistoricalperpetualflowtous,fromthefirstthreewheeledautomobilebyeachhour18kilometerspeeds,runsthepresent,toacceleratesfromthespeedforzeroonlytoneedthreesecondmorethan1superracingbicyclesto100kilometers/hours.This100years,theautomobiledevelopsthespeedissoastonishingThemodernautomobilepowerunit,nearlyallusesthereciprocationinternalcombustionreciprocatingengine.Ithasthevolumeyoung,qualitylight,theworkisreliable,meritandsooneasytooperate.Itsperformanceandbetweentheautomobilepowerhasabiggercontradiction.Theenginetorque,therotationalspeedandtheautomobileforceoftraction,betweenthevehiclespeedrequirementcontradiction,Transmissioncentersetthespeedchangetodependonthemodernautomobileinternalcombustionengineitselfisunabletosolve.Therefore,Transmissioncenterhassetthetransmissiongearboxintheautomobile.Thisdesignisthemediumfreightvehicletransmissiongearboxdesign,usesisthemechanicaltypetransmissiongearbox,wethroughthemediumfreightvehicleoverallperformanceparameter,determinedthemoreappropriatetransmissiongearboxstructureplan,thetransmissiongearboxmainparameter,nexttothetransmissiongearboxvariousgradeofgearsparameter,thegearintensitycarriesonthecomputationandtheexaminationTothetransmissiongearboxaxiscomputationanditstheexamination,finallycarriesontheshapingtothesynchromesh.KeywordAutomobiletransmissiongearboxgearaxissynchromeshintensity辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)5前言汽车问世百余年来,特别是从汽车产品的大批量生产及汽车工业的大发展以来,汽车已经对世界经济大发展和人类进入现代生活产生了无法估量的巨大影响,为人类社会的进步做出了不可磨灭的巨大贡献。目前汽车上广泛采用的动力装置是汽油发动机和柴油发动机,它们的扭矩与转速变化范围都较小,而汽车的行驶条件非常复杂,行驶速度和行驶阻力的变化范围很大,为了解决这一矛盾,在汽车传动系中设置了变速器。变速器的发展趋势是越来越复杂,自动化程度也越来越高,自动变速器将是未来的主流。汽车自动变速器常见的有三种型式分别是液力自动变速器AT、机械无级自动变速器CVT、电控机械自动变速器AMT。本设计结合EQ1090汽车变速器为例,从汽车的诞生与汽车工业的发展以及对人类社会的影响谈起,全面而系统的对汽车变速器进行了介绍,从汽车的总体参数的确定到最后的同步器选型,本设计共分为八个章节。

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