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2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

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2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题12008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsTheideathatsomegroupsofpeoplemaybemoreintelligentthanothersisoneofthosehypothesesthatdarenotspeakitsname.ButGregoryCochranis大1家tosayitanyway.Heisthat大2家bird,ascientistwhoworksindependently大3家anyinstitution.Hehelpedpopularizetheideathatsomediseasesnot大4家thoughttohaveabacterialcausewereactuallyinfections,whicharousedmuchcontroversywhenitwasfirstsuggested.大5家he,however,mighttrembleatthe大6家ofwhatheisabouttodo.Togetherwithanothertwoscientists,heispublishingapaperwhichnotonly大7家thatonegroupofhumanityismoreintelligentthantheothers,butexplainstheprocessthathasbroughtthisabout.Thegroupin大8家areaparticularpeopleoriginatedfromcentralEurope.Theprocessisnaturalselection.ThisgroupgenerallydowellinIQtest,大9家1215pointsabovethe大10家valueof100,andhavecontributed大11家totheintellectualandculturallifeoftheWest,asthe大12家oftheirelites,includingseveralworldrenownedscientists,大13家.Theyalsosuffermoreoftenthanmostpeoplefromanumberofnastygeneticdiseases,suchasbreastcancer.Thesefacts,大14家,havepreviouslybeenthoughtunrelated.Theformerhasbeen大15家tosocialeffects,suchasastrongtraditionof大16家education.Thelatterwasseenasaan大17家ofgeneticisolation.Dr.Cochransuggeststhattheintelligenceanddiseasesareintimately大18家.Hisargumentisthattheunusualhistoryofthesepeoplehas大19家themtouniqueevolutionarypressuresthathaveresultedinthis大20家stateofaffairs.1.AselectedBpreparedCobligedDpleased2.AuniqueBparticularCspecialDrare3.AofBwithCinDagainst4.AsubsequentlyBpresentlyCpreviouslyDlately2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题25.AOnlyBSoCEvenDHence6.AthoughtBsightCcostDrisk7.AadvisesBsuggestsCprotestsDobjects8.AprogressBfactCneedDquestion9.AattainingBscoringCreachingDcalculating10.AnormalBcommonCmeanDtotal11.AunconsciouslyBdisproportionatelyCindefinitelyDunaccountably12.AmissionsBfortunesCinterestsDcareers13.AaffirmBwitnessCobserveDapprove14.AmoreoverBthereforeChoweverDmeanwhile15.AgivenupBgotoverCcarriedonDputdown16.AassessingBsupervisingCadministeringDvaluing17.AdevelopmentBoriginCconsequenceDinstrument18.AlinkedBintegratedCwovenDcombined19.AlimitedBsubjectedCconvertedDdirected20.AparadoxicalBincompatibleCinevitableDcontinuousSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirections2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题3Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1Whilestillcatchinguptomeninsomespheresofmodernlife,womenappeartobewayaheadinatleastoneundesirablecategory.Womenareparticularlysusceptibletodevelopingdepressionandanxietydisordersinresponsetostresscomparedtomen,accordingtoDr.Yehuda,chiefpsychiatristatNewYorksVeteransAdministrationHospital.Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.Inseveralofthestudies,whenstressedoutfemaleratshadtheirovariesthefemalereproductiveorgansremoved,theirchemicalresponsesbecameequaltothoseofthemales.Addingtoawomansincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.Itsnotnecessarilythatwomendontcopeaswell.Itsjustthattheyhavesomuchmoretocopewith,saysDr.Yehuda.Theircapacityfortoleratingstressmayevenbegreaterthanmens,sheobserves,itsjustthattheyredealingwithsomanymorethingsthattheybecomewornoutfromitmorevisiblyandsooner.Dr.Yehudanotesanotherdifferencebetweenthesexes.Ithinkthatthekindsofthingsthatwomenareexposedtotendtobeinmoreofachronicorrepeatednature.Mengotowarandareexposedtocombatstress.Menareexposedtomoreactsofrandomphysicalviolence.Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedtotendtobeindomesticsituations,by,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeoneshotdeals.Thewearandtearthatcomesfromtheselongerrelationshipscanbequitedevastating.AdelineAlvarezmarriedat18andgavebirthtoason,butwasdeterminedtofinishcollege.Istruggledalottogetthecollegedegree.Iwaslivinginsomuchfrustrationthatthatwasmyescape,togotoschool,andgetaheadanddobetter.Later,hermarriageendedandshebecameasinglemother.Itsthehardestthingtotakecareofateenager,haveajob,paytherent,paythecarpayment,andpaythedebt.Ilivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.NoteveryoneexperiencesthekindsofseverechronicstressesAlvarezdescribes.Butmostwomentodayarecopingwithalotofobligations,withfewbreaks,andfeelingthestrain.Alvarezsexperiencedemonstratestheimportanceoffindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题421.WhichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothefirsttwoparagraphsAWomenarebiologicallymorevulnerabletostress.BWomenarestillsufferingmuchstresscausedbymen.CWomenaremoreexperiencedthanmenincopingwithstress.DMenandwomenshowdifferentinclinationswhenfacedwithstress.22.Dr.YehudasresearchsuggeststhatwomenAneedextradosesofchemicalstohandlestress.Bhavelimitedcapacityfortoleratingstress.Caremorecapableofavoidingstress.Dareexposedtomorestress.23.AccordingtoParagraph4,thestresswomenconfronttendstobeAdomesticandtemporary.Birregularandviolent.Cdurableandfrequent.Dtrivialandrandom.24.ThesentenceIlivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.Line6,Para.5showsthatAAlvarezcaredaboutnothingbutmakingmoney.BAlvarezssalarybarelycoveredherhouseholdexpenses.CAlvarezgotpaychecksfromdifferentjobs.DAlvarezpaidpracticallyeverythingbycheck.25.WhichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetextAStrainofStressNoWayOutBResponsestoStressGenderDifferenceCStressAnalysisWhatChemicalsSayDGenderInequalityWomenUnderStress2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题5Text2Itusedtobesostraightforward.Ateamofresearchersworkingtogetherinthelaboratorywouldsubmittheresultsoftheirresearchtoajournal.Ajournaleditorwouldthenremovetheauthorsnamesandaffiliationsfromthepaperandsendittotheirpeersforreview.Dependingonthecommentsreceived,theeditorwouldacceptthepaperforpublicationordeclineit.Copyrightrestedwiththejournalpublisher,andresearchersseekingknowledgeoftheresultswouldhavetosubscribetothejournal.Nolonger.TheInternet–andpressurefromfundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernmentfundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit–ismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.TheOrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentOECDhasjustissuedareportdescribingthefarreachingconsequencesofthis.Thereport,byJohnHoughtonofVictoriaUniversityinAustraliaandGrahamVickeryoftheOECD,makesheavyreadingforpublisherswhohave,sofar,madehandsomeprofits.Butitgoesfurtherthanthat.Itsignalsachangeinwhathas,untilnow,beenakeyelementofscientificendeavor.Thevalueofknowledgeandthereturnonthepublicinvestmentinresearchdepends,inpart,uponwidedistributionandreadyaccess.Itisbigbusiness.InAmerica,thecorescientificpublishingmarketisestimatedatbetween7billionand11billion.TheInternationalAssociationofScientific,TechnicalandMedicalPublisherssaysthattherearemorethan2,000publishersworldwidespecializinginthesesubjects.Theypublishmorethan1.2millionarticleseachyearinsome16,000journals.Thisisnowchanging.AccordingtotheOECDreport,some75ofscholarlyjournalsarenowonline.Entirelynewbusinessmodelsareemergingthreemainoneswereidentifiedbythereportsauthors.Thereisthesocalledbigdeal,whereinstitutionalsubscriberspayforaccesstoacollectionofonlinejournaltitlesthroughsitelicensingagreements.Thereisopenaccesspublishing,typicallysupportedbyaskingtheauthororhisemployertopayforthepapertobepublished.Finally,thereareopenaccessarchives,whereorganizationssuchasuniversitiesorinternationallaboratoriessupportinstitutionalrepositories.Othermodelsexistthatarehybridsofthesethree,suchasdelayedopenaccess,wherejournalsallowonlysubscriberstoreadapaperforthefirstsixmonths,beforemakingitfreelyavailabletoeveryonewhowishestoseeit.Allthiscouldchangethetraditionalformofthepeerreviewprocess,atleastforthepublicationofpapers.2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题626.Inthefirstparagraph,theauthordiscussesAthebackgroundinformationofjournalediting.Bthepublicationroutineoflaboratoryreports.Ctherelationsofauthorswithjournalpublishers.Dthetraditionalprocessofjournalpublication.27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheOECDreportAItcriticizesgovernmentfundedresearch.BItintroducesaneffectivemeansofpublication.CItupsetsprofitmakingjournalpublishers.DItbenefitsscientificresearchconsiderably.28.Accordingtothetext,onlinepublicationissignificantinthatAitprovidesaneasieraccesstoscientificresults.Bitbringshugeprofitstoscientificresearchers.Citemphasizesthecrucialroleofscientificknowledge.Ditfacilitatespublicinvestmentinscientificresearch.29.Withtheopenaccesspublishingmodel,theauthorofapaperisrequiredtoAcoverthecostofitspublication.Bsubscribetothejournalpublishingit.Callowotheronlinejournalstouseitfreely.Dcompletethepeerreviewbeforesubmission.30.WhichofthefollowingbestsummarizesthetextATheInternetisposingathreattopublishers.BAnewmodeofpublicationisemerging.CAuthorswelcomethenewchannelforpublication.DPublicationisrenderedeasierbyonlineservice.2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题7Text3Intheearly1960sWiltChamberlainwasoneofonlythreeplayersintheNationalBasketballAssociationNBAlistedatoversevenfeet.Ifhehadplayedlastseason,however,hewouldhavebeenoneof42.Thebodiesplayingmajorprofessionalsportshavechangeddramaticallyovertheyears,andmanagershavebeenmorethanwillingtoadjustteamuniformstofitthegrowingnumbersofbigger,longerframes.Thetrendinsports,though,maybeobscuringanunrecognizedrealityAmericanshavegenerallystoppedgrowing.Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago,todayspeople–especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations–apparentlyreachedtheirlimitintheearly1960s.Andtheyarentlikelytogetanytaller.Inthegeneralpopulationtoday,atthisgenetic,environmentallevel,weveprettymuchgoneasfaraswecango,saysanthropologistWilliamCameronChumleaofWrightStateUniversity.InthecaseofNBAplayers,theirincreaseinheightappearstoresultfromtheincreasinglycommonpracticeofrecruitingplayersfromallovertheworld.Growth,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20,demandscaloriesandnutrients–notably,protein–tofeedexpandingtissues.Atthestartofthe20thcentury,undernutritionandchildhoodinfectionsgotintheway.Butasdietandhealthimproved,childrenandadolescentshave,onaverage,increasedinheightbyaboutaninchandahalfevery20years,apatternknownastheseculartrendinheight.YetaccordingtotheCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention,averageheight–5′9″formen,5′4