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2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

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2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题12005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SECTIONIUSEOFENGLISHDIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGTEXTCHOOSETHEBESTWORDSFOREACHNUMBEREDBLANKANDMARKA,B,CORDONANSWERSHEET110POINTSTHEHUMANNOSEISANUNDERRATEDTOOLHUMANSAREOFTENTHOUGHTTOBEINSENSITIVESMELLERSCOMPAREDWITHANIMALS,大1家THISISLARGELYBECAUSE,大2家ANIMALS,WESTANDUPRIGHTTHISMEANSTHATOURNOSESARE大3家TOPERCEIVINGTHOSESMELLSWHICHFLOATTHROUGHTHEAIR,大4家THEMAJORITYOFSMELLSWHICHSTICKTOSURFACESINFACT,大5家,WEAREEXTREMELYSENSITIVETOSMELLS,大6家WEDONOTGENERALLYREALIZEITOURNOSESARECAPABLEOF大7家HUMANSMELLSEVENWHENTHESEARE大8家TOFARBELOWONEPARTINONEMILLIONSTRANGELY,SOMEPEOPLEFINDTHATTHEYCANSMELLONETYPEOFFLOWERBUTNOTANOTHER,大9家OTHERSARESENSITIVETOTHESMELLSOFBOTHFLOWERSTHISMAYBEBECAUSESOMEPEOPLEDONOTHAVETHEGENESNECESSARYTOGENERATE大10家SMELLRECEPTORSINTHENOSETHESERECEPTORSARETHECELLSWHICHSENSESMELLSANDSEND大11家TOTHEBRAINHOWEVER,ITHASBEENFOUNDTHATEVENPEOPLEINSENSITIVETOACERTAINSMELL大12家CANSUDDENLYBECOMESENSITIVETOITWHEN大13家TOITOFTENENOUGHTHEEXPLANATIONFORINSENSITIVITYTOSMELLSEEMSTOBETHATTHEBRAINFINDSIT大14家TOKEEPALLSMELLRECEPTORSWORKINGALLTHETIMEBUTCAN大15家NEWRECEPTORSIFNECESSARYTHISMAY大16家EXPLAINWHYWEARENOTUSUALLYSENSITIVETOOUROWNSMELLSWESIMPLYDONOTNEEDTOBEWEARENOT大17家OFTHEUSUALSMELLOFOUROWNHOUSE,BUTWE大18家NEWSMELLSWHENWEVISITSOMEONEELSE’STHEBRAINFINDSITBESTTOKEEPSMELLRECEPTORS大19家FORUNFAMILIARANDEMERGENCYSIGNALS大20家THESMELLOFSMOKE,WHICHMIGHTINDICATETHEDANGEROFFIRE1AALTHOUGHBASCBUTDWHILE2AABOVEBUNLIKE2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题2CEXCLUDINGDBESIDES3ALIMITEDBCOMMITTEDCDEDICATEDDCONFINED4ACATCHINGBIGNORINGCMISSINGDTRACKING5AANYWAYBTHOUGHCINSTEADDTHEREFORE6AEVENIFBIFONLYCONLYIFDASIF7ADISTINGUISHINGBDISCOVERINGCDETERMININGDDETECTING8ADILUTEDBDISSOLVEDCDISPERSEDDDIFFUSED2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题39AWHENBSINCECFORDWHEREAS10AUNUSUALBPARTICULARCUNIQUEDTYPICAL11ASIGNSBSTIMULICMESSAGESDIMPULSES12AATFIRSTBATALLCATLARGEDATTIMES13ASUBJECTEDBLEFTCDRAWNDEXPOSED14AINEFFECTIVEBINCOMPETENTCINEFFICIENTDINSUFFICIENT15AINTRODUCEBSUMMON2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题4CTRIGGERDCREATE16ASTILLBALSOCOTHERWISEDNEVERTHELESS17ASUREBSICKCAWAREDTIRED18ATOLERATEBREPELCNEGLECTDNOTICE19AAVAILABLEBRELIABLECIDENTIFIABLEDSUITABLE20ASIMILARTOBSUCHASCALONGWITHDASIDEFROMSECTIONIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONPARTADIRECTIONS2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题5READTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,CORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1EVERYBODYLOVESAFATPAYRISEYETPLEASUREATYOUROWNCANVANISHIFYOULEARNTHATACOLLEAGUEHASBEENGIVENABIGGERONEINDEED,IFHEHASAREPUTATIONFORSLACKING,YOUMIGHTEVENBEOUTRAGEDSUCHBEHAVIOURISREGARDEDAS“ALLTOOHUMAN,”WITHTHEUNDERLYINGASSUMPTIONTHATOTHERANIMALSWOULDNOTBECAPABLEOFTHISFINELYDEVELOPEDSENSEOFGRIEVANCEBUTASTUDYBYSARAHBROSNANANDFRANSDEWAALOFEMORYUNIVERSITYINATLANTA,GEORGIA,WHICHHASJUSTBEENPUBLISHEDINNATURE,SUGGESTSTHATITISALLTOOMONKEY,ASWELLTHERESEARCHERSSTUDIEDTHEBEHAVIOUROFFEMALEBROWNCAPUCHINMONKEYSTHEYLOOKCUTETHEYAREGOODNATURED,COOPERATIVECREATURES,ANDTHEYSHARETHEIRFOODREADILYABOVEALL,LIKETHEIRFEMALEHUMANCOUNTERPARTS,THEYTENDTOPAYMUCHCLOSERATTENTIONTOTHEVALUEOF“GOODSANDSERVICES”THANMALESSUCHCHARACTERISTICSMAKETHEMPERFECTCANDIDATESFORDRBROSNAN’SANDDRDEWAAL’SSTUDYTHERESEARCHERSSPENTTWOYEARSTEACHINGTHEIRMONKEYSTOEXCHANGETOKENSFORFOODNORMALLY,THEMONKEYSWEREHAPPYENOUGHTOEXCHANGEPIECESOFROCKFORSLICESOFCUCUMBERHOWEVER,WHENTWOMONKEYSWEREPLACEDINSEPARATEBUTADJOININGCHAMBERS,SOTHATEACHCOULDOBSERVEWHATTHEOTHERWASGETTINGINRETURNFORITSROCK,THEIRBEHAVIOURBECAMEMARKEDLYDIFFERENTINTHEWORLDOFCAPUCHINS,GRAPESARELUXURYGOODSANDMUCHPREFERABLETOCUCUMBERSSOWHENONEMONKEYWASHANDEDAGRAPEINEXCHANGEFORHERTOKEN,THESECONDWASRELUCTANTTOHANDHERSOVERFORAMEREPIECEOFCUCUMBERANDIFONERECEIVEDAGRAPEWITHOUTHAVINGTOPROVIDEHERTOKENINEXCHANGEATALL,THEOTHEREITHERTOSSEDHEROWNTOKENATTHERESEARCHEROROUTOFTHECHAMBER,ORREFUSEDTOACCEPTTHESLICEOFCUCUMBERINDEED,THEMEREPRESENCEOFAGRAPEINTHEOTHERCHAMBERWITHOUTANACTUALMONKEYTOEATITWASENOUGHTOINDUCERESENTMENTINAFEMALECAPUCHINTHERESEARCHERSSUGGESTTHATCAPUCHINMONKEYS,LIKEHUMANS,AREGUIDEDBYSOCIALEMOTIONSINTHEWILD,THEYAREACOOPERATIVE,GROUPLIVINGSPECIESSUCHCOOPERATIONISLIKELYTOBESTABLEONLYWHENEACHANIMALFEELSITISNOTBEINGCHEATEDFEELINGSOFRIGHTEOUSINDIGNATION,ITSEEMS,ARENOTTHEPRESERVEOFPEOPLEALONEREFUSINGALESSERREWARDCOMPLETELYMAKESTHESEFEELINGSABUNDANTLYCLEARTOOTHERMEMBERSOFTHEGROUPHOWEVER,WHETHERSUCHASENSEOFFAIRNESSEVOLVEDINDEPENDENTLYINCAPUCHINSANDHUMANS,ORWHETHERITSTEMSFROMTHECOMMONANCESTORTHATTHESPECIESHAD35MILLIONYEARSAGO,IS,ASYET,ANUNANSWEREDQUESTION2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题621INTHEOPENINGPARAGRAPH,THEAUTHORINTRODUCESHISTOPICBY________APOSINGACONTRASTBJUSTIFYINGANASSUMPTIONCMAKINGACOMPARISONDEXPLAININGAPHENOMENON22THESTATEMENT“ITISALLTOOMONKEY”LASTLINE,PARAGRAPHLIMPLIESTHAT________AMONKEYSAREALSOOUTRAGEDBYSLACKRIVALSBRESENTINGUNFAIRNESSISALSOMONKEYS’NATURECMONKEYS,LIKEHUMANS,TENDTOBEJEALOUSOFEACHOTHERDNOANIMALSOTHERTHANMONKEYSCANDEVELOPSUCHEMOTIONS23FEMALECAPUCHINMONKEYSWERECHOSENFORTHERESEARCHMOSTPROBABLYBECAUSETHEYARE________AMOREINCLINEDTOWEIGHWHATTHEYGETBATTENTIVETORESEARCHERS’INSTRUCTIONSCNICEINBOTHAPPEARANCEANDTEMPERAMENTDMOREGENEROUSTHANTHEIRMALECOMPANIONS24DRBROSNANANDDRDEWAALHAVEEVENTUALLYFOUNDINTHEIRSTUDYTHATTHEMONKEYS________APREFERGRAPESTOCUCUMBERSBCANBETAUGHTTOEXCHANGETHINGSCWILLNOTBECOOPERATIVEIFFEELINGCHEATEDDAREUNHAPPYWHENSEPARATEDFROMOTHERS25WHATCANWEINFERFROMTHELASTPARAGRAPHAMONKEYSCANBETRAINEDTODEVELOPSOCIALEMOTIONSBHUMANINDIGNATIONEVOLVEDFROMANUNCERTAINSOURCECANIMALSUSUALLYSHOWTHEIRFEELINGSOPENLYASHUMANSDODCOOPERATIONAMONGMONKEYSREMAINSSTABLEONLYINTHEWILD2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题7TEXT2DOYOUREMEMBERALLTHOSEYEARSWHENSCIENTISTSARGUEDTHATSMOKINGWOULDKILLUSBUTTHEDOUBTERSINSISTEDTHATWEDIDN’TKNOWFORSURETHATTHEEVIDENCEWASINCONCLUSIVE,THESCIENCEUNCERTAINTHATTHEANTISMOKINGLOBBYWASOUTTODESTROYOURWAYOFLIFEANDTHEGOVERNMENTSHOULDSTAYOUTOFTHEWAYLOTSOFAMERICANSBOUGHTTHATNONSENSE,ANDOVERTHREEDECADES,SOME10MILLIONSMOKERSWENTTOEARLYGRAVESTHEREAREUPSETTINGPARALLELSTODAY,ASSCIENTISTSINONEWAVEAFTERANOTHERTRYTOAWAKENUSTOTHEGROWINGTHREATOFGLOBALWARMINGTHELATESTWASAPANELFROMTHENATIONALACADEMYOFSCIENCES,ENLISTEDBYTHEWHITEHOUSE,TOTELLUSTHATTHEEARTH’SATMOSPHEREISDEFINITELYWARMINGANDTHATTHEPROBLEMISLARGELYMANMADETHECLEARMESSAGEISTHATWESHOULDGETMOVINGTOPROTECTOURSELVESTHEPRESIDENTOFTHENATIONALACADEMY,BRUCEALBERTS,ADDEDTHISKEYPOINTINTHEPREFACETOTHEPANEL’SREPORT“SCIENCENEVERHASALLTHEANSWERSBUTSCIENCEDOESPROVIDEUSWITHTHEBESTAVAILABLEGUIDETOTHEFUTURE,ANDITISCRITICALTHATOURNATIONANDTHEWORLDBASEIMPORTANTPOLICIESONTHEBESTJUDGMENTSTHATSCIENCECANPROVIDECONCERNINGTHEFUTURECONSEQUENCESOFPRESENTACTIONS”JUSTASONSMOKING,VOICESNOWCOMEFROMMANYQUARTERSINSISTINGTHATTHESCIENCEABOUTGLOBALWARMINGISINCOMPLETE,THATIT’SOKTOKEEPPOURINGFUMESINTOTHEAIRUNTILWEKNOWFORSURETHISISADANGEROUSGAMEBYTHETIME100PERCENTOFTHEEVIDENCEISIN,ITMAYBETOOLATEWITHTHERISKSOBVIOUSANDGROWING,APRUDENTPEOPLEWOULDTAKEOUTANINSURANCEPOLICYNOWFORTUNATELY,THEWHITEHOUSEISSTARTINGTOPAYATTENTIONBUTIT’SOBVIOUSTHATAMAJORITYOFTHEPRESIDENT’SADVISERSSTILLDON’TTAKEGLOBALWARMINGSERIOUSLYINSTEADOFAPLANOFACTION,THEYCONTINUETOPRESSFORMORERESEARCHACLASSICCASEOF“PARALYSISBYANALYSIS”TOSERVEASRESPONSIBLESTEWARDSOFTHEPLANET,WEMUSTPRESSFORWARDONDEEPERATMOSPHERICANDOCEANICRESEARCHBUTRESEARCHALONEISINADEQUATEIFTHEADMINISTRATIONWON’TTAKETHELEGISLATIVEINITIATIVE,CONGRESSSHOULDHELPTOBEGINFASHIONINGCONSERVATIONMEASURESABILLBYDEMOCRATICSENATORROBERTBYRDOFWESTVIRGINIA,WHICHWOULDOFFERFINANCIALINCENTIVESFORPRIVATEINDUSTRY,ISAPROMISINGSTARTMANYSEETHATTHECOUNTRYISGETTINGREADYTOBUILDLOTSOFNEWPOWERPLANTSTOMEETOURENERGYNEEDSIFWEAREEVERGOINGTOPROTECTTHEATMOSPHERE,ITISCRUCIALTHATTHOSENEWPLANTSBEENVIRONMENTALLYSOUND26ANARGUMENTMADEBYSUPPORTERSOFSMOKINGWASTHAT________ATHEREWASNOSCIENTIFICEVIDENCEOFTHECORRELATIONBETWEENSMOKINGANDDEATHBTHENUMBEROFEARLYDEATHSOFSMOKERSINTHEPASTDECADESWASINSIGNIFICANT2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题8CPEOPLEHADTHEFREEDOMTOCHOOSETHEIROWNWAYOFLIFEDANTISMOKINGPEOPLEWEREUSUALLYTALKINGNONSENSE27ACCORDINGTOBRUCEALBERTS,SCIENCECANSERVEAS________AAPROTECTORBAJUDGECACRITICDAGUIDE28WHATDOESTHEAUTHORMEANBY“PARALYSISBYANALYSIS”LASTLINE,PARAGRAPH4AENDLESSSTUDIESKILLACTIONBCAREFULINVESTIGATIONREVEALSTRUTHCPRUDENTPLANNINGHINDERSPROGRESSDEXTENSIVERESEARCHHELPSDECISIONMAKING29ACCORDINGTOTHEAUTHOR,WHATSHOULDTHEADMINISTRATIONDOABOUTGLOBALWARMINGAOFFERAIDTOBUILDCLEANERPOWERPLANTSBRAISEPUBLICAWARENESSOFCONSERVATIONCPRESSFORFURTHERSCIENTIFICRESEARCHDTAKESOMELEGISLATIVEMEASURES30THEAUTHORASSOCIATESTHEISSUEOFGLOBALWARMINGWITHTHATOFSMOKINGBECAUSE________ATHEYBOTHSUFFEREDFROMTHEGOVERNMENT’SNEGLIGENCEBALESSONFROMTHELATTERISAPPLICABLETOTHEFORMERCTHEOUTCOMEOFTHELATTERAGGRAVATESTHEFORMERDBOTHOFTHEMHAVETURNEDFROMBADTOWORSETEXT3OFALLTHECOMPONENTSOFAGOODNIGHT’SSLEEP,DREAMSSEEMTOBELEASTWITHINOURCONTROLINDREAMS,AWINDOWOPENSINTOAWORLDWHERELOGICISSUSPENDEDANDDEADPEOPLESPEAKACENTURYAGO,FREUDFORMULATEDHISREVOLUTIONARYTHEORYTHATDREAMSWERETHEDISGUISEDSHADOWSOFOURUNCONSCIOUSDESIRESANDFEARS;BYTHELATE1970S,NEUROLOGISTSHADSWITCHEDTOTHINKINGOFTHEM2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题9ASJUST“MENTALNOISE”THERANDOMBYPRODUCTSOFTHENEURALREPAIRWORKTHATGOESONDURINGSLEEPNOWRESEARCHERSSUSPECTTHATDREAMSAREPARTOFTHEMIND’SEMOTIONALTHERMOSTAT,REGULATINGMOODSWHILETHEBRAINIS“OFFLINE”ANDONELEADINGAUTHORITYSAYSTHATTHESEINTENSELYPOWERFULMENTALEVENTSCANBENOTONLYHARNESSEDBUTACTUALLYBROUGHTUNDERCONSCIOUSCONTROL,TOHELPUSSLEEPANDFEELBETTER,“IT’SYOURDREAM,”SAYSROSALINDCARTWRIGHT,CHAIROFPSYCHOLOGYATCHICAGO’SMEDICALCENTER“IFYOUDON’TLIKEIT,CHANGEIT”EVIDENCEFROMBRAINIMAGINGSUPPORTSTHISVIEWTHEBRAINISASACTIVEDURINGREMRAPIDEYEMOVEMENTSLEEPWHENMOSTVIVIDDREAMSOCCURASITISWHENFULLYAWAKE,SAYSDR,ERICNOFZINGERATTHEUNIVERSITYOFPITTSBURGHBUTNOTALLPARTSOFTHEBRAINAREEQUALLYINVOLVED;THELIMBICSYSTEMTHE“EMOTIONALBRAIN”ISESPECIALLYACTIVE,WHILETHEPREFRONTALCORTEXTHECENTEROFINTELLECTANDREASONINGISRELATIVELYQUIET“WEWAKEUPFROMDREAMSHAPPYORDEPRESSED,ANDTHOSEFEELINGSCANSTAYWITHUSALLDAY”SAYSSTANFORDSLEEPRESEARCHERDRWILLIAMDEMENTTHELINKBETWEENDREAMSANDEMOTIONSSHOWSUPAMONGTHEPATIENTSINCARTWRIGHT’SCLINICMOSTPEOPLESEEMTOHAVEMOREBADDREAMSEARLYINTHENIGHT,PROGRESSINGTOWARDHAPPIERONESBEFOREAWAKENING,SUGGESTINGTHATTHEYAREWORKINGTHROUGH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