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火车轴承拆装机设计说明书[带图纸].doc

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火车轴承拆装机设计说明书[带图纸].doc

摘要铁路货车滚动轴承一方面要承受整个车厢的重量,另一方面轴承的内圈又随车轴一起作高速旋转,是非常容易磨损的部件,也是关系到铁路运输安全的关键部件。机车运行时,一旦滚动轴承发生故障,将导致整列车不能运行,严重堵塞运输路线,同时对机车的抢修也是十分困难的。因此预防滚动轴承故障的发生,对于机车的安全运输就显得十分重要。铁路部门严格规定,各车辆段必须对滚动轴承进行定期检测,对于需要分解的滚动轴承,把它从车轴上拆下来,此时需要用到本设计中所研究的STL2A铁路货车滚动轴承固定式半自动拆卸机。STL2A滚动轴承拆卸机是用于拆卸铁路车辆滚动轴承的专用设备,能拆卸目前所用的多种型号滚动轴承,如RB2,RD2,RE2型轮对的无轴箱滚动轴承。因此广泛应用于各车辆段,车辆检修厂及铁路运输单位。该机主要由床身、左右拆卸装置、支承缸、推进缸、轴承滚道、液压系统、电气控制系统等组成。此次设计是根据已有的科技文件材料、机械设计手册、液压系统设计简明手册等资料以及到现场参观实习,设计出定位准确,结构简单,占地面积小,成本低,自动化程度和效率高,操作和维修方便的拆卸机。本次设计主要是对该机的液压系统和机械结构部分进行设计。关键词滚动轴承拆卸液压缸机械结构沈阳理工大学应用技术学院毕业设计说明书2AbstractOnonehandrailwayfreighttrainrollingbearingssupporttheweightofawholecarriage,ontheotherhandbearinginnerraceinhighspeedrotationalongwiththeaxle.Itisthenonwearablepartsinapplication,butitisalsothekeycomponentsinRailwayTransportationSafety.oncetherollingbearingsarebroken,thewholetraincannotmoveintime.Transportationrouteissevereballup.Inthemeantime,itisverydifficulttorepairthetrainagain.asaresult,itisveryimportanttopreventthefaultofrollingbearings.TheregulationonrailwaydepartmentsaidthatrollingstockSectionmustoverhaultherollingbearingsregularly,aimatsomerollingbearingsneedtobedisassembled,TheSTL2Atypefixedsemiautomaticdismantlingmachineforrollingbearingsisconsidered.TheSTL2Atypedismantlingmachineforrollingbearingsisaspecializedmachinewhichisusefordismantlingtherollingbearingsoffreighttrains,Itcandismantleallkindsofrollingbearingsatthetimebeing.SuchastherollingbearingsofnoncasedaxlesofthewheelsofRB2,RD2,RE2.Asaresult,Itiswidelyusedintrainmanufacturers,traindivisions,trainoverhaulfactoriesandsoon.Themachineismadeupofabed,aleftandrightdismantlingdevice,asupportingjar,aadvancingjar,abearingrolldish,ahydraulicpressuresystemandaelectriccontrolsystem,etc.Thispaperistodesignadismantlingmachinewhichmeetstherequirementofaccurateinlocalization,simpleinstructure,smallinvolume,lowinprice,highinautomaticlevelandefficiency,easyinoperationandmaintenancebaseonthematerialsandinvestigation.Thispapermainlydesignsthehydraulicsystemandmechanicalstructureofthemachine.Keywordsrollingbearingdismantlehydraulicpressurejarmechanicalstructure沈阳理工大学应用技术学院毕业设计说明书3目录摘要.............................................................................................................................................1Abstract...........................................................................................................................................21绪论.............................................................................................................................................11.1设计课题的来源.............................................................................................................11.2拆卸机的用途.................................................................................................................11.3拆卸机的结构组成.........................................................................................................11.4拆卸机的工作形式.........................................................................................................11.5拆卸机的工作过程...........................................................................................................21.6拆卸机的特点...................................................................................................................22设计要求及内容.......................................................................................................................32.1设计要求.........................................................................................................................32.2设计内容.........................................................................................................................33液压系统的计算及液压元件的选择.......................................................................................43.1工况分析.....................................................................................................................43.2拟订液压系统原理图.....................................................................................................43.2.1确定供油方式..............................................................................................................43.2.2调速方式的选择..........................................................................................................43.2.3速度换接方式的选择....................................................................................................43.2.4支承定位回路的选择..................................................................................................53.3液压缸的主要尺寸计算.................................................................................................63.3.1拆卸缸主要尺寸的计算........................................................................................63.3.1.1工作压力的确定.......................................................................................................63.3.1.2液压缸内径D和活塞杆直径d的确定................................................................63.3.1.3液压缸壁厚和外径的计算.......................................................................................63.3.1.4液压缸工作行程的确定...........................................................................................73.3.1.5缸盖厚度的确定.......................................................................................................73.3.1.6最小导向长度的确定..................................................................................................83.3.1.7活塞杆稳定性的验算.................................................................................................83.3.1.8缸体长度的确定.........................................................................................................83.3.2推进缸主要尺寸的计算..............................................................................................93.3.2.1确定推进缸所受的最大负载力.................................................................