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新闻传播学论文-China’s Journalism Education- A Localization Perspective.doc

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新闻传播学论文-China’s Journalism Education- A Localization Perspective.doc

新闻传播学论文CHINA’SJOURNALISMEDUCATIONALOCALIZATIONPERSPECTIVEABSTRACTDESPITEALONGHISTORYOFJOURNALISM,CHINASTARTEDITSMODERNUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONINJOURNALISMONLYINTHE1920SANDUNDERTHEHEAVYINFLUENCEOFAMERICANJOURNALISMEDUCATIONSYSTEMHOWEVER,INTHE70ODDYEARSOFDEVELOPMENTSINCETHEN,CHINAHASALWAYSSEENITSJOURNALISMEDUCATIONMODIFIEDANDADAPTEDTOTHEDIFFERENTNEEDSINITSDIFFERENTDEVELOPMENTPERIODS,ACONSISTENTPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONINITSCURRICULUMANDTEACHINGMETHODSASWELLASITSTARGETSTHEPAPERWILLFIRSTDISCUSSTHEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONINTHE50YEARSDEVELOPMENTOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAINTERMSOFEDUCATIONALPURPOSESANDCHANGESOFCURRICULUMBASEDONTHEASURVEYOFTHEFIVEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSINSHANGHAI,THEPAPERWILLTHENTURNTODISCUSSIONOFTHEDIVERSITYANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINSHANGHAIASSHOWCASE,PARTICULARLYSINCETHE1980SWHENCHINAWITNESSEDDRAMATICSOCIALCHANGESANDRAPIDECONOMICGROWTHTHEPAPERWILLALSOEXPLORETHEPROBLEMSOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINADURINGITSPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONSINCETHE1980S1INTRODUCTIONCHINA’SJOURNALISMHISTORYCOULDBETRACEDBACKTODIBAO,AKINDOFNEWSBULLETININTHEIMPERIALCOURTOFTHETANGDYNASTY618907FANGZHANG,1998,P11HOWEVER,THEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINTHEMODERNSENSEDIDNOTSTARTINCHINA’SUNIVERSITIESUNTILTHE1920SWHENAMERICANJOURNALISMEDUCATIONEXERTEDADIRECTANDGREATINFLUENCEONTHEFORMATIVESTAGEOFTHECHINESEJOURNALISMINFACT,THEOVERALLJOURNALISMEDUCATIONALSYSTEMINCHINAWASMODELEDAFTERTHEAMERICANSYSTEMDING,1997,P70,HOWEVER,INTHE50ODDYEARSOFDEVELOPMENTSINCETHEN,CHINAHASALWAYSSEENITSJOURNALISMEDUCATIONMODIFIEDANDADAPTEDTOTHEDIFFERENTNEEDSINTHEDIFFERENTDEVELOPMENTPERIODSINTHEMODERNHISTORYOFCHINA,ACONSISTENTPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONINITSCURRICULUMANDTEACHINGMETHODSASWELLASITSTARGETSTHEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONFORTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAOBVIOUSLYSPEDUPINTHEEARLY1980SWHENCHINA’SREFORMANDOPENPOLICYSTIMULATEDGREATSOCIALCHANGESANDRAPIDECONOMICGROWTH,APERIODINWHICHTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAEXPANDEDGREATLYANDBECAMEMOREVARIEDANDDIVERSIFIEDTHANEVERINHISTORY,TOMEETTHEINCREASINGDEMANDSOFMEDIATHENUMBEROFJOURNALISMPROGRAMSINCREASEDALMOSTFIVETIMESSINCETHEEARLY1980SANDSTUDENTENROLLMENTOFJOURNALISMPROGRAMSROSEBYANAVERAGE25PERCENTEACHYEARFORALLTHEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSGUO,1996,P80,INTHISPAPER,THEWRITERWILLFIRSTDISCUSSTHEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONINTHE50ODDYEARSDEVELOPMENTOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAINTERMSOFITSEDUCATIONALPURPOSESANDCHANGESOFCURRICULABASEDONASURVEYOFTHEFIVEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSINSHANGHAI,THEWRITERWILLTHENDISCUSSTHEVARIATIONSANDDIVERSITYOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINSHANGHAI,PARTICULARLYSINCETHE1980SWHENCHINAWITNESSEDDRAMATICSOCIALCHANGES,EARMARKEDBYTHEECONOMICGROWTHASWELLASHOWTHEFIVEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSHAVESUITEDTHENEEDSOFTHESOCIETYASAWHOLEINTHEPERIODFINALLY,THEWRITERWILLALSOEXPLORETHEPROBLEMSOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINADURINGITSPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONSINCETHE1980S2THECONCEPTOFLOCALIZATIONCHINESENIZEDINTODAY’SCHINA,THECONCEPTOFLOCALIZATIONISVERYOFTENBEINGAPPLIEDTORESEARCHONMASSCOMMUNICATIONINCHINA,APROCESSOFHOWTHERESEARCHOFMASSCOMMUNICATIONS,ORIGINATEDFROMTHEWEST,CANCOHERENTLYBEINTEGRATEDWITHLOCALCHARACTERISTICSINCHINA,ACOUNTRYWITHFIVETHOUSANDYEARSOFHISTORYANDRICHCULTURALANDPHILOSOPHICALHERITAGESANDALSOONEWHICHWASLAGGEDBEHINDINTHEMODERNTIMESANDNEEDSTOREVITALIZEITSBRILLIANTPASTBYLEARNINGFROMTHEWEST,RATHERTHANSIMPLYMODELINGAFTERTHEWESTSHAO,1998TOADEGREE,THECONCEPTOFLOCALIZATIONREFERSTOTHECHINESENIZEDPROCESSOFHOWSOMETHINGFOREIGNORIMPORTEDISABSORBEDINTOTHECHINESECULTUREANDSOCIETY,ANDTOTHEBESTOFCHINA,RATHERTHANASIMPLEMODELINGPROCESSOFTHEWESTASTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINASTARTEDWITHHEAVYINFLUENCEFROMTHEAMERICANJOURNALISMEDUCATIONSYSTEM,THEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONFORTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAREFERSTO,INTHISPAPER,ATHEPROCESSOFHOWTHEAMERICANMODELOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONORLATERTHESOVIETMODELHAOXU,1997,P37ISBESTTAILOREDTOTHECHINESEPRACTICESANDSOCIETY,REGARDLESSOFTHEFACTTHATITISGOODORNOTSOGOOD3FIVESTAGESOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAPROFESSORDINGGANLIN,AFAMOUSJOURNALISMHISTORYEXPERTFROMFUDANUNIVERSITY,HASCATEGORIZEDTHE70ODDYEARSOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONDEVELOPMENTCHINAINTOFIVESTAGESFIRSTSTAGE1920STO1940S,SECONDSTAGE1950S,THIRDSTAGEEARLYANDMIDDLE1960S,FOURTHSTAGETENYEARSDURINGTHECULTURALREVOLUTIONANDFIFTHSTAGESINCE1978TOPRESENTDING,1997,PP7071THEWRITERHOLDSTHATTHEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONEXISTEDINALMOSTALLTHEFIVESTAGESOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAALTHOUGHTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONWASINITIATEDWITHHEAVYINFLUENCEFROMTHEAMERICANSYSTEM,THEREISNODOUBTTHATTHEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSHADALWAYSBEENDESIGNEDTOMEETTHEPRACTICALNEEDSOFTHECHINESESOCIETY,TOBEEXACT,THEMEDIADEVELOPMENTAFTERLISTINGTHEFIVESTAGES,PROFESSORDINGCONCLUDEDTHATEXCEPTFORTHECHAOTICTENYEARCULTURALREVOLUTIONSTAGE,EACHSTAGEHADCLEARANDEFFECTIVETARGETSANDCURRICULUMSYSTEMSFORITSJOURNALISMEDUCATION,WHICHBASICALLYMETTHESOCIALNEEDSINTHERELEVANTSTAGEOFSOCIALDEVELOPMENTANDTHATTHEJOURNALISMGRADUATESHADPROVEDTHEMSELVESTOBEQUALIFIEDENOUGHINEACHSTAGEDING,1997,P71DURINGTHEFIRSTSTAGE,CHINA’SFIRSTREGULARJOURNALISMDEPARTMENTWASESTABLISHEDATSTJOHN’SUNIVERSITY,AMISSIONARYSCHOOLINSHANGHAITHISISFOLLOWEDBYJOURNALISMDEPARTMENTSANDPROGRAMSINYENCHINGUNIVERSITYIN1924ANDFUDANUNIVERSITYIN1929,ANDSEVERALOTHERSINTHE1930SAND1940SHAOXU,1997/ZHOU,1992ALLTHESEEARLYJOURNALISMDEPARTMENTSANDPROGRAMSBORROWEDFROMTHEAMERICANEDUCATIONALSYSTEMFORINSTANCE,THEJOURNALISMDEPARTMENTATFUDANUNIVERSITYWASBASEDONTHESYSTEMOFTHEJOURNALISMCOLLEGEOFMISSOURIUNIVERSITY,WITHAFOURYEARPROGRAMWHICHHAD34JOURNALISTICCOURSESANDREQUIREDATOTALOF89CREDITSASISKNOWN,THISISTHEWARRINGPERIODINTHEHISTORYOFCHINA,INWHICHNEWSPAPERSWERESETUPBYDIFFERENTPOLITICALSECTORSOFTHESOCIETYANDNEEDEDALOTOFJOURNALISTSANDMANAGEMENTSTAFFASARESULT,THETARGETOFAJOURNALISMPROGRAMWASSETAS“TRAININGOFTHEEDITINGANDMANAGINGPERSONNELFORCHINESENEWSPAPERS”TOTAILORTHEPROGRAMSTOTHECHINESESOCIETYINTHISWARRINGPERIODWHEN,COURSESLIKEMILITARYEDUCATION,GEOGRAPHY,NEWSPAPERORGANIZATIONANDMANAGEMENTANDCHINESELANGUAGEWEREADDEDTOTHEPROGRAMASSELECTIVECOURSESDING,P70,1997MEANWHILE,THECOMMUNISTSUNDERMAOZEDONGALSOSTARTEDTRAININGTHEIRCADRESFORJOURNALISTICPURPOSESINTHEIRAREASUNDERCONTROLHAOXU,1997ANDTHEFOCUSOFTHISKINDOFJOURNALISTICTRAININGWASONPOLITICALCOURSESANDCOURSESTHATDEALTWITHCURRENTAFFAIRSANDPOLICIESDING,1997,P70,THISWASOFSPECIALIMPORTANCETOAPERIODWHENTHECOMMUNISTPARTYFOUGHTWITHTHEJAPANESEANDLATERONTHENATIONALISTPARTYTHESECONDSTAGESAWTHEESTABLISHMENTOFTHEPEOPLE’SREPUBLICOFCHINAANDALSOTHEBEGINNINGOFATENSERELATIONSHIPBETWEENCHINAANDTHEUNITEDSTATESANDAWARMUPBETWEENCHINAANDTHESOVIETUNIONTHETARGETOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAWASMODIFIEDTO“TRAININGOFNEWSWRITINGPERSONNELWITHSOLIDPOLITICALFOUNDATIONANDPOTENTIAL”THISREFLECTEDTHESINGLEPURPOSEOFTHEMEDIAATTHETIME,WHICHWASSOONCOUPLEDWITHASTRONGSENSEOFPOLITICALORIENTATIONDING,1997,P70ASARESULT,THEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSINCHINAWERESOONREORGANIZED,WITHMARXISTLENINISTTHEORIESADDEDTOTHECURRICULUMANDTHESOVIETMODELREPLACEDTHEAMERICANMODELINTHECURRICULUMDESIGNANDTEACHINGMETHODS,WHICHEMPHASIZEDSERVICETOTHEWORKINGCLASSANDBASICPOLITICALKNOWLEDGEANDTHEORETICALPOLITICALLEARNINGHAOXU,1997THECOURSESLIKEBUSINESSMANAGEMENTANDADVERTISINGWEREREPLACEDBYTHECOURSESLIKENEWSPAPER’SMASSWORKJOURNALISMSTUDENTSWERETOLDTHAT“JOURNALISM,INLENIN’SWORDS,SHOULDCONSCIOUSLYTREATITSELFASPARTOFTHEPARTY,CONSCIOUSLYOBEYTHEPARTYANDIDENTIFYWITHTHEPARTY’SPOLITICALSTAND”HAOXU,1997,P3ITSHOULDBENOTEDTHATTHEREASONWHYTHESOCALLEDSOVIETMODELBECAMEPOPULARINTHISSTAGEOFCHINAISBECAUSEITWASMORERELEVANTOREASIERTOBELOCALIZEDTOTHECHINESESOCIETYATTHETHATTIMEDUETOTHESIMILARITIESINIDEOLOGYANDPOLITICALSYSTEMINTHETHIRDSTAGEAFTERCHINABROKEUPWITHTHESOVIETUNION,CHINABECAMEMOREREALISTICANDSELFDEPENDENTTHETARGETOFTHEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONWASSHIFTEDONTHE“THETRAININGOFJOURNALISTICTEACHINGANDRESEARCHPERSONNEL”THECURRICULUMOFJOURNALISMEDUCATIONFAVOREDTHECOURSESONTHEORIESANDCULTURESANDHISTORYKNOWLEDGE,WHICHDEVIATEDFROMTHESOVIETMODELANDSUITEDTHECHINESEBETTERDING,1997HOWEVER,THISDIDNOTLASTVERYLONGTHENORMALJOURNALISMEDUCATIONWASSOONINTERRUPTEDINTHEMID1960STHEFORTHSTAGEWHENTHECHAOTICTENYEAR“CULTURALREVOLUTION”STARTEDALLTHESTUDENTSANDTEACHERSWEREREQUIREDTOGOTOTHECOUNTRYSIDEALTHOUGHNEWSTUDENTSWHOHADBEENWORKERS,FARMERSORSOLDIERSWERESTILLENROLLED,THEYNOLONGERUNDERWENTTHENORMALJOURNALISMEDUCATIONBUTWEREEVALUATEDWITHTHEIRPOLITICALATTITUDERATHERTHANACADEMICPERFORMANCESDING,1997,/HAOXU,1997INTHESETWOSTAGES,THEJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAEXPERIENCEDGREATUPSANDDOWNSANDWASSURELYCHARACTERIZEDBYTHECHAOTICPERIODOFTIMEINCHINAFORMOSTCHINESE,THEYMAYFEELABITAWKWARDTOREGARDITASAKINDOFLOCALIZATIONPROCESS,BUTITISSURELYTRUETHATJOURNALISMEDUCATIONATTHISTIMEWASMODIFIEDANDADAPTEDTOSUCHAWAYTHATITSATISFIEDTHEPOLITICALNEEDSOFTHISSPECIALPERIODINTHEHISTORYOFCHINA,FORBETTERORFORWORSEINTHEFIFTHSTAGE,THEREFORMANDOPENPOLICYSTARTEDINTHEEARLY1980BROUGHTABOUTTHEDRAMATICSOCIALCHANGESANDRAPIDECONOMICGROWTH,UNPRECEDENTEDINTHEHISTORYOFCHINATHECHANGESALSOSTIMULATEDTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENT,PARTICULARLYTVINDUSTRYTHENUMBEROFTVSTATIONSIN1986WASALMOSTSIXTIMESTHATIN1983MEANWHILE,THERISEOFTVSETOWNERSHIPPER100HOUSEHOLDSFROM1983TO1986ALSOTRIGGEREDTHEEXPANSIONOFTHETVAUDIENCESIZEGUO,1996,P81BESIDES,THERELATIVECOMPETITIVEOPERATIONSOFTHEMEDIAALSOLEDTOTHEINCREASEOFPAGESOFNEWSPAPERSANDLIVELINESSOFREPORTINGSTYLEINTHEPAST20YEARS,ALMOSTEVERYNEWSPAPERINCHINAHASTRIPLEDTHEIRNUMBEROFPAGES,WHICHDOUBLEDTHEIRAMOUNTOFNEWSREPORTSGUO,1996,P81INANEFFORTTOATTRACTMOREADVERTISERS,MEDIAINCHINAALSOEMPLOYEDMORELIVELYREPORTINGSTYLESSUCHASPHONEINHOTLINES,TALKSHOWS,FIELDREPORTING,CRITICISMREPORTSNEGATIVE,LARGERPICTURESANDSEPARATEDPAGESFORFINANCE,SPORTSANDENTERTAINMENTTHERAPIDMEDIADEVELOPMENTSHAVELEFTTHEINDUSTRYINGREATDEMANDOFMOREPROFESSIONALANDQUALIFIEDJOURNALISTSANDEDITORS,WHOARESUPPOSEDTOCOMEFROMTHETRADITIONALJOURNALISMEDUCATIONBESIDES,THEMEDIA’SEMPHASISONEXTERNALREPORTING,RADIOANDTV,MANAGEMENT,ADVERTISINGANDPUBLICRELATIONSNOTONLYRESULTEDINAGREATERDEMANDOFTRADITIONALREPORTERSANDEDITORSBUTALSOREQUIREDAMOREDIVERSIFIEDANDSPECIALTRAININGFROMTHEIRNEWRECRUITMENTDING,1997,P71INTHISSTAGE,THEPROCESSOFLOCALIZATIONHASBEENINTENSIFIEDTOANUNPRECEDENTEDLEVEL,INTHATJOURNALISMEDUCATIONINCHINAHASBEENTAILOREDTOMEETTHEGROWINGDEMANDOFTHEMEDIAINDUSTRYINTHECOUNTRYANDINAPRACTICALWAYTHEJOURNALISMPROGRAMSINCREASEDFROMTH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