″forwomen–hasntreallychangedsince1960.Geneticallyspeaking,thereareadvantagestoavoidingsubstantialheight.Duringchildbirth,largerbabieshavemoredifficultypassingthroughthebirthcanal.Moreover,eventhoughhumanshavebeenuprightformillionsofyears,ourfeetandbackcontinuetostrugglewithbipedalpostureandcannoteasilywithstandrepeatedstrainimposedbyoversizelimbs.Therearesomerealconstraintsthataresetbythegeneticarchitectureoftheindividualorganism,saysanthropologistWilliamLeonardofNorthwesternUniversity.Geneticmaximumscanchange,butdontexpectthistohappensoon.ClaireC.Gordon,senioranthropologistattheArmyResearchCenterinNatick,Mass.,ensuresthat90percentoftheuniformsandworkstationsfitrecruitswithoutalteration.Shesaysthat,unlikethoseforbasketball,thelengthofmilitaryuniformshasnotchangedforsometime.Andifyouneedtopredicthumanheightinthenearfuturetodesignapieceofequipment,Gordonsaysthatbyandlarge,youcouldusetodaysdataandfeelfairlyconfident.2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题831.WiltChamberlainiscitedasanexampletoAillustratethechangeofheightofNBAplayers.BshowthepopularityofNBAplayersintheU.S..CcomparedifferentgenerationsofNBAplayers.DassesstheachievementsoffamousNBAplayers.32.WhichofthefollowingplaysakeyroleinbodygrowthaccordingtothetextAGeneticmodification.BNaturalenvironment.CLivingstandards.DDailyexercise.33.OnwhichofthefollowingstatementswouldtheauthormostprobablyagreeANonAmericansaddtotheaverageheightofthenation.BHumanheightisconditionedbytheuprightposture.CAmericansarethetallestonaverageintheworld.DLargerbabiestendtobecometallerinadulthood.34.WelearnfromthelastparagraphthatinthenearfutureAthegarmentindustrywillreconsidertheuniformsize.Bthedesignofmilitaryuniformswillremainunchanged.Cgenetictestingwillbeemployedinselectingsportsmen.Dtheexistingdataofhumanheightwillstillbeapplicable.35.ThetextintendstotellusthatAthechangeofhumanheightfollowsacyclicpattern.Bhumanheightisbecomingevenmorepredictable.CAmericanshavereachedtheirgeneticgrowthlimit.DthegeneticpatternofAmericanshasaltered.2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题9Text4In1784,fiveyearsbeforehebecamepresidentoftheUnitedStates,GeorgeWashington,52,wasnearlytoothless.Sohehiredadentisttotransplantnineteethintohisjaw–havingextractedthemfromthemouthsofhisslaves.ThatsafardifferentimagefromthecherrytreechoppingGeorgemostpeoplerememberfromtheirhistorybooks.Butrecently,manyhistorianshavebeguntofocusontherolesslaveryplayedinthelivesofthefoundinggeneration.TheyhavebeenspurredinpartbyDNAevidencemadeavailablein1998,whichalmostcertainlyprovedThomasJeffersonhadfatheredatleastonechildwithhisslaveSallyHemings.Andonlyoverthepast30yearshavescholarsexaminedhistoryfromthebottomup.Worksofseveralhistoriansrevealthemoralcompromisesmadebythenationsearlyleadersandthefragilenatureofthecountrysinfancy.Moresignificantly,theyarguethatmanyoftheFoundingFathersknewslaverywaswrong–andyetmostdidlittletofightit.Morethananything,thehistorianssay,thefounderswerehamperedbythecultureoftheirtime.WhileWashingtonandJeffersonprivatelyexpresseddistasteforslavery,theyalsounderstoodthatitwaspartofthepoliticalandeconomicbedrockofthecountrytheyhelpedtocreate.Foronething,theSouthcouldnotaffordtopartwithitsslaves.Owningslaveswaslikehavingalargebankaccount,saysWiencek,authorofAnImperfectGodGeorgeWashington,HisSlaves,andtheCreationofAmerica.ThesouthernstateswouldnothavesignedtheConstitutionwithoutprotectionsforthepeculiarinstitution,includingaclausethatcountedaslaveasthreefifthsofamanforpurposesofcongressionