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新闻传播学论文-INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT PROTECTION.doc

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新闻传播学论文-INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT PROTECTION.doc

新闻传播学论文INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTPROTECTIONI.INTRODUCTIONAcopyrightisanexclusiverightconferredbylawforaspecifiedperiodoftimetoreproduceanoriginalliteraryorartisticworkfixedinanytangiblemediumofexpressiontopreparederivativeworksbasedupontheoriginalworkandtopubliclyperformordisplaytheworkNetscape1,1995.Copyrightprotectionmeansthatusesofacopyrightedworkarelegalonlywithauthorizationfromthecopyrightowner,butitdoesnotapplytoanyidea,procedureusedinthecopyrightedwork,onlytoanauthorsparticularexpressionoftheideaorprocedureinatangiblemedium.Internationalcopyrightprotectionreferstointernationalrecognitionofanauthorsrightsundercopyrightinothercountries.Butcopyrightis,intrinsically,createdandenforcedbynationallaws.Everycountryintheworldhasitsowncopyrightlawthatapplieswithinitsownborders.Thereisnosuchathingasinternationalcopyrightlawthatautomaticallyprotectsanauthorswritingsthroughouttheworld.AlthoughtheoreticallycasesoninternationalcopyrightviolationcanbebroughttotheInternationalCourtofJustice,nocasehaseverbeenbroughttotheCourtsofar.Givenitsdomesticnature,internationalcopyrightprotectionhasalwaysbeenacomplicatedproblemforallthecountries,which,totheirownbenefits,haveheldvaryingviewsabouttheproblemandhowitshouldbesolved.II.PRODUCERSVS.CONSUMERSPriortothe19thcentury,copyrightlawwasessentiallyamatterofdomesticconcernformostcountries.However,ascreativeworksbegantobeexchangedbeyondnationalborderswithincreasingfrequency,transnationalprotectionforanauthorsworkbecamemoreandmoreimportantforthosecountrieswherecreativeworkswereproduced.They,theproducers,woulddemandcompensationfromconsumers,thosecountrieswherecopyrightedworkswereused.Anearlyexampledatesbacktothechaosintheearlydaysofbulkprintinginthe15thcenturywhenCharlesDickensandotherpopularEnglishwriterssufferedwholesalepiracyoftheirworksbyAmericanprintersbecause,atthattime,copyrightsstoppedatthebordersofanauthorsnativeland.ThispracticewasnotstoppeduntiltheU.S.agreedbytreatytorecognizeEnglishcopyrightsintheU.S.Strong,1981.Nowwiththeadvanceofcommunicationstechnologiessuchascableandcomputerdigitalization,theworldhasbecomeaglobalvillage.Copyrightprotectionisnotonlyimportanttoprintingandpublishingindustries,butalsotobroadcasting,computersoftware,hightechandentertainmentproducts.Asaresult,theancientpracticeofcommercialpiracyhasbecomesoseriousthatithasemergedasamajoreconomicandpoliticalproblembetweengovernmentsofdevelopedcountries,usuallytheproducersofcreativeworks,anddevelopingcountries,oftentheconsumers.AccordingtoareportfromUSATodayCox,1996,theU.S.governmentthreatenedtoimposetradesanctionsof2billioninChineseimportsifChinadoesnotcrackdownonpirateplantsproducingillegalcomputersoftwarecopyrightedbyMicrosoft,anAmericancompany.Whilewillingtopursueillegalmanufacturersmorevigorously,theChinesegovernmentsaiditwouldretaliateagainstsanctionsbyhittingU.S.goodswithsimilarduties.Throughouthistory,internationalinfringementofcopyrighthasusuallyoccurredindevelopingcountriesconsumerswherethereisinadequateorineffectivecopyrightprotectionand/orwithfewerauthorsandinventors.Tosomedegree,copyrightcanalsobeseenasahistoricallyinevitabledevelopmentasnationsbecomemorematureintheirknowledgeindustries.Inthe1950s,Indiahasseriousdoubtsaboutinternationalcopyrightandinsistedthatdevelopingcountrieshadspecialneedwithregardtoknowledgetransfer,translationsandtextbooks.Indiadidagooddealofpiratingatthetime.However,asIndianpublishingindustrymatured,Indiatookamorefavorableviewtowardsinternationalcopyright.PiracyhasdiminishedsignificantlyAltbach,1988.Infact,twotrendscanusuallybedetectedastohowadevelopingcountrymayinfringecopyrightsintheprocessofitseconomicdevelopment1Inanearlystage,theemphasisintheinfringingcountryisonpromotionandexports,duplicatingtheindustrialproductsorliteraryworks.Later,theinfringermayadoptlessaggressivetactics,turningtoborderlineareasofinfringement,ratherthanexactcopying.Thentheinfringermayobtainalegitimatelicense,eitherasabusinessstrategyorbecausetheownerbegantochallengetheinfringer.Finally,theinfringerlicenseemaydevelopitsownproducts.2Asonegovernmentintroducesorstrengthensprotectiveenforcementmachinery,eitherbecauseofforeignthreatsofretaliationoroutofconcernforsafeguardingtheirowninterestsinotherdevelopingareas,theinfringerswillmoveontoanothercountryorbecomelegitimatesuppliersStalson,1987.1.VaryingViewsBecauseofthevaryingdegreesineconomicdevelopments,developedanddevelopingcountries,ortheproducersandtheconsumers,tendtoholddifferentviewsoninternationalcopyrightprotection.Developednationsviewcopyrightedproductsandworksasvaluablepropertythatshouldbeprotectedbylawbothdomesticallyandabroad.Theyarguethat1copyrightprotectionistheprincipleofnaturaljusticewhichentitlesanauthortothefruitsoflabor2theexpensesforresearchanddevelopmentinproductionofmanygoodsthatarecommonlyinfringeduponhaveincreasedenormously.Thiscanonlybecompensatedwhentheproductisprotectedfromunauthorizedusebyothers3copyrightprotectionfavorswidedisseminationofworksbecausetheyforgelinksbetweensocialclasses,variousraces,agesandgenders.ThecommercialsharingoftheideascontainedintheworkscontributestotheadvancementofsocietyGasawayWiant,1994.However,developingcountriesconsiderinternationalcopyrightprotectiontobeadevicetokeepthemeternallydependentonthetechnologyandcreativenessoftheindustrialworldandtohampertheircapacitiestocreateandinvent.TheyarguecopyrightprotectionisaWesternconceptwhichwascreatedtomaintainamonopolyovertheproductionanddistributionofknowledgeandproducts.SomeAsiancountriesevensaycopyrightwasnotpartoftheAsianculturaltradition.Tosomeextent,itwasimposedonAsiancountriesbyWesterntradingpartnersAltbach,1988.Besides,theyclaimthatknowledgeistheheritageofallmankindandthereforeshouldberespectfullysharedbyall,butprotectiondeniesthemtheeducationalandinstructionaltoolsavailablefromcopyrightedworksbecausetheyareavailableonlyatpricestheycannotaffordandunderconditionsthatmayviolatetheirsovereignty.Theyalsoassertthattheyarelearningbycopying,whichishelpfulforthelatercreationoftheirowntechnologiesStalson,1987.OneargumentbyRobertoVerzolaevenaccusedtheWestofbeingtherealpiratewhenhetalkedaboutillegalcopyingsoftwareinManila.Verzolaregardedcopyingsoftwareasabenigncaseofpiracy,comparedwiththemalignantcaseoftheU.S.piratinglocaldoctorsfromthePhilippines.Hesaid,whentheU.S.piratedtheirdoctors,ittooktheirreplaceableresourceforittakes10yearstotrainanewdoctor,anddeniedmanypeopleoftheservicesofadoctor.ButwhentheFilipinospiratethecomputerprogram,theydidntdenyanyAmericancitizentheuseoftheprogramVerzola,1992.2.ProgressYet,despitetheseconceptualargumentsandpracticalproblems,internationalcopyrightisincreasinglyacceptedamongdevelopingcountries,andisbecomingentrenched,bothinlawandinpractice,especiallyamongAsiancountries,suchasChina,SingaporeandMalaysia,whichhavewitnessedfasteconomicdevelopmentinthepastdecade.Chinastartedcopyrightlegislationin1990andismovingtoenforcecopyrightlawsmoreaggressivelythroughtheStateAdministrationofIndustryandCommerce,theagencychargedwithoverseeingcopyrightprotectioninChina.Thegovernmentsaysitisdeterminedtocontroltherampantmanufactureoffakecompactandlaserdiscsandsoftware.Singaporepassedacopyrightactwithteethin1986andhasbeenenforcingcopyrightwithsomevigor.MalaysiahasalsoalawonthebooksandSouthKoreahasbeguntoenforcecontrolsoverfakeproductsaswellGoldstein,1994.Twomajorreasonscanbecitedfortheremarkableprogressofcopyrightinthesecountrieswhichopposedinternationalcopyrightprotectioninthepast.Thefirstoneisacombinationofcarrotsandsticksfromtheindustrializednations.Thecarrotinthisinstancewasthewillingnessofdevelopednationstoacceptaversionofcompulsorylicensingasawayofshowingtheirunderstandingofthespecialproblemsinthedevelopingcountries.Thestickisthepressurethathasbeenappliedtomajorpiratingcountriestoimplementandenforcecopyrightlaws.Thesecondreasonisanunderstandingonthepartofthedevelopingcountriesthatknowledgeisaninternationalcommodityandrequiresinternationalregulation,aswellasarecognitionthattheyhavejoinedtheinternationalknowledgenetworkandthattheyareproducersaswellasconsumersofknowledgeAltbach,1988.Itisthisprogressinthepastdecadethathasmotivatedmorenations,suchasChina,tojointhetwoprincipalinternationalconventionsdealingincopyrights,namely,theBerneUnionfortheProtectionofLiteraryandArtisticPropertytheBerneConventionandtheUniversalCopyrightConventiontheUCC.III.INTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS1.TheBerneConventionTheBerneConventionisthefirstmajorcopyrightconventionintheworld.TheoriginalConventionfortheProtectionofLiteraryandArtisticWorkswassignedatBerne,Switzerland,onSeptember9,1886,andwentintoforceonDecember5,1887.TheoriginalBerneConventionwasintendedtopromotefiveobjectives1thedevelopmentofcopyrightlawsinfavorofauthorstobringaboutbetterworldwidecopyrightprotection2theremovalovertimeofreciprocityasabasisforrights3theeliminationofdiscriminationinrightsagainstforeignauthorsinallcountries4thereductionofformalitiesformalrequirementsfortherecognitionandprotectionofcopyrightinforeignworksandfinally5thepromotionofuniforminternationallegislationfortheprotectionofliteraryandartisticworksCopyrightOffice,1989.ThefirstBerneConventionwasasimpledocumentinwhichtwocardinalprincipleswereestablished,bothofcontinuingvitalitytoday1theconceptofaunionand2theruleofnationaltreatment.Undertheconceptofaunion,thecountriesadheringtotheBerneConventionorganizedthemselvesintoaunion,bywhichmembersestablishedapermanententityconstitutingaseparatecooperativeunitthatwouldcontinueinexistenceregardlessoffutureentrancesinto,orwithdrawalfrom,theconventionbyindividuals.Forinstance,themembersoftheBerneConventionhasgrownfrom10in1886to108in1994,buttheBerneConventionhasbeenfunctioningandwillcontinuetofunctionasaninternationalcopyrighttreatyamongmembercountries.TheruleofnationaltreatmentprovidesthatauthorsenjoythesameprotectionfortheirworksinothercountriesasthosecountriesaccordtheirownauthorsCopyrightOffice,1989.Forexample,Greece,aBernecountry,musttreatworksfromGermanyalsoaBernememberasiftheworkhadoriginatedinGreeceandwassubjecttoGreekcopyrightlawGasawayWiant,1994.

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