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新闻传播学论文-English-Language Media in ChinaDevelopment and Language Style.doc

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新闻传播学论文-English-Language Media in ChinaDevelopment and Language Style.doc

新闻传播学论文EnglishLanguageMediainChinaDevelopmentandLanguageStyleAbstractThispaperdiscussesthedevelopmentandlanguagestyleoftheEnglishlanguagemediainChinasince1978.OnthebasisofextensiveinterviewsamongthechiefexecutivesofalmostallthemajorEnglishlanguagemediainChina,thepaperfirstprovidesanoverallreviewofthedevelopmentoftheEnglishlanguagemediaradio,magazine,newsagency,newspaper,TVandinternetinmainlandChina,whichalsoincludesacasestudyof21stCentury,anEnglishlearningweeklypublishedinBeijing.ThepaperthenturnstoanalyzethelinguisticstyleandtheuseofEnglishovertheEnglishlanguagemediaviaacontentanalysisonthesamplednewsstoriesofChinaDailyfrom1981to1999,firstnationalEnglishlanguagedailyinthecountry.Intheend,thepapermakesanassessmentontheEnglishmediainthenationintermsoftheirdevelopmentpatterns,ownershipandinvestment,rolesandfunctionsaswellasthewrittenstyleofChinaEnglish,asproposedbythetwowriters.IntroductionJustliketheEnglishlanguagemediainHongKongorinanyotherChinesecommunityintheworld,theEnglishlanguagemediainmainlandChinahavealwaysbeenminoritymediaintermsofcirculationandinfluenceintheChinesesocietyChan,2000323.ThemarginalroleoftheEnglishmediainChinaiswelldemonstratedinthefactthatChinahas,asof1999,onlyoneEnglishTVchannelCCTV4,oneEnglishradioservicepartofChinaRadioInternational,CRIandnineEnglishdailiesandweekliesandabouttenEnglishmagazinesestimatebasedonpersonalcommunication,ascomparedwith352ChineseTVstations,299ChineseradiostationsZhao,2000505506and2038ChinesenewspapersChinaJournalismYearbook,2000567.However,despiteitsmarginalrole,theexistenceoftheEnglishmediainChinacanbetracedbackto150yearsagowhenforeignersbegantoestablishforeignlanguagemediainsideChinaHuang,200123.EvenaftertheNorthChinaDailyNewsoneofthemostinfluentialforeignownednewspapersinShanghaileftmainlandChinain1951,RadioPekingnowCRIcontinueditsservicesinforeignlanguagesincludingEnglishHuang,2001278whileEnglishmagazinessuchasBeijingReviewandChinaConstructnowChinaTodaywerepublished.EnglishdailiesandweekliesandtheEnglishTVchanneldidnotemergeuntilafter1978whenChinabegantoopenupandtookonareformpolicytomodernizethenation,duringwhichEnglishlanguagemedia,likeChineselanguagemedia,sawthefastestdevelopmentsince1949andgrewmoreinfluentialeventhoughstilllimited.OnthebasisofextensiveinterviewsamongthechiefexecutivesofalmostallthemajorEnglishlanguagemediainChina,thispaperfirstaimstoprovideanoverallreviewofthedevelopment,basicallyafter1978,oftheEnglishlanguagemediaradio,magazine,newsagency,newspaper,TVandinternetinmainlandChina,whichalsoincludesacasestudyof21stCentury,anEnglishlearningweekly.ThepaperthenturnstoanalyzethelinguisticstyleandtheuseofEnglishovertheEnglishmediaviaacontentanalysisonthesamplednewsstoriesofChinaDailyfrom1981to1999,firstnationalEnglishlanguagedailyinthecountry.Intheend,thepapermakesanassessmentontheEnglishmediainChinaintermsoftheirdevelopmentpatterns,ownershipandinvestment,rolesandfunctionsaswellasthewrittenstyleofChinaEnglish,asproposedbythetwowriters.OneEnglishlanguageMediainChinaReviewForthesakeofeasydiscussionsonthedevelopmentoftheEnglishlanguagemediainChinasince1978,thewritershavedividedtheirdiscussionsontheEnglishmediainChinainrelevancewiththreetraditionalmediaandthenewmediuminternet.BydividingintoRadioEra,NewspaperEra,TelevisionEraandSymbiosisEra,thewritersdonotmaintainthatonemediumcannegateorovershadowothermedia.Infact,thedivisionhasbeenmadesimplytofollowthesequenceofradionewspapertelevisioninternetastheyemergedintheinternationalcommunicationinChina.Inaddition,eventhoughitisextremelynecessary,thewritersdonotmakeclearstartingandendingpointsforeacherabecause,firstofall,itisdifficultandevenimpossibleforthetwowriterstodoso,andsecondlythewritersassumealltheEnglishlanguagemediainChinahave,infact,playedtheirrespectiveanduniquerolesintheprocessofChinasinternationalcommunication.1.RadioEraAlthoughtheinternationalcommunicationinChinainthisEramaybecharacterizedbyradioservices,particularlytheEnglishService,theEnglishlanguagemediacanstillincludeEnglishmagazinesandeventheEnglishnewsreleaseofXinhuaNewsAgency.Itmayincludethemediaorganizationsbothatthecentrallevelandattheregionallevel.1.1RadioInauguratedonDecember3,1943,ChinaRadioInternationalCRI,formerlyRadioBeijinghasinfactbeenthemajorchannelandtheonlyinternationalradioserviceavailableinChinathattargetsforeignlistenersallovertheworld,ZhangZhenhua,formerdirectorofCRI,personalcommunication,2000,particularlywhennewChinawasblockedofffromtheoutsidesince1949byforeigncountriesandlaterbysuchkindofcampaignsastheCulturalRevolution19661976.Nowwithatotaldailyprogrammingof192hoursin43languageswithEnglishandChinesebroadcastglobally,CRIreachesabout240millionlisteners1inmorethan200countriesandregionsthrough10transmittingstationsinChinaandeightrelaystationsinEurope,AfricaandtheAmericas.Intermsofthenumberoflanguagesusedandbroadcasthours,thevolumeoflistenerslettersandtotaltransmissionpower,CRIranksamongthetopintheworldandisoneofthemostinfluentialinternationalbroadcastersintheworld.ItisestimatedthatCRIenjoysmoreinfluenceamongthedevelopingandunderdevelopedcountriesZhang,2001CRIpamphlet.TheCRIsEnglishServicehasalwaysbeenoneofitsmostimportantdivisionswhichwasfoundedonSeptember11,1947andnowoffersover60broadcasthoursperday,withabout60millionoverseaslistenersfrommorethan100countriesandregionsZhang,2001website.TheprogramsoftheEnglishServicearecomprehensive,whichfocusonnews,featuresandmusicprograms,includingpopularprogramssuchasTalktotheMinister,Peopleintheknow,SportsWorld,ChinaHorizons,VoicesfromOtherLands,LifeinChina,ListenersGardenandIntheSpotlight.ItisacknowledgedthattheCRIEnglishServiceisoneoftheworldsmosteffectiveandconvenientmediatolearnaboutChinaandthatCRIsEnglishServicehasbecomeapopularchoiceofdomesticlistenersaswellwhowanttokeepinformedwithcurrentaffairs,learnEnglishandenjoymusicZhang,2001website.AsmoreforeigntouristscametovisitChinaintheearly1990s,regionalEnglishradioservicesalsocameintobeing.OnOctober1,1992,ShanghaiCalling,thefirstregionalEnglishService,wasofficiallylaunchedbyShanghaiPeoplesRadioStation.Atthebeginning,ShanghaiCallingbroadcastforabout12hoursaday,focusingonthelocalnews,weather,musicandservicesforforeignersinthelocalareaZhu,19922.Inthesameyear,RadioGuangdongwasstarted,appealingtothelocalaudienceinthePearlDeltaareainSouthChinaRannyLei,viceheadofInternationalNewsSectionofGuangdongTVStation,personalcommunication,June11,2001.OnMay8,2001,BeijingalsostartedathreehourEnglishserviceknownasTouchEnglish,targetingBeijinglistenerswithlocalnewsandChineseculture,informationabouteasylifeinBeijing.TouchEnglishaimedtocreateabetterlanguageenvironmentinthecapitalandtohelpraisethecurrent15Englishspeakingpopulationto30bytheyear2008,aspartofthebiddingeffortforthe2008OlympicsSinawebsite.However,exceptforTouchEnglishwhichhasjustbeenstartedforthesakeofthe2008Olympics,otherregionalEnglishradioserviceshavebeenshrinkingandarealmostdiminishingtononexistence.ShanghaiCallingceasedbroadcastingin1998andnowonlyrelaystheEnglishbroadcastsofCRIHeGuangyu,deputydirectorofEditorinChiefsOffice,ShanghaiPeoplesRadioStation,personalcommunication,June11,2001.1.2MagazinesBefore1981whenChinaDailywaslaunched,exceptforEnglishradioservices,theonlyotherEnglishmediaavailableinChinaareEnglishmagazinessuchasBeijingReview,ChinaToday,ChinaPictorialandChinaWomen,allsponsoredbysuchBeijingbasedorganizationsasChinaForeignLanguagePublicationAdministrationandAllChinaWomensFederation.ThetotalcirculationofallthemagazinespublishedbytheChinaInternationalPublishingGroupis100,000copiesbothdomesticallyandoverseasJiang,2001.LaunchedonMarch5,1958,BeijingReviewstartedasthefirstmultilingualnewsweeklyinChina,publishedinEnglish,Japanese,French,GermanandSpanish.Sinceearly2001,thefullcolorEnglisheditionwillbetheonlyprintedformofBeijingReview,withallothereditionsbepublishedontheInternetChinaNetWebsite.ChinaTodayisamonthlymagazinepublishedinfivelanguagesincludingEnglish.ThefirstissueofChinaPictorialwaspublishedin1950,andlateChairmanMaoZedonginscribedthetitleforthemagazine.ChinaPictorialisalsoamonthlymagazineandpublishedinChinese,English,French,GermanandSpanish.Duringthepast50years,ChinaPictorialhasmainlyfocusedonchangesinChinathroughtruetolifepicturesandstoriesChinaNetwebsite.WomenofChina,launchedin1956,isacomprehensiveEnglishallcolormonthlyonthelifeofChinesewomen.Inaddition,localEnglishmagazineswerepublishedinbigcitieslikeShanghai.ShanghaiTodayisamonthlythatreportsonthecultureinShanghaiZhangCiyun,editorinchiefofShanghaiDaily,personalcommunication,June11,2001.SomespecializedjournalssuchasChineseMedicalJournalEnglisheditionarealsoavailableinChina.Theyarenormallypublishedbyassociationsofthekinds.Forinstance,ChinaMedicalJournalEnglisheditionispublishedbytheChineseMedicalAssociationMedicalJournalwebsite.1.3EnglishReleaseofXinhuaNewsAgencyAlthoughitisnotamediumdirectlytargetingaudience,theEnglishnewsreleaseofXinhuaNewsAgencyalsoplaysanimportantroleintheinternationalcommunicationinChina.TheEnglishnewsreleaseofXinhuaNewsAgencystartedonSeptember1,1944withastaffofonlythreeJu,199412.NowtheEnglishnewsreleasehasbecomeamajorinformationsourceformediainstitutionsinChinaandintheworldaswell.Itisestimatedin1999thatXinhuanowreleasesmorethan260newsstoriesandtwofeaturestoriesinEnglisheachdaytoabout1,000newsmediainmorethan100countriesGuo,200054.TheEnglishreleaseofXinhuaNewsAgencymaybelargeenoughforanewsagencyinanonnativecountry,butthenewsflowstillcannotbecomparedwiththenewsagenciesinEnglishspeakingcountries.Therefore,itsinfluenceisstilllimitedtosomedegreeYangGuoqiang,headofVIPNewsSectionofXinhua,personalcommunication,2001.2.NewspaperEraBefore1951,ChinahadseveralinfluentialEnglishnewspapers,mostofthemwerelocatedinShanghai,suchasNorthChinaDailyNews,CelestialEmpireandShanghaiMercury.Butduringthenextthirtyyears,theexistenceofEnglishnewspaperswasvirtuallymadeimpossiblebycontinuouspoliticalcampaigns,whichbasicallyisolatedChinafromtherestoftheworld.

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