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新闻传播学论文-INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT PROTECTION.doc

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新闻传播学论文-INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT PROTECTION.doc

新闻传播学论文INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONIINTRODUCTIONACOPYRIGHTISANEXCLUSIVERIGHTCONFERREDBYLAWFORASPECIFIEDPERIODOFTIMETOREPRODUCEANORIGINALLITERARYORARTISTICWORKFIXEDINANYTANGIBLEMEDIUMOFEXPRESSION;TOPREPAREDERIVATIVEWORKSBASEDUPONTHEORIGINALWORK;ANDTOPUBLICLYPERFORMORDISPLAYTHEWORKNETSCAPE1,1995COPYRIGHTPROTECTIONMEANSTHATUSESOFACOPYRIGHTEDWORKARELEGALONLYWITHAUTHORIZATIONFROMTHECOPYRIGHTOWNER,BUTITDOESNOTAPPLYTOANYIDEA,PROCEDUREUSEDINTHECOPYRIGHTEDWORK,ONLYTOANAUTHORSPARTICULAREXPRESSIONOFTHEIDEAORPROCEDUREINATANGIBLEMEDIUMINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONREFERSTOINTERNATIONALRECOGNITIONOFANAUTHORSRIGHTSUNDERCOPYRIGHTINOTHERCOUNTRIESBUTCOPYRIGHTIS,INTRINSICALLY,CREATEDANDENFORCEDBYNATIONALLAWSEVERYCOUNTRYINTHEWORLDHASITSOWNCOPYRIGHTLAWTHATAPPLIESWITHINITSOWNBORDERSTHEREISNOSUCHATHINGASINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTLAWTHATAUTOMATICALLYPROTECTSANAUTHORSWRITINGSTHROUGHOUTTHEWORLDALTHOUGHTHEORETICALLYCASESONINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTVIOLATIONCANBEBROUGHTTOTHEINTERNATIONALCOURTOFJUSTICE,NOCASEHASEVERBEENBROUGHTTOTHECOURTSOFARGIVENITSDOMESTICNATURE,INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONHASALWAYSBEENACOMPLICATEDPROBLEMFORALLTHECOUNTRIES,WHICH,TOTHEIROWNBENEFITS,HAVEHELDVARYINGVIEWSABOUTTHEPROBLEMANDHOWITSHOULDBESOLVEDIIPRODUCERSVSCONSUMERSPRIORTOTHE19THCENTURY,COPYRIGHTLAWWASESSENTIALLYAMATTEROFDOMESTICCONCERNFORMOSTCOUNTRIESHOWEVER,ASCREATIVEWORKSBEGANTOBEEXCHANGEDBEYONDNATIONALBORDERSWITHINCREASINGFREQUENCY,TRANSNATIONALPROTECTIONFORANAUTHORSWORKBECAMEMOREANDMOREIMPORTANTFORTHOSECOUNTRIESWHERECREATIVEWORKSWEREPRODUCEDTHEY,THEPRODUCERS,WOULDDEMANDCOMPENSATIONFROMCONSUMERS,THOSECOUNTRIESWHERECOPYRIGHTEDWORKSWEREUSEDANEARLYEXAMPLEDATESBACKTOTHECHAOSINTHEEARLYDAYSOFBULKPRINTINGINTHE15THCENTURYWHENCHARLESDICKENSANDOTHERPOPULARENGLISHWRITERSSUFFEREDWHOLESALEPIRACYOFTHEIRWORKSBYAMERICANPRINTERSBECAUSE,ATTHATTIME,COPYRIGHTSSTOPPEDATTHEBORDERSOFANAUTHORSNATIVELANDTHISPRACTICEWASNOTSTOPPEDUNTILTHEUSAGREEDBYTREATYTORECOGNIZEENGLISHCOPYRIGHTSINTHEUSSTRONG,1981NOWWITHTHEADVANCEOFCOMMUNICATIONSTECHNOLOGIESSUCHASCABLEANDCOMPUTERDIGITALIZATION,THEWORLDHASBECOMEAGLOBALVILLAGECOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONISNOTONLYIMPORTANTTOPRINTINGANDPUBLISHINGINDUSTRIES,BUTALSOTOBROADCASTING,COMPUTERSOFTWARE,HIGHTECHANDENTERTAINMENTPRODUCTSASARESULT,THEANCIENTPRACTICEOFCOMMERCIALPIRACYHASBECOMESOSERIOUSTHATITHASEMERGEDASAMAJORECONOMICANDPOLITICALPROBLEMBETWEENGOVERNMENTSOFDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES,USUALLYTHEPRODUCERSOFCREATIVEWORKS,ANDDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES,OFTENTHECONSUMERSACCORDINGTOAREPORTFROMUSATODAYCOX,1996,THEUSGOVERNMENTTHREATENEDTOIMPOSETRADESANCTIONSOF2BILLIONINCHINESEIMPORTSIFCHINADOESNOTCRACKDOWNONPIRATEPLANTSPRODUCINGILLEGALCOMPUTERSOFTWARECOPYRIGHTEDBYMICROSOFT,ANAMERICANCOMPANYWHILEWILLINGTOPURSUEILLEGALMANUFACTURERSMOREVIGOROUSLY,THECHINESEGOVERNMENTSAIDITWOULDRETALIATEAGAINSTSANCTIONSBYHITTINGUSGOODSWITHSIMILARDUTIESTHROUGHOUTHISTORY,INTERNATIONALINFRINGEMENTOFCOPYRIGHTHASUSUALLYOCCURREDINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESCONSUMERSWHERETHEREISINADEQUATEORINEFFECTIVECOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONAND/ORWITHFEWERAUTHORSANDINVENTORSTOSOMEDEGREE,COPYRIGHTCANALSOBESEENASAHISTORICALLYINEVITABLEDEVELOPMENTASNATIONSBECOMEMOREMATUREINTHEIRKNOWLEDGEINDUSTRIESINTHE1950S,INDIAHASSERIOUSDOUBTSABOUTINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTANDINSISTEDTHATDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESHADSPECIALNEEDWITHREGARDTOKNOWLEDGETRANSFER,TRANSLATIONSANDTEXTBOOKSINDIADIDAGOODDEALOFPIRATINGATTHETIMEHOWEVER,ASINDIANPUBLISHINGINDUSTRYMATURED,INDIATOOKAMOREFAVORABLEVIEWTOWARDSINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPIRACYHASDIMINISHEDSIGNIFICANTLYALTBACH,1988INFACT,TWOTRENDSCANUSUALLYBEDETECTEDASTOHOWADEVELOPINGCOUNTRYMAYINFRINGECOPYRIGHTSINTHEPROCESSOFITSECONOMICDEVELOPMENT1INANEARLYSTAGE,THEEMPHASISINTHEINFRINGINGCOUNTRYISONPROMOTIONANDEXPORTS,DUPLICATINGTHEINDUSTRIALPRODUCTSORLITERARYWORKSLATER,THEINFRINGERMAYADOPTLESSAGGRESSIVETACTICS,TURNINGTOBORDERLINEAREASOFINFRINGEMENT,RATHERTHANEXACTCOPYINGTHENTHEINFRINGERMAYOBTAINALEGITIMATELICENSE,EITHERASABUSINESSSTRATEGYORBECAUSETHEOWNERBEGANTOCHALLENGETHEINFRINGERFINALLY,THEINFRINGERLICENSEEMAYDEVELOPITSOWNPRODUCTS2ASONEGOVERNMENTINTRODUCESORSTRENGTHENSPROTECTIVEENFORCEMENTMACHINERY,EITHERBECAUSEOFFOREIGNTHREATSOFRETALIATIONOROUTOFCONCERNFORSAFEGUARDINGTHEIROWNINTERESTSINOTHERDEVELOPINGAREAS,THEINFRINGERSWILLMOVEONTOANOTHERCOUNTRYORBECOMELEGITIMATESUPPLIERSSTALSON,19871VARYINGVIEWSBECAUSEOFTHEVARYINGDEGREESINECONOMICDEVELOPMENTS,DEVELOPEDANDDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES,ORTHEPRODUCERSANDTHECONSUMERS,TENDTOHOLDDIFFERENTVIEWSONINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONDEVELOPEDNATIONSVIEWCOPYRIGHTEDPRODUCTSANDWORKSASVALUABLEPROPERTYTHATSHOULDBEPROTECTEDBYLAWBOTHDOMESTICALLYANDABROADTHEYARGUETHAT1COPYRIGHTPROTECTIONISTHEPRINCIPLEOFNATURALJUSTICEWHICHENTITLESANAUTHORTOTHEFRUITSOFLABOR;2THEEXPENSESFORRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTINPRODUCTIONOFMANYGOODSTHATARECOMMONLYINFRINGEDUPONHAVEINCREASEDENORMOUSLYTHISCANONLYBECOMPENSATEDWHENTHEPRODUCTISPROTECTEDFROMUNAUTHORIZEDUSEBYOTHERS;3COPYRIGHTPROTECTIONFAVORSWIDEDISSEMINATIONOFWORKSBECAUSETHEYFORGELINKSBETWEENSOCIALCLASSES,VARIOUSRACES,AGESANDGENDERSTHECOMMERCIALSHARINGOFTHEIDEASCONTAINEDINTHEWORKSCONTRIBUTESTOTHEADVANCEMENTOFSOCIETYGASAWAYWIANT,1994HOWEVER,DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESCONSIDERINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONTOBEADEVICETOKEEPTHEMETERNALLYDEPENDENTONTHETECHNOLOGYANDCREATIVENESSOFTHEINDUSTRIALWORLDANDTOHAMPERTHEIRCAPACITIESTOCREATEANDINVENTTHEYARGUECOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONISAWESTERNCONCEPTWHICHWASCREATEDTOMAINTAINAMONOPOLYOVERTHEPRODUCTIONANDDISTRIBUTIONOFKNOWLEDGEANDPRODUCTSSOMEASIANCOUNTRIESEVENSAYCOPYRIGHTWASNOTPARTOFTHEASIANCULTURALTRADITIONTOSOMEEXTENT,ITWASIMPOSEDONASIANCOUNTRIESBYWESTERNTRADINGPARTNERSALTBACH,1988BESIDES,THEYCLAIMTHATKNOWLEDGEISTHEHERITAGEOFALLMANKINDANDTHEREFORESHOULDBERESPECTFULLYSHAREDBYALL,BUTPROTECTIONDENIESTHEMTHEEDUCATIONALANDINSTRUCTIONALTOOLSAVAILABLEFROMCOPYRIGHTEDWORKSBECAUSETHEYAREAVAILABLEONLYATPRICESTHEYCANNOTAFFORDANDUNDERCONDITIONSTHATMAYVIOLATETHEIRSOVEREIGNTYTHEYALSOASSERTTHATTHEYARELEARNINGBYCOPYING,WHICHISHELPFULFORTHELATERCREATIONOFTHEIROWNTECHNOLOGIESSTALSON,1987ONEARGUMENTBYROBERTOVERZOLAEVENACCUSEDTHEWESTOFBEINGTHEREALPIRATEWHENHETALKEDABOUTILLEGALCOPYINGSOFTWAREINMANILAVERZOLAREGARDEDCOPYINGSOFTWAREASABENIGNCASEOFPIRACY,COMPAREDWITHTHEMALIGNANTCASEOFTHEUSPIRATINGLOCALDOCTORSFROMTHEPHILIPPINESHESAID,WHENTHEUSPIRATEDTHEIRDOCTORS,ITTOOKTHEIRREPLACEABLERESOURCEFORITTAKES10YEARSTOTRAINANEWDOCTOR,ANDDENIEDMANYPEOPLEOFTHESERVICESOFADOCTORBUTWHENTHEFILIPINOSPIRATETHECOMPUTERPROGRAM,THEYDIDNTDENYANYAMERICANCITIZENTHEUSEOFTHEPROGRAMVERZOLA,19922PROGRESSYET,DESPITETHESECONCEPTUALARGUMENTSANDPRACTICALPROBLEMS,INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTISINCREASINGLYACCEPTEDAMONGDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES,ANDISBECOMINGENTRENCHED,BOTHINLAWANDINPRACTICE,ESPECIALLYAMONGASIANCOUNTRIES,SUCHASCHINA,SINGAPOREANDMALAYSIA,WHICHHAVEWITNESSEDFASTECONOMICDEVELOPMENTINTHEPASTDECADECHINASTARTEDCOPYRIGHTLEGISLATIONIN1990ANDISMOVINGTOENFORCECOPYRIGHTLAWSMOREAGGRESSIVELYTHROUGHTHESTATEADMINISTRATIONOFINDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE,THEAGENCYCHARGEDWITHOVERSEEINGCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONINCHINATHEGOVERNMENTSAYSITISDETERMINEDTOCONTROLTHERAMPANTMANUFACTUREOFFAKECOMPACTANDLASERDISCSANDSOFTWARESINGAPOREPASSEDACOPYRIGHTACTWITHTEETHIN1986ANDHASBEENENFORCINGCOPYRIGHTWITHSOMEVIGORMALAYSIAHASALSOALAWONTHEBOOKSANDSOUTHKOREAHASBEGUNTOENFORCECONTROLSOVERFAKEPRODUCTSASWELLGOLDSTEIN,1994TWOMAJORREASONSCANBECITEDFORTHEREMARKABLEPROGRESSOFCOPYRIGHTINTHESECOUNTRIESWHICHOPPOSEDINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONINTHEPASTTHEFIRSTONEISACOMBINATIONOFCARROTSANDSTICKSFROMTHEINDUSTRIALIZEDNATIONSTHECARROTINTHISINSTANCEWASTHEWILLINGNESSOFDEVELOPEDNATIONSTOACCEPTAVERSIONOFCOMPULSORYLICENSINGASAWAYOFSHOWINGTHEIRUNDERSTANDINGOFTHESPECIALPROBLEMSINTHEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHESTICKISTHEPRESSURETHATHASBEENAPPLIEDTOMAJORPIRATINGCOUNTRIESTOIMPLEMENTANDENFORCECOPYRIGHTLAWSTHESECONDREASONISANUNDERSTANDINGONTHEPARTOFTHEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHATKNOWLEDGEISANINTERNATIONALCOMMODITYANDREQUIRESINTERNATIONALREGULATION,ASWELLASARECOGNITIONTHATTHEYHAVEJOINEDTHEINTERNATIONALKNOWLEDGENETWORKANDTHATTHEYAREPRODUCERSASWELLASCONSUMERSOFKNOWLEDGEALTBACH,1988ITISTHISPROGRESSINTHEPASTDECADETHATHASMOTIVATEDMORENATIONS,SUCHASCHINA,TOJOINTHETWOPRINCIPALINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONSDEALINGINCOPYRIGHTS,NAMELY,THEBERNEUNIONFORTHEPROTECTIONOFLITERARYANDARTISTICPROPERTYTHEBERNECONVENTIONANDTHEUNIVERSALCOPYRIGHTCONVENTIONTHEUCCIIIINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS1THEBERNECONVENTIONTHEBERNECONVENTIONISTHEFIRSTMAJORCOPYRIGHTCONVENTIONINTHEWORLDTHEORIGINALCONVENTIONFORTHEPROTECTIONOFLITERARYANDARTISTICWORKSWASSIGNEDATBERNE,SWITZERLAND,ONSEPTEMBER9,1886,ANDWENTINTOFORCEONDECEMBER5,1887THEORIGINALBERNECONVENTIONWASINTENDEDTOPROMOTEFIVEOBJECTIVES1THEDEVELOPMENTOFCOPYRIGHTLAWSINFAVOROFAUTHORSTOBRINGABOUTBETTERWORLDWIDECOPYRIGHTPROTECTION;2THEREMOVALOVERTIMEOFRECIPROCITYASABASISFORRIGHTS;3THEELIMINATIONOFDISCRIMINATIONINRIGHTSAGAINSTFOREIGNAUTHORSINALLCOUNTRIES;4THEREDUCTIONOFFORMALITIESFORMALREQUIREMENTSFORTHERECOGNITIONANDPROTECTIONOFCOPYRIGHTINFOREIGNWORKS;ANDFINALLY5THEPROMOTIONOFUNIFORMINTERNATIONALLEGISLATIONFORTHEPROTECTIONOFLITERARYANDARTISTICWORKSCOPYRIGHTOFFICE,1989THEFIRSTBERNECONVENTIONWASASIMPLEDOCUMENTINWHICHTWOCARDINALPRINCIPLESWEREESTABLISHED,BOTHOFCONTINUINGVITALITYTODAY1THECONCEPTOFAUNIONAND2THERULEOFNATIONALTREATMENTUNDERTHECONCEPTOFAUNION,THECOUNTRIESADHERINGTOTHEBERNECONVENTIONORGANIZEDTHEMSELVESINTOAUNION,BYWHICHMEMBERSESTABLISHEDAPERMANENTENTITYCONSTITUTINGASEPARATECOOPERATIVEUNITTHATWOULDCONTINUEINEXISTENCEREGARDLESSOFFUTUREENTRANCESINTO,ORWITHDRAWALFROM,THECONVENTIONBYINDIVIDUALSFORINSTANCE,THEMEMBERSOFTHEBERNECONVENTIONHASGROWNFROM10IN1886TO108IN1994,BUTTHEBERNECONVENTIONHASBEENFUNCTIONINGANDWILLCONTINUETOFUNCTIONASANINTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTTREATYAMONGMEMBERCOUNTRIESTHERULEOFNATIONALTREATMENTPROVIDESTHATAUTHORSENJOYTHESAMEPROTECTIONFORTHEIRWORKSINOTHERCOUNTRIESASTHOSECOUNTRIESACCORDTHEIROWNAUTHORSCOPYRIGHTOFFICE,1989FOREXAMPLE,GREECE,ABERNECOUNTRY,MUSTTREATWORKSFROMGERMANYALSOABERNEMEMBERASIFTHEWORKHADORIGINATEDINGREECEANDWASSUBJECTTOGREEKCOPYRIGHTLAWGASAWAYWIANT,1994

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