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新闻传播学论文-ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICAL CONSERVATISMAS REFLECTED IN CHINA’S MEDIA DEVELOPMENT(1978 - PRESENT).doc

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新闻传播学论文-ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICAL CONSERVATISMAS REFLECTED IN CHINA’S MEDIA DEVELOPMENT(1978 - PRESENT).doc

新闻传播学论文ECONOMICLIBERALIZATIONANDPOLITICALCONSERVATISMASREFLECTEDINCHINASMEDIADEVELOPMENT1978PRESENTINTRDOCTIONDuringthepast20years,Chinahasbeenundergoingthegreatestchangesinitshistory,earmarkedbyrapideconomicgrowth.In1997,theannualincomeofChineseresidentsreachedanaverageequivalenceof660USdollars,anannualincreaseofabouteighttimesthanthatin1990Xie,1998.Theincrease,thoughlowascomparedwiththewesternstandard,isremarkableconsideringthefactthatChinahasalargepopulationbaseofmorethan1.2billion.Therapideconomicgrowthhasnotonlyboostedthewholenationbutpromotedthedevelopmentofitsmediasystemaswell.In1978,Chinahadonly32televisionstationsand93radiostationsChan,1994thenumberhasjumpedto2,000and1,416respectivelyin1997whiletheregularaudiencesizehasincreasedfrom36.1in1980to84.2in1996forradioand30in1980to86.3in1996fortelevisionXie,1998.ThenumberofnewspapersinChinahasalsorisenfrom186in1978to2,163in1996,anincreaseofalmost12times,whilejournalshavealsoflourishedinChina,withitsnumberexpectedtobe930in1978upto8,135in1997.Advertising,onceconsideredthecapitalisttaboo,hasalsoseenfastdevelopmentduringthisperiod.Sinceitsdebutin1979,thetotaladincomeoftheabovefourmediahasbeenincreasingatarateoftentimeseveryfiveyears,reaching18.28billionRMByuanin1996.Xie,1998.ThischapteraimstodiscussthemediadevelopmentinChinasince1978topresent,whichcanbedividedintotwoperiods,characterizedbyacombinationofeconomicliberalizationandpoliticalconservatism.IntheFirstPeriod19781990,despitethebackandforwardswings,mediadevelopmentinChinahasbeenconsistent.IntheSecondPeriod1991presentwhenthemarketeconomyconceptgainedrecognition,thecompetitiveconsciousnesshasbecomedominantamongtheChinasmediasystem,whichhasbroughtaboutchangesunprecedentedinthe5,000yearsofChina.ThemediadevelopmentinShanghai,thedragonheadofChina,hasbeentakenasashowcase,todiscussthetrendsinthemediadevelopmentandtheimpactofeconomicmomentumandpoliticalorientationinthewholeprocess.BACKBROUNDPolitically,themediainChinastillremaininaCommunistConceptMerrill,1983asdefinedinthetraditionalFourTheoriesofPress.TheChinesemedia,ownedandoperatedbytheState,areregardedastheorgansoftheCommunistPartyofChinaandthegovernment,notthewatchdogofthegovernmentasisthecaseintheU.S.Streitmatter,1994.ThefreedomofpressintheWesternsense,thoughtdiscussedalotrecently,isstillparticlesintheair,somethingthatisyettocomeLee,1990.However,intermsofitseconomy,themediadonotfitintotheCommunistConceptonlyanymore.TheymayfallmorecoherentlyintotheDevelopmentConcept,acombinationoftheAuthoritarianandCommunisttheoriesStevenson,1994.ThistendencyhasbecomemoreobviousintheSecondPeriod1991presentwhenthemediainChinaareendowedwithakindofdualfunctionscontinuetobethevoiceofthegovernmentthepoliticalconservatismwhilebecomingthevoiceofthemarketplaceaswelleconomicliberalization.Whileitistruethatthegovernmentstillexercisescontroloverthemediasystem,anotiontowhichmostwesternerswouldobject,thecontrolitselfdoesnotnecessarymeanthestagnationofthemediasystemitself.Infact,reasonablecontrolcanencouragethedevelopmentofthemediasystemXie1998,ashasbeendemonstratedbythepracticeofChinainthepast20years.FIRSTPERIODWITHTHREEPHASES19781990MediadevelopmentinChinaintheFirstPeriodfrom1978to1990canfurtherbediscussedinthreephasesfeaturedbypoliticalcampaignswhichaimedtoreininmediadevelopment,thussignalingtheendofeachphase,butlaidthefoundationforthemediadevelopmentinthefollowingphase.Thefirstphasebeganin1978andendedin1984whenthecampaignagainstSpiritualPollutionstarted.Thesecondphaselastedfrom1985to1986whenthebrakewasappliedduringthecampaignagainstBourgeoisLiberalization.Thethirdphasereacheditsclimaxin1989whenthegovernmentcrackeddownonthestudentsmovementandfoughtagainstpeacefulevolutionbyWesterncountriesChu,1994.Thoughintendedtoreininthemedia,eachofthesepoliticalcampaignshasstimulatedratherthansuppressedthemediadevelopmentineachphase.Infact,mediadevelopmentwasacceleratedonanescalatingscaleineachphaseandusuallywascoupledwithrenewedemphasisintheliberalizationprocess.FirstPhase197884Theyearof1978isawatershedforChinesepoliticsandmediadevelopmentLee,1994.Astrategicshiftwasproclaimedasthenationbegantoadoptanopenandreformpolicythataimedtomodernizethecountry.OneimmediateanddramaticmediachangewastheeliminationofthepompousreportingstyleoftheCulturalRevolution19661976,summedupinthephrasefalsehood,exaggeration,andemptytalkPolumbaum,1990.ChinesemediasuchasthePeoplesDaily,thepartysmouthpiece,calledforshorternewsreportsandamorelivelystylewithtimelinesstocovergrowingeconomicactivities.Theincreasedvolumeofinformationinmediaisanothersignofprogressinthisphase.ThePeoplesDailytooktheleadtoincreaseitspagesfromfourtosixin1978andthentoeightin1980,whilethenumberofmagazinesandnewspapersrosegreatlyfrom1978to1984,asshowninTable1.Table1YearMagazinesTotalPrintedSheets100millionNewspapersTotalPrintedSheets100million197822.7113.5197930.1123.0198036.7141.7198145.4133.6198246.0129.1198352.5142.7198464.3162.3SourceChinaJournalismYearbooksvariousyearsChu,1994Besides,advertisingbegantoappearinChinesemediaforthefirsttimeafterthelongsilenceintheCulturalRevolution,althoughitdidnotgetintofullswinguntilafter1990.ChinasfirstTVad,moreofanannouncementthananad,madeitsdebutinShanghaionJanuary28,1979Guo,1993.Theadforaherbalwinelastedaboutoneminuteand35seconds,toolongbytheWesternnorm,butitrepresentsthestartofChinasTVadindustry.Meanwhile,journalismeducationalsoexpandedrapidlyPolumbaum,1990intheearly1980stomeettheincreasingdemandofmediadevelopmentandtoaccelerateinformationflow,badlyneededfortheeconomicreforms.Thenumberofjournalismteachersandundergraduatestudentsincreasedalmostfourtimesfrom1980to1984whilethenumberofgraduatestudentsremainedthesameGuo,1993.Whatsmore,Chinastartedfiveinternationaljournalismprograms1983whichintegrateEnglishlanguagetrainingintojournalismeducation.ThesixyearprogramsexposedstudentstoawidevarietyofWesternjournalismconceptsundertheirEnglishspeakingjournalismprofessors.TheseopenmindedstudentshavenowconstitutedamajorreformforcetopushforwardmediadevelopmentinChina.SecondPhase198586Followingthecampaignagainstspiritualpollutionin1984,Chinesemediaweresilencedforawhile,especiallyafterthenPartyGeneralSecretaryHUYaobangsspeechin1985,whichemphasizedthemediaroleastheorgansofthegovernmentPolumbaum,1990.However,itseemedthatthepartyleadershiponlypaidlipserviceasitstilltoleratedliberalideasinmediapracticessuchasindependenteditorials.Meanwhile,mediapractitionersaskedforafreehandinthemediacontent,whichwassupportedbythePublicityDepartmentPolumbuam,1990,theChinesecounterpartofU.S.InformationAgency.OnemajortrendtowardliberalizationinthisphasewasaformalrecognitionoftheentertainmentfunctionofmediainthenationsSeventhFiveYearPlan.Thefocusonentertainmentcoincidedwiththerapiddevelopmentoftelevision,apowerfulmediumofentertainment.Infact,televisiondevelopmentandthefocusonentertainmentreinforcedeachotherintheirmutualgrowthduringthisphase.Since1985,entertainmenthasbecomeaninseparablepartofmostChineseTVstations.TVentertainmentprogramsusuallyincludemusic,opera,literature,varietyshows,balladsinging,acrobaticshowsaswellasTVdramas.ForShanghaiTelevisionStation,entertainmentprogramscomprisedover60ofallairtimein1986Guo,1993.Oftheentertainmentfare,TVdramaisthemostpopular.After1983,TVdramas,producedandaired,sawanexponentialspeed.ForeignTVdramasalsobegantoappearonChinesescreens.In1986,theChinesedubbedWaltDisneycartoonseriesMickeyMouseandDonaldDuckbecameanationalfavoriteassoonasitwasbroadcastovertheCentralChinaTelevisionStationCCTV.Infact,foreignTVdramasweregenerallypreferredastherewerefewhighqualitydomesticTVseriesduringthisphase.InanationalsurveybyCCTVin1987,72percentoftherespondentsfavoredforeigndramasYu,1992.In1983,asthenationdecidedtobuildanationwidetelevisionsystembytheendofthiscentury,stateexpendituresontelevisionbegantoincrease.In1985,theexpenditurejumpedto1,780millionyuanover210millionascomparedwith670millionyuan83millionin1980Lee,1994.Thepouringfinancialresourcesledtorapidtelevisiondevelopmentinthisphase.ThenumberofTVstationsin1986wasalmostsixtimesthatin1983whileTVsetownershipper100householdsrosefrom88in1983to103in1986andtheTVaudiencesizeexpandedfrom400millionin1983to580millionin1986Yu,1990.ThirdPhase198790Thisphase,studiedmeticulouslyintheWesternworld,sawthemostdramaticsocialchangesinChina,whichresultedfromthemediadevelopmentitself.Whilemaintainingtheliberalizingtrendsinthefirsttwophases,Chinasmediasysteminthisphasegainedgreatermomentum,tryingtoobtainfreedomofpressandpoliticalindependenceratherthanjustpetitioningforthemintheprevioustwophases.Actionforindependenceanddemocracybecamearealityratherthanjustlipservice.WorldEconomicHerald,startedinShanghaiandbannedin1989,wasconsideredasapioneerintheWestinthisprocessofpeacefulevolution.TherealsoappearedWesternmindedopinionleaderslikeFangLizhiandQinBenliwhowereencouragedbythenPremierZhaoZiyangsworkreportin1987thatdidnotmentionthemediasroleasanofficialmouthpiecePolumbaum,1990.Theresultsreflectedinjournalisticoperationswereamorediversifiedstyleofnewsreportingandagreateropennessaboutinformation.Badnewsandcriticalreportsnegativereports,seldomseensince1957,begantoreappearinthemediaPolumbuam,1990.Inthisperiod,thenegativereportshasalwayscomprisedmorethan10ofthetotalnumberofnewsstoriesforsomemajornewspaperssuchasPeoplesDaily,JiefangDaily,WenhuiDailyandChinaDaily,ChinasonlynationalEnglishlanguagenewspaperGuo,1993.Theincreaseofthenegativereportswastakenasasignonthemediasidetopushformorereformsinthegovernmentworkandtoaskformorefreedomandindependenceintheirmediapractice,which,tosomedegree,ledtothemassivestudentsdemonstrationin1989.

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