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新闻传播学论文-Current Shanghai Media Landscape in the Age of Globalization.doc

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新闻传播学论文-Current Shanghai Media Landscape in the Age of Globalization.doc

新闻传播学论文CurrentShanghaiMediaLandscapeintheAgeofGlobalization(Abstract)IntheageofGlobalization,informationflow,likecapitalflowandcommodityflow,takesplaceincreasinglyatthegloballevel.Ascrossborderoperationsofvariousindustries,includingmediaindustries,becomeincreasinglyfrequent,nationsbecomemoreandmoreinterdependent.InthisglobalenvironmentandwithChinasopenandreformpolicies,inrecentyears,ChinahasmadegreateffortsforlettingtheworldknowChinabetterandlettingChinaknowtheworldbetter.Shanghaiasalargemetropolis,naturallyexhibitsmuchenthusiasminsuchefforts.Themediaformimportantchannelsforfulfillingthisobjective.ThispaperstudiesthecurrentmedialandscapeinShanghaiaswavesofglobalizationlaptheculturalseashoresofvariouscountries,withspecialemphasisontheissueofthemediaaschannelsforimprovingmutualunderstandingbetweenChinaShanghaiinparticularandtherestoftheworld.Furthermore,itexploresthewaysforbetterachievingthisgoal.KeywordsglobalizationmediadevelopmentmutualunderstandingI.GlobalizationandGlobalCommunicationInrecentyears,globalizationhasbecomeabuzzwordwithfrequentappearanceinthemedia,andhasreceivedmuchacademicattentioninvariousfields.Thefieldofcommunicationstudiesisnoexception.ArecentsearchbythewriteronGoogle.combyenteringthewordsglobalizationandmedialedtothelinksto576items.Inthediscourseofglobalization,theredoesnotseemtobeagenerallyaccepteddefinitionoftheterm.Ondifferentoccasionsglobalizationisviewedasthefreeworldwideflowoftheelementsandresourcesofproduction,orasstatelessorborderlesseconomy,orastheeconomic,politicalandculturalintegrationofthewholeworld,orasWesternizationOpinionsonwhatwillbebroughtbyglobalizationaredividedaswell.Whilesomepeopletendtothinkthatglobalizationwillbringprosperityandprogresstothewholeworld,othersworrythatitmaybringpovertyandculturaldisastertothedevelopingcountries.Regardlessofthedifferentviewsandconceptionsofglobalization,thefactremainsthatnowadays,capital,commodities,technologies,servicesandsooncanflowacrossnationalboundarieswithincreasingspeedandease,transnationalcorporationshaveglobaloperations,andnationsarenowmoreandmoreeconomicallyinterdependent.Andglobalizationappearstobeaconvenienttermforlabelingsuchaphenomenonandtheprocessinwhichthisphenomenonisgrowinginprominence.Thus,itisnowonderthatglobalizationiscausingmuchdiscussion.Evenbeforethetermglobalizationenteredtheacademicaswellaspopularvocabularyinthe1990s,transnationalcorporationsandglobaloperationsinvariousindustrieshadexistedandformedanimportanttopicforacademicstudies.Globalizationinevitablycarrieswithitrelatedproblems,especiallyproblemsofimbalanceininternationaltradeandsoon.Intheworldwheredifferentcountriesandregionsexhibitdifferentlevelsofeconomicandtechnologicaldevelopmentandhavedifferentoverallstrengths,suchimbalanceeasilyoccursandhasarousedalotofconcerns.Inthefieldofcommunication,thephenomenonofthetradingofmediaproductsintheinternationalmarketshadlongbeenatopicofmuchstudy.In1983,forexample,HamelinkshowedhisconcernovertheculturalautonomyofthedevelopingcountriesinglobalcommunicationHamelink,C.,1983MattelartdiscussedtheextremelylargemarketsharesheldbythetransnationalgiantsintheglobalcommunicationmarketsMattelart,A.,1983.Foranotherexample,McPhailin1985discussedelectronicimperialismMcPhail,T.,1985HerbertSchillerin1984lashedatthespreadofconsumeristvaluesbythetransnationalmediacorporationsSchiller,H.,1984Academicattentiontoglobalcommunicationandrelatedissueshascontinuedthroughoutthe1990sanduptillnow.Amidstvariouscomments,thetrendofglobalizationhaspersisted.Andsincethe1990s,thistrendhasbeenunfoldingitselfinmultipledimensionswithgreatermomentumthanbefore.Intodayscommunicationlandscape,weseemediasystemsdailypouringlargenumberofmessagesintotheworldwefindtransborderinformationflowsincreasingexponentiallyweperceivemediaproductsbeingtradedintheinternationalmarketswithtransnationalmediagiantsdominatingsuchtrade.Globalcommunication,thoughcertainlywithitsproblems,hasbecomeanincreasinglyprominentphenomenonintheworldtoday.Thisconstitutesthebroad,internationalenvironmentinwhichcurrentmediadevelopmentinShanghaitakesplace.II.CurrentMediaLandscapeinShanghaiWithChinasopenandreformpolicies,mediaindustriesinChinahavegrownrapidlyinrecentyears.InShanghai,mediadevelopmentisreflected,amongotherthings,intheincreasedeffortsincommunicatingtoforeignaudiencesandincarryingoutcooperationandexchangeswithforeignmediacompaniesaswellasintheincreasednumberofnewspapersandmagazinespublished,theincreasedsizeofthenewspaperse.g.,thesizeofthepopulareveningnewspaperXinminEveningNewshasgrownfrom4pagesto8pages,thento16pagesandthenagainto32pages,increasedbroadcastinghours,andgrowingdiversityinmediacontent.StatisticsofferedbyChinaJournalismYearbook1998indicatethatin1997Shanghaipublished80newspapers,includingtheEnglishlanguagenewspaperShanghaiStaranewspaperrunbyChinaDailysShanghaioffice.XinminEveningNews,whichestablishedanofficeintheUnitedStatesin1996,begantoextendthedistributionsofitsUSeditiontoCanadaaswellin1997.Altogether,thecitypublished1.934billioncopiesofnewspapersthatyear,showinga2.2increaseoverthatofthepreviousyear.Sofarasbroadcastinghoursareconcerned,in1997,ShanghaisthreeTVstations,i.e.,ShanghaiTV,OrientalTVandShanghaiEducationTVstationshadaweeklybroadcastingtimeof389hours,andShanghaiCableTVStationhadanaverageweeklybroadcastingtimeof605hoursreaching2,200,000householdsbothshowingsomeincreaseoverthatofhepreviousyear.StartingfromFeb.1997,programsofShanghaiTVwerebroughttotheInternet.ThestationsEnglishbroadcastingserviceestablishedsomecooperativerelationshipwithCNNintheUnitedSates,andafewdozensofEnglishlanguagefeatureprogramsonChinawerebroadcastthroughCNNsglobalsatelliteTVnetwork.1Fiveyearslater,in2002,Shanghaismediahadfurtherdeveloped.ThefollowingstatisticscomefromtheofficialwebsiteofShanghaiStatisticsBureauTVandRadioStationsinShanghaiandTheirOperations(2002)2http//www.statssh.gov.cn/2003shtj/tjnj/2003tjnj/tables/1724htmNumberofPeriodicalsPublishedinShanghai(2002)3http//www.statssh.gov.cn/2003shtj/tjnj/2003tjnj/tables/1736htmNewspapersPublishedinShanghai20024http//www.statssh.gov.cn/2003shtj/tjnj/2003tjnj/tables/1737htmComparedwiththecasein1997,the2002statisticsshowtremendousgrowthinthenumberofnewspaperspublishedinShanghaiandtheweeklybroadcastingtimebyShanghaisTVstations.Besidesprintandbroadcastingmedia,Shanghaihasalsoestablishedmanymediawebsite,amongwhichEastday.comisjointlyestablishedby10majormediainstitutionsinShanghai.IthasbeenoperatingsinceMay28,2000.Inaddition,ShanghaicurrentlyhasthreemediagroupstheWenhui-XinminUnitedPressGroup,theJiefangDailyGroupandShanghaiMediaEntertainmentGroup.Besides,withthedevelopmentofsatelliteTVnetwork,programsofthesatellitechannelsof11provinces,municipalitiesandautonomousregionsofChinaarenowavailabletoaudienceinShanghai.Apartfromtheabovelistedmediainstitutions,manywellknownforeignmediacorporationshavesetuptheirShanghaiofficesinrecentyears.ThewriterssurfingontheNetfindsthattheofficialwebsiteoftheForeignAffairsOfficeofShanghaiMunicipalGovernmentlists51foreignmediaorganizationsthathavesetuptheirShanghaioffices,includingtheUSbasedNewYorkTimes,WashingtonPost,LosAngelesTimes,DowJonesNewswires,AsianWallStreetJournal,Newsweek,Time,BusinessWeek,FarEasternEconomicReviewandsoon,theUKbasedFinancialTimes,BBC,ReutersandNetworkPhotographers,theJapanbasedNHK,NkhonKeizaiShimbunandsoon,andsomemediaorganizationsfromBelgium,Germany,Russia,France,Finland,SouthKorea,theNetherlands,SwitzerlandandSingapore.WiththeiroperationsinMainlandChina,theseShanghaiofficesofforeignmediamaybedescribedasonespecialsceneinShanghaismedialandscape.Thewebsitealsomentions,besidestheseforeignmedia,theSouthChinaMorningPostofChinasHongKongSpecialAdministrativeZone,whichalsohasaShanghaiOffice.Shanghaihasstrengtheneditseffortsforinternationalcooperationandinternationalcommunication.NewspaperscurrentlypublishedinShanghaiincludetheEnglishlanguageShanghaiDailylocalEnglishlanguagenewspaperofShanghaiofficiallylaunchedinSept.2001andShanghaiStar.Theyhavetheirwebsitesaswell,thusmakinguseoftheInternetforreachingpotentialinternationalaudienceinvariouspartsoftheworld.ShanghaisbroadcastingmediaalsohaveEnglishlanguagenewsservices.Forexample,theOrientalBroadcastingNetworksatelliteTVairstheEnglishnewsprogramNewsatTen,ShanghaiTVStationsfinancialchannelbroadcastsShanghaiNoonaswellasNewsatTen.AsShanghaisbroadcastingmediahaveestablishedtheirwebsites,suchprogramsarealsoavailabletopotentialworldwideaudience.InternationalcooperationisincreasingforShanghaismediaindustries.InDec.2001,ShanghaiBroadcastingNetworknowcalledOrientalBroadcastingNetworkreachedanagreementwiththeJapaneseTVcompanySTVJapanfortelecastinginJapanprogramsofShanghaiBroadcastingNetwork.Accordingtotheagreementbetweenthetwosides,STVJapanisresponsibleforthetransmissionoftheprogramsofShanghaiBroadcastingNetwork.ThetargetaudienceconsistsofChineselivinginJapanandordinaryJapanesewithbusinessrelationswithChinaorfeelinginterestedinChinasaffairs.5AfterShanghaiMediaandEntertainmentGroupSMG,alargemediagroupforthebroadcastingandfilmindustriesinShanghai,wasfoundedin2001,ithasenthusiasticallypromotedinternationalexchangesbetweenShanghaisbroadcastingmediaandforeignbroadcasters.InAprilthisyear2003,SMGandCNBCAsiaPacific,aworldrenownedbusinessandfinancialnewsserviceorganizationheadquarteredinSingaporewithitschannelsavailableinmorethan25millionhomesacrosstheAsiaPacificregion,signedanagreementtosetupastrategicpartnership.Accordingtotheagreement,SMGwillprovideChinesebusinessnewsforCNBCstelevisionnetwork,whileCNBCwillprovideinternationalbusinessnewsforthefinancialchanneloftheShanghaiTVStationunderSMG.StartingfromApril14thisyear,ShanghaiTVStationhasbeenproducingtwodailynewsprogramsforCNBC.Viaconnectionthroughsatellitelinks,thesetwobriefChinesebusinessandfinancenewsprogramsarebroadcastontheTVnetworkofCNBCAsiaPacific.Moreover,inlinewiththeagreement,SMGhasbeenairingaCNBCprogramaboutmanagersinAsiaonShanghaiTVsfinancialchannel.BothSMGandCNBCAsiaPacificsetgreatstorebythepartnership.Li,Ruigang,presidentoftheShanghaiMediaandEntertainmentGroup,whichconsistsofTVstations,radiostations,newspapersandwebsitesandsoon,remarksthatthiswillbeawinwinsituationforthetwosides,andAlexanderBrown,presidentandchiefexecutiveofficerofCNBCAsiaPacificpointsoutthatChinaisthemostdynamicmarketintheAsiaPacificregion.6Mr.Wang,LijunfromShanghaiTVsfinancialchannel,oneoftheleadingfiguresofthiscooperativeproject,holdsthatthroughitsstrategicpartnershipwithCNBCAsiaPacific,SMGhasacquiredaplatformforbroadcastingnews

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