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新闻传播学论文-Current Shanghai Media Landscape in the Age of Globalization.doc

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新闻传播学论文-Current Shanghai Media Landscape in the Age of Globalization.doc

新闻传播学论文CURRENTSHANGHAIMEDIALANDSCAPEINTHEAGEOFGLOBALIZATION(ABSTRACT)INTHEAGEOFGLOBALIZATION,INFORMATIONFLOW,LIKECAPITALFLOWANDCOMMODITYFLOW,TAKESPLACEINCREASINGLYATTHEGLOBALLEVELASCROSSBORDEROPERATIONSOFVARIOUSINDUSTRIES,INCLUDINGMEDIAINDUSTRIES,BECOMEINCREASINGLYFREQUENT,NATIONSBECOMEMOREANDMOREINTERDEPENDENTINTHISGLOBALENVIRONMENTANDWITHCHINA’SOPENANDREFORMPOLICIES,INRECENTYEARS,CHINAHASMADEGREATEFFORTSFOR“LETTINGTHEWORLDKNOWCHINABETTERANDLETTINGCHINAKNOWTHEWORLDBETTER”SHANGHAIASALARGEMETROPOLIS,NATURALLYEXHIBITSMUCHENTHUSIASMINSUCHEFFORTSTHEMEDIAFORMIMPORTANTCHANNELSFORFULFILLINGTHISOBJECTIVETHISPAPERSTUDIESTHECURRENTMEDIALANDSCAPEINSHANGHAIASWAVESOFGLOBALIZATIONLAPTHECULTURALSEASHORESOFVARIOUSCOUNTRIES,WITHSPECIALEMPHASISONTHEISSUEOFTHEMEDIAASCHANNELSFORIMPROVINGMUTUALUNDERSTANDINGBETWEENCHINASHANGHAIINPARTICULARANDTHERESTOFTHEWORLDFURTHERMORE,ITEXPLORESTHEWAYSFORBETTERACHIEVINGTHISGOALKEYWORDSGLOBALIZATIONMEDIADEVELOPMENTMUTUALUNDERSTANDINGIGLOBALIZATIONANDGLOBALCOMMUNICATIONINRECENTYEARS,GLOBALIZATIONHASBECOMEABUZZWORDWITHFREQUENTAPPEARANCEINTHEMEDIA,ANDHASRECEIVEDMUCHACADEMICATTENTIONINVARIOUSFIELDSTHEFIELDOFCOMMUNICATIONSTUDIESISNOEXCEPTIONARECENTSEARCHBYTHEWRITERON“GOOGLECOM”BYENTERINGTHEWORDS“GLOBALIZATIONANDMEDIA”LEDTOTHELINKSTO576ITEMSINTHEDISCOURSEOFGLOBALIZATION,THEREDOESNOTSEEMTOBEAGENERALLYACCEPTEDDEFINITIONOFTHETERMONDIFFERENTOCCASIONSGLOBALIZATIONISVIEWEDASTHEFREEWORLDWIDEFLOWOFTHEELEMENTSANDRESOURCESOFPRODUCTION,ORAS“STATELESS”OR“BORDERLESS”ECONOMY,ORASTHEECONOMIC,POLITICALANDCULTURALINTEGRATIONOFTHEWHOLEWORLD,ORASWESTERNIZATIONOPINIONSONWHATWILLBEBROUGHTBYGLOBALIZATIONAREDIVIDEDASWELLWHILESOMEPEOPLETENDTOTHINKTHATGLOBALIZATIONWILLBRINGPROSPERITYANDPROGRESSTOTHEWHOLEWORLD,OTHERSWORRYTHATITMAYBRINGPOVERTYANDCULTURALDISASTERTOTHEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESREGARDLESSOFTHEDIFFERENTVIEWSANDCONCEPTIONSOFGLOBALIZATION,THEFACTREMAINSTHATNOWADAYS,CAPITAL,COMMODITIES,TECHNOLOGIES,SERVICESANDSOONCANFLOWACROSSNATIONALBOUNDARIESWITHINCREASINGSPEEDANDEASE,TRANSNATIONALCORPORATIONSHAVEGLOBALOPERATIONS,ANDNATIONSARENOWMOREANDMOREECONOMICALLYINTERDEPENDENTAND“GLOBALIZATION”APPEARSTOBEACONVENIENTTERMFORLABELINGSUCHAPHENOMENONANDTHEPROCESSINWHICHTHISPHENOMENONISGROWINGINPROMINENCETHUS,ITISNOWONDERTHAT“GLOBALIZATION”ISCAUSINGMUCHDISCUSSIONEVENBEFORETHETERM“GLOBALIZATION”ENTEREDTHEACADEMICASWELLASPOPULARVOCABULARYINTHE1990S,TRANSNATIONALCORPORATIONSANDGLOBALOPERATIONSINVARIOUSINDUSTRIESHADEXISTEDANDFORMEDANIMPORTANTTOPICFORACADEMICSTUDIES“GLOBALIZATION”INEVITABLYCARRIESWITHITRELATEDPROBLEMS,ESPECIALLYPROBLEMSOFIMBALANCEININTERNATIONALTRADEANDSOONINTHEWORLDWHEREDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESANDREGIONSEXHIBITDIFFERENTLEVELSOFECONOMICANDTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTANDHAVEDIFFERENTOVERALLSTRENGTHS,SUCHIMBALANCEEASILYOCCURSANDHASAROUSEDALOTOFCONCERNSINTHEFIELDOFCOMMUNICATION,THEPHENOMENONOFTHETRADINGOFMEDIAPRODUCTSINTHEINTERNATIONALMARKETSHADLONGBEENATOPICOFMUCHSTUDYIN1983,FOREXAMPLE,HAMELINKSHOWEDHISCONCERNOVERTHECULTURALAUTONOMYOFTHEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESINGLOBALCOMMUNICATIONHAMELINK,C,1983;MATTELARTDISCUSSEDTHEEXTREMELYLARGEMARKETSHARESHELDBYTHETRANSNATIONALGIANTSINTHEGLOBALCOMMUNICATIONMARKETSMATTELART,A,1983FORANOTHEREXAMPLE,MCPHAILIN1985DISCUSSEDELECTRONICIMPERIALISMMCPHAIL,T,1985;HERBERTSCHILLERIN1984LASHEDATTHESPREADOFCONSUMERISTVALUESBYTHETRANSNATIONALMEDIACORPORATIONSSCHILLER,H,1984ACADEMICATTENTIONTOGLOBALCOMMUNICATIONANDRELATEDISSUESHASCONTINUEDTHROUGHOUTTHE1990SANDUPTILLNOWAMIDSTVARIOUSCOMMENTS,THETRENDOFGLOBALIZATIONHASPERSISTEDANDSINCETHE1990S,THISTRENDHASBEENUNFOLDINGITSELFINMULTIPLEDIMENSIONSWITHGREATERMOMENTUMTHANBEFOREINTODAY’SCOMMUNICATIONLANDSCAPE,WESEEMEDIASYSTEMSDAILYPOURINGLARGENUMBEROFMESSAGESINTOTHEWORLD;WEFINDTRANSBORDERINFORMATIONFLOWSINCREASINGEXPONENTIALLY;WEPERCEIVEMEDIAPRODUCTSBEINGTRADEDINTHEINTERNATIONALMARKETSWITHTRANSNATIONALMEDIAGIANTSDOMINATINGSUCHTRADEGLOBALCOMMUNICATION,THOUGHCERTAINLYWITHITSPROBLEMS,HASBECOMEANINCREASINGLYPROMINENTPHENOMENONINTHEWORLDTODAYTHISCONSTITUTESTHEBROAD,INTERNATIONALENVIRONMENTINWHICHCURRENTMEDIADEVELOPMENTINSHANGHAITAKESPLACEIICURRENTMEDIALANDSCAPEINSHANGHAIWITHCHINA’SOPENANDREFORMPOLICIES,MEDIAINDUSTRIESINCHINAHAVEGROWNRAPIDLYINRECENTYEARSINSHANGHAI,MEDIADEVELOPMENTISREFLECTED,AMONGOTHERTHINGS,INTHEINCREASEDEFFORTSINCOMMUNICATINGTOFOREIGNAUDIENCESANDINCARRYINGOUTCOOPERATIONANDEXCHANGESWITHFOREIGNMEDIACOMPANIESASWELLASINTHEINCREASEDNUMBEROFNEWSPAPERSANDMAGAZINESPUBLISHED,THEINCREASEDSIZEOFTHENEWSPAPERSEG,THESIZEOFTHEPOPULAREVENINGNEWSPAPERXINMINEVENINGNEWSHASGROWNFROM4PAGESTO8PAGES,THENTO16PAGESANDTHENAGAINTO32PAGES,INCREASEDBROADCASTINGHOURS,ANDGROWINGDIVERSITYINMEDIACONTENTSTATISTICSOFFEREDBYCHINAJOURNALISMYEARBOOK1998INDICATETHATIN1997SHANGHAIPUBLISHED80NEWSPAPERS,INCLUDINGTHEENGLISHLANGUAGENEWSPAPERSHANGHAISTARANEWSPAPERRUNBYCHINADAILY’SSHANGHAIOFFICEXINMINEVENINGNEWS,WHICHESTABLISHEDANOFFICEINTHEUNITEDSTATESIN1996,BEGANTOEXTENDTHEDISTRIBUTIONSOFITSUSEDITIONTOCANADAASWELLIN1997ALTOGETHER,THECITYPUBLISHED1934BILLIONCOPIESOFNEWSPAPERSTHATYEAR,SHOWINGA22INCREASEOVERTHATOFTHEPREVIOUSYEARSOFARASBROADCASTINGHOURSARECONCERNED,IN1997,SHANGHAI’STHREETVSTATIONS,IE,SHANGHAITV,ORIENTALTVANDSHANGHAIEDUCATIONTVSTATIONSHADAWEEKLYBROADCASTINGTIMEOF389HOURS,ANDSHANGHAICABLETVSTATIONHADANAVERAGEWEEKLYBROADCASTINGTIMEOF605HOURSREACHING2,200,000HOUSEHOLDS;BOTHSHOWINGSOMEINCREASEOVERTHATOFHEPREVIOUSYEARSTARTINGFROMFEB1997,PROGRAMSOFSHANGHAITVWEREBROUGHTTOTHEINTERNETTHESTATION’SENGLISHBROADCASTINGSERVICEESTABLISHEDSOMECOOPERATIVERELATIONSHIPWITHCNNINTHEUNITEDSATES,ANDAFEWDOZENSOFENGLISHLANGUAGEFEATUREPROGRAMSONCHINAWEREBROADCASTTHROUGHCNN’SGLOBALSATELLITETVNETWORK1FIVEYEARSLATER,IN2002,SHANGHAI’SMEDIAHADFURTHERDEVELOPEDTHEFOLLOWINGSTATISTICSCOMEFROMTHEOFFICIALWEBSITEOFSHANGHAISTATISTICSBUREAUTVANDRADIOSTATIONSINSHANGHAIANDTHEIROPERATIONS(2002)2HTTP//WWWSTATSSHGOVCN/2003SHTJ/TJNJ/2003TJNJ/TABLES/1724HTMNUMBEROFPERIODICALSPUBLISHEDINSHANGHAI(2002)3HTTP//WWWSTATSSHGOVCN/2003SHTJ/TJNJ/2003TJNJ/TABLES/1736HTMNEWSPAPERSPUBLISHEDINSHANGHAI20024HTTP//WWWSTATSSHGOVCN/2003SHTJ/TJNJ/2003TJNJ/TABLES/1737HTMCOMPAREDWITHTHECASEIN1997,THE2002STATISTICSSHOWTREMENDOUSGROWTHINTHENUMBEROFNEWSPAPERSPUBLISHEDINSHANGHAIANDTHEWEEKLYBROADCASTINGTIMEBYSHANGHAI’STVSTATIONSBESIDESPRINTANDBROADCASTINGMEDIA,SHANGHAIHASALSOESTABLISHEDMANYMEDIAWEBSITE,AMONGWHICHEASTDAYCOMISJOINTLYESTABLISHEDBY10MAJORMEDIAINSTITUTIONSINSHANGHAIITHASBEENOPERATINGSINCEMAY28,2000INADDITION,SHANGHAICURRENTLYHASTHREEMEDIAGROUPSTHEWENHUI-XINMINUNITEDPRESSGROUP,THEJIEFANGDAILYGROUPANDSHANGHAIMEDIAENTERTAINMENTGROUPBESIDES,WITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSATELLITETVNETWORK,PROGRAMSOFTHESATELLITECHANNELSOF11PROVINCES,MUNICIPALITIESANDAUTONOMOUSREGIONSOFCHINAARENOWAVAILABLETOAUDIENCEINSHANGHAIAPARTFROMTHEABOVELISTEDMEDIAINSTITUTIONS,MANYWELLKNOWNFOREIGNMEDIACORPORATIONSHAVESETUPTHEIRSHANGHAIOFFICESINRECENTYEARSTHEWRITER’SSURFINGONTHENETFINDSTHATTHEOFFICIALWEBSITEOFTHEFOREIGNAFFAIRSOFFICEOFSHANGHAIMUNICIPALGOVERNMENTLISTS51FOREIGNMEDIAORGANIZATIONSTHATHAVESETUPTHEIRSHANGHAIOFFICES,INCLUDINGTHEUSBASEDNEWYORKTIMES,WASHINGTONPOST,LOSANGELESTIMES,DOWJONESNEWSWIRES,ASIANWALLSTREETJOURNAL,NEWSWEEK,TIME,BUSINESSWEEK,FAREASTERNECONOMICREVIEWANDSOON,THEUKBASEDFINANCIALTIMES,BBC,REUTERSANDNETWORKPHOTOGRAPHERS,THEJAPANBASEDNHK,NKHONKEIZAISHIMBUNANDSOON,ANDSOMEMEDIAORGANIZATIONSFROMBELGIUM,GERMANY,RUSSIA,FRANCE,FINLAND,SOUTHKOREA,THENETHERLANDS,SWITZERLANDANDSINGAPOREWITHTHEIROPERATIONSINMAINLANDCHINA,THESESHANGHAIOFFICESOFFOREIGNMEDIAMAYBEDESCRIBEDASONESPECIALSCENEINSHANGHAI’SMEDIALANDSCAPETHEWEBSITEALSOMENTIONS,BESIDESTHESEFOREIGNMEDIA,THESOUTHCHINAMORNINGPOSTOFCHINA’SHONGKONGSPECIALADMINISTRATIVEZONE,WHICHALSOHASASHANGHAIOFFICESHANGHAIHASSTRENGTHENEDITSEFFORTSFORINTERNATIONALCOOPERATIONANDINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATIONNEWSPAPERSCURRENTLYPUBLISHEDINSHANGHAIINCLUDETHEENGLISHLANGUAGESHANGHAIDAILYLOCALENGLISHLANGUAGENEWSPAPEROFSHANGHAIOFFICIALLYLAUNCHEDINSEPT2001ANDSHANGHAISTARTHEYHAVETHEIRWEBSITESASWELL,THUSMAKINGUSEOFTHEINTERNETFORREACHINGPOTENTIALINTERNATIONALAUDIENCEINVARIOUSPARTSOFTHEWORLDSHANGHAI’SBROADCASTINGMEDIAALSOHAVEENGLISHLANGUAGENEWSSERVICESFOREXAMPLE,THEORIENTALBROADCASTINGNETWORKSATELLITETVAIRSTHEENGLISHNEWSPROGRAM“NEWSATTEN”,SHANGHAITVSTATION’SFINANCIALCHANNELBROADCASTS“SHANGHAINOON”ASWELLAS“NEWSATTEN”ASSHANGHAI’SBROADCASTINGMEDIAHAVEESTABLISHEDTHEIRWEBSITES,SUCHPROGRAMSAREALSOAVAILABLETOPOTENTIALWORLDWIDEAUDIENCEINTERNATIONALCOOPERATIONISINCREASINGFORSHANGHAI’SMEDIAINDUSTRIESINDEC2001,SHANGHAIBROADCASTINGNETWORKNOWCALLEDORIENTALBROADCASTINGNETWORKREACHEDANAGREEMENTWITHTHEJAPANESETVCOMPANYSTVJAPANFORTELECASTINGINJAPANPROGRAMSOFSHANGHAIBROADCASTINGNETWORKACCORDINGTOTHEAGREEMENTBETWEENTHETWOSIDES,STVJAPANISRESPONSIBLEFORTHETRANSMISSIONOFTHEPROGRAMSOFSHANGHAIBROADCASTINGNETWORKTHETARGETAUDIENCECONSISTSOFCHINESELIVINGINJAPANANDORDINARYJAPANESEWITHBUSINESSRELATIONSWITHCHINAORFEELINGINTERESTEDINCHINA’SAFFAIRS5AFTERSHANGHAIMEDIAANDENTERTAINMENTGROUPSMG,ALARGEMEDIAGROUPFORTHEBROADCASTINGANDFILMINDUSTRIESINSHANGHAI,WASFOUNDEDIN2001,ITHASENTHUSIASTICALLYPROMOTEDINTERNATIONALEXCHANGESBETWEENSHANGHAI’SBROADCASTINGMEDIAANDFOREIGNBROADCASTERSINAPRILTHISYEAR2003,SMGANDCNBCASIAPACIFIC,AWORLDRENOWNEDBUSINESSANDFINANCIALNEWSSERVICEORGANIZATIONHEADQUARTEREDINSINGAPOREWITHITSCHANNELSAVAILABLEINMORETHAN25MILLIONHOMESACROSSTHEASIAPACIFICREGION,SIGNEDANAGREEMENTTOSETUPASTRATEGICPARTNERSHIPACCORDINGTOTHEAGREEMENT,SMGWILLPROVIDECHINESEBUSINESSNEWSFORCNBCSTELEVISIONNETWORK,WHILECNBCWILLPROVIDEINTERNATIONALBUSINESSNEWSFORTHEFINANCIALCHANNELOFTHESHANGHAITVSTATIONUNDERSMGSTARTINGFROMAPRIL14THISYEAR,SHANGHAITVSTATIONHASBEENPRODUCINGTWODAILYNEWSPROGRAMSFORCNBCVIACONNECTIONTHROUGHSATELLITELINKS,THESETWOBRIEFCHINESEBUSINESSANDFINANCENEWSPROGRAMSAREBROADCASTONTHETVNETWORKOFCNBCASIAPACIFICMOREOVER,INLINEWITHTHEAGREEMENT,SMGHASBEENAIRINGACNBCPROGRAMABOUTMANAGERSINASIAONSHANGHAITV’SFINANCIALCHANNELBOTHSMGANDCNBCASIAPACIFICSETGREATSTOREBYTHEPARTNERSHIPLI,RUIGANG,PRESIDENTOFTHESHANGHAIMEDIAANDENTERTAINMENTGROUP,WHICHCONSISTSOFTVSTATIONS,RADIOSTATIONS,NEWSPAPERSANDWEBSITESANDSOON,REMARKSTHATTHISWILLBEA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