................9沈阳理工大学应用技术学院毕业设计说明书43.3.2.2确定推进缸的工作压力.............................................................................................93.3.2.3液压缸内径D和活塞杆直径d的确定....................................................................93.3.2.4液压缸壁厚和外径的计算.......................................................................................103.3.2.5液压缸工作行程的确定.........................................................................................103.3.2.6缸盖厚度的确定.....................................................................................................103.3.2.7最小导向长度的确定.............................................................................................113.3.2.8活塞杆稳定性的验算.............................................................................................113.3.2.9缸体长度的确定.......................................................................................................113.3.3支承缸主要尺寸的计算..........................................................................................123.3.3.1工作压力的确定.....................................................................................................123.3.3.2液压内径D和活塞杆直径d的确定......................................................................123.3.3.3液压缸壁厚和外径的计算.....................................................................................123.3.3.4液压缸工作行程的确定.........................................................................................123.3.3.5缸盖厚度的确定.....................................................................................................123.3.3.6最小导向长度的确定.............................................................................................133.3.3.7活塞杆稳定性的验算.............................................................................................143.3.3.8缸体长度的确定.....................................................................................................143.4液压缸的结构设计.........................................................................................................143.4.1拆卸缸的结构设计......................................................................................................143.4.1.1缸体与缸盖的连接形式...........................................................................................143.4.1.2活塞杆与活塞的连接结构.......................................................................................153.4.1.3活塞杆导向部分的结构...........................................................................................153.4.1.4密封圈的选用.........................................................................................................153.4.1.5液压缸的缓冲装置...................................................................................................153.4.1.6液压缸的排气装置...................................................................................................153.4.2推进缸的结构设计......................................................................................................153.4.2.1缸体与缸盖的连接形式...........................................................................................153.4.2.2活塞杆与活塞的连接结构.......................................................................................163.4.2.3活塞杆导向部分的结构...........................................................................................163.4.2.4密封圈的选用...........................................................................................................163.4.2.5液压缸的缓冲装置...................................................................................................163.4.3支撑缸的结构设计......................................................................................................17沈阳理工大学应用技术学院毕业设计说明书53.4.3.1缸体与缸盖的连接形式...........................................................................................173.4.3.2活塞杆与活塞的连接结构.......................................................................................173.4.3.3活塞杆导向部分的结构...........................................................................................173.4.3.4密封圈的选用...........................................................................................................173.4.3.5液压缸的缓冲装置...................................................................................................183.4.3.6液压缸的排气装置...................................................................................................183.5液压泵和电动机的选择.................................................................................................183.5.1确定泵的压力和流量..................................................................................................183.5.1.1泵的工作压力的确定.............................................................................................183.5.1.2计算在各工作阶段液压缸所需的最大流量.........................................................193.5.1.3泵的流量确定...........................................................................................................203.5.2选择液压泵的规格......................................................................................................203.5.3与液压泵匹配的电动机的选定..................................................................................213.6确定液压管道尺寸.......................................................................................................223.7液压介质的选取.............................................................................................................243.8毕业设计心得体会.........................................................................................................244结论.....................................................................................................................................26致谢.......................................................................................................................................27参考文献.......................................................................................................................................28

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