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新闻传播学论文-On Teaching of Bilingual Journalism Education in China.doc

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新闻传播学论文-On Teaching of Bilingual Journalism Education in China.doc

新闻传播学论文OnTeachingofBilingualJournalismEducationinChinaAbstractBilingualjournalismeducationknownasInternationalJournalismEducationinChinaaimstotrainjournalismprofessionalswhocanworkinbothEnglishandChinesemediaorganizations.Havingdevelopedrapidlyinthepastdecade,bilingualjournalismeducationBJEprogramsareinauniquejournalismeducationpositioninChinabycombiningEnglishstylejournalisticpracticeandconceptswithEnglishlearning.ThispaperfirstprovidesareviewofthedevelopmentofBJEinChina,thenexplorestheadvantagesanddisadvantagesoftheBJEteachingmodelinChinaandofferstheresultsofacasestudyoftheBJEprogramatShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversitySISU,withfocuseddiscussionsonstudentsjoborientationandoverallcoursearrangementoftheschoolsBJEprogram.ThepaperalsoprovidesananalysisofthechallengesthatBJEprogramsfaceinChina.Intheend,anassessmentismadeofBJEdevelopmenttrendsinChina.Inthepastdecade,bilingualjournalismeducationinChinaknownasInternationalJournalismEducationinChinahasdevelopedrapidly.Theprogram,aimedattrainingfuturereportersandeditorswhocommandbothEnglishlanguageandjournalisticskillsandareabletoworkinbothChineseandEnglishmediainstitutionsathomeandabroad,enjoysauniquepositioninthecontemporaryjournalismeducationinChina.ThispaperfirstprovidesareviewofthedevelopmentofBJEinChina,thenexplorestheadvantagesanddisadvantagesoftheexistingBJEteachingmodelofinChinabyreferringtoacasestudyofaBJEprogramatShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversitySISU,oneofthepioneeruniversitiesinChinainBJEsincethe1980s,withfocuseddiscussionsonstudentsjoborientationandoverallcoursearrangementofitsBJEprogram.Basedonacasestudy,thispaperalsooffersananalysisofthechallengesBJEfacesinChina.Finally,anassessmentispresentedaboutthefuturetrendsofBJEinChinainaChineseenvironment.DevelopmentofBilingualJournalismEducationBJEinChinaBJEinChinacanbetracedtothe1920swhenYanchingUniversitynowBeijingUniversityinBeijing,FudanUniversityandSt.JohnsUniversityinShanghaistartedU.S..stylejournalismprogramsinwhichmostcourseswerepresentedinEnglish.After1949,BJEwasterminatedasuniversitiesinChinaabandonedtheAmericanjournalismmodelandfollowedtheSovietmodel.Infact,BJEwasnotresumedinChinauntiltheearly1980swhenChinasAcademyofSocialSciencefirststartedagraduatebilingualjournalismprogramfocusingonEnglishnewswritingandeditingandtheBeijingBroadcastingInstitutebeganabilingualjournalismprogramforundergraduatesinitsEnglishDepartment.However,itwasonlyafter1983thattheBJEboombeganinChinawhenfivemoreuniversitiesstartedbilingualjournalismprograms.TheBJEprogramsmostofthemknownasInternationalJournalismProgramswereinitiatedasdualbachelordegreeprograms,inwhichstudentsreceivedbachelordegreesasEnglishmajorsandalsoBAdegreesininternationaljournalismafterthreeyearsofextensivewesternstylejournalistictraining.MostEnglishlanguagejournalistictrainingwasprovidedbyjournalismprofessorsandmediapractitionersknownasforeignexpertsfromtheUnitedStates,GreatBritainandAustralia,whowereeitherfundedbysuchnonprofitorganizationsastheFulbrightFoundationandtheFordFoundationoremployedbyChineseuniversities.ChinasEnglishlanguagemediainstitutionssuchasXinhuaNewsAgency,CCTV,ChinaDailyandRadioChinaInternationalalsosentreportersandeditorstothesecampuses,torecruitmorequalifiedfuturestaffmemebers.In1983thefiveprograms,togetherwiththeoneatBeijingBroadcastingInstitute,enrolledanestimated176BJEstudents.Asaresult,BJEwashailedasadramaticreforminthehistoryofjournalismeducationinChinaatthetime.Forthenexttenyears,withthewithdrawaloffinancialsupportfromChinesegovernmentandmediainstitutions,mostBJEprogramsinChinastoppedthepracticeofenrollingdualBAstudentsandstartedtorecruitundergraduateandgraduatestudents.Inthepastfiveyears,moreuniversitieshavestartedorexpandedtheirBJEprograms.GuangdongUniversityofForeignStudiesstartedaBJEprogramin1999andShangtouUniversityin2001.BeijingUniversityexpandedtheprogramintheirnewlyfoundSchoolofJournalismandCommunication.OtheruniversitiessuchasWuhanandTsinghuaaretryingtoincludemoreEnglishjournalismcoursesintheircurriculaeventhoughtheydonothaveBJEprograms.ReasonsforChinatoPromoteBJEThereasonsforChinatoinitiateandpromoteBJEinthepast20yearsaremultifold.First,itisaresultoftheEnglishdominanceintheareaofinternationalcommunication.AsEnglishservesasakindofinternationallanguageinthecurrentglobalcommunication,itisnaturalforChina,acountrythatstrivesforabetternationalimageintheinternationalarena,totrainthroughBJEitsownreportersandeditorswhocanworkinbothEnglishandChinese.Second,asChinaseconomycontinuestoboomatarateofabout10,themediaindustryincludingEnglishandChinesemediahasbecomethefourthmostprofitableindustryinChina,withmorethan50newspaperchainsandradioandTVgroups.TheInternetmediaarealsodevelopingrapidly.The13thAnnualReportofCNNIConJanuary15,2004showsthatasofDecember31,2003,totalnumberofnetizensinChinais795million,thesecondlargestnumberintheworld.ThefastdevelopmentofChinasmediaindustrysurelycallsformoreinternationalnamelyBJEreportingandeditingstaffmembers.ThreespecificfactorsarecontributingtotherapiddevelopmentofBJEandtheincreasingdemandforbilingualjournalistsandeditorsinChina1MoreandmoremediainstitutionsinChinaarebecomingbilingualEnglishandChinese,evenmultilingual.NotonlydoEnglishlanguagemedialikeCCTV9,ChinaDailyandShanghaiDailyrecruitBJEgraduates,butChineselanguagemediaorganizationsarealsowillingtoenrollbilingualjournalisticstaffmembers,whocandirectlyinterviewEnglishspeakingpeopleinsideandoutsideChina.LiuHong,aneditorinchiefofJobweek,anewlyfoundedweeklynewspaperinShanghai,foundthatitishardtoattractBJEgraduatestohernewspaperasherpublicationisnotbigenoughandthesalaryfromothermediaorganizationsismorecompetitive.Besides,BJEstudentswhodidtheirinternshipsatdifferentnewspaperagenciesfoundthattheyweregivenmoreopportunitiesintheirjobssimplybecausetheyhavetheabilitytousetheEnglishlanguagealongwiththeirbasicjournalisticskills.2MoreChineseuniversitieshavestartedjournalismprogramsinthepastdecade.In1992,Chinaonlyhad52schoolsofjournalismand77journalismdepartments.Tenyearslater,in2002,thosenumbersjumpedto96and232,respectively.From2002to2003,thenumberofjournalismprogramshasreached323,anincreaseof91journalismprogramsinjustoneyear.Toenhancecompetitivenessfortheirjournalismgraduatesinthejobmarket,journalismprogramsindifferentuniversitiesarestrivingtodevelopadistinctionfortheirprogramsandtheyhavefoundBJEtobeagoodoption.3MediainstitutionsandprofessionalsinChinaareeagertolearnfromtheWesternjournalisticpracticestoenhancetheirinternationalinfluence.Forexample,SouthernWeeklyNanfangZhoumo,apopularweeklynewspaperinChina,advocatespubliclythatitisfollowingthemodeloftheNewYorkTimes.ThenewlyfoundedSchoolofJournalismatTsinghuaUniversityistryingtoenhanceitsinfluencebyimportingaseriesoforiginalEnglishtextbooksonjournalismandcommunication.BJEhassurelycateredtoalltheneeds.CaseStudyofBJETohaveabetterunderstandingoftheBJEteachingmodelinChina,particularlyitsdevelopmentinthepast20years,thispaperhasselectedtheBJEUndergraduateProgramatShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversitySISUforacasestudy.ThreereasonsarecitedtohaveselectedtheBJEUndergraduateProgramatSISUforthecasestudy.First,SISUisoneofthepioneersinstartingitsBJEprogramandhasenjoyedagoodreputationintheareathroughoutthecountrysecond,despiteitschangesfromdualBAdegreeholderstoundergraduatesaswellasgraduatesinthepast20years,SISUhascontinuouslyrunitsBJEprogramandkeptitssequentialfocusoninternationaljournalismeversinceitsstartin1983finally,SISU,whichstartedasaforeignlanguageschool,canbestdemonstrateandalsorepresenttheexistingBJEteachingmodelinChinabecauselanguageisakeyelementinunderstandingtheBJEmodelinChina.ThecasestudyoftheBJEUndergraduateProgramatSISUinthispaperisgoingtofocusontheBJEstudentsfirstjoborientationandoverallcoursearrangementcurriculum,becausejoborientationcanreflectitscompetitivenessandcurriculumcandemonstrateituniqueness.CorrespondingtotheabovereasonsforChinatopromoteBJEprograms,TableOnehasconfirmedthegoodjobprospectsforBJEstudentsatSISUfrom20012003.Inthepastthreeyears,halfoftheBJEstudentsatSISUcanfindjobsinlargeinfluentialmediaorganizationsinChinaatthenationalandregionallevels,suchasXinhuaNewsAgency,JiefangDaily,CCTVandShanghaiTelevisionStation,insteadofsmallscalemediaatthecommunitylevel.ThisexplainsthepurposeoftheirBJEtraining,aslargeandinfluentialmediatendtousemoreoftheirEnglishskillswhilesmallsizemediadonotneedtheirEnglishskillsastheyonlyfocusonlocalChinesecommunities.TableOneBJEStudentsFirstJobsatSISU20012003,allinStudentsFirstJobs200120022003InfluentialMedia56.7741.4654.72GovernmentOrgans16.224.887.55Banks07.325.66OverseasStudy8.119.767.55GraduateStudy5.4112.211.32ForeignFirms5.412.441.89Others8.1121.9511.32ThisjoborientationfocusingonEnglishskillsisalsoobviousinBJEstudentsselectionofbanksandforeignfirmslessthan10engagedinpublicrelations,advertising,andmarketing.TheseareallhighlypaidjobsthatrequiregoodcommandofEnglishincommunicationwithpeoplefromdifferentcultures.Ofcourse,thehighsalaryisalsothemostimportantfactorforgraduatestogotobanks,foreignfirmsandcompanies,wheretheycanworkwithoutaninterpreter.Ofcourse,mostotherslessthan20stillprefertoseekhighereducationathomeandabroad,achannelforevenhigherpersonaldevelopmentwhichmayalsoberelatedtotheirEnglishskills.TheirhighmarksofTOEFLandGREhavequalifiedthemwithscholarshipsincountriesliketheUnitedStates.EventhoughgovernmentorgansareconsideredprestigiousjobsinChina,thenumberofBJEstudentsgoingtoworkingovernmentisdecreasingfrom16to7inrecentyears,whichmayindicatealiberaltrendamongBJEstudents.TheEnglishabilityofBJEstudentsatSISUissurelyguaranteedbytheirextensiveEnglishtrainingbothintheirEnglishcoursesandjournalismclassesconductedinEnglish.WhileotherjournalismstudentshavealmostalltheircoursesinChinese,thecurriculumoftheBJEprogramatSISUhasapredominantlyhigherproportionofEnglishcoursesforstudents.AsisshowedinTableTwo,thecurriculumoftheBJEprogramatSISUcanbasicallybedividedintofourcategoriesexcludinginternship,8credits,about5generalcoursesinChinese46credits,27.88,requiredEnglishlanguagecourses52credits,31.52,requiredjournalismcoursesinEnglish,22credits,13.33andinChinese,10credits,6.06andelectivejournalismcoursesalsoinEnglish,14credits,7.88andinChinese,13credits,8.48,foratotalof165creditsinaBJEstudentsfouryearstudy.Exceptforthegeneralcourses,whichareallconductedinChineseandarerequiredforalltheChinesestudents,regardlessoftheirmajors,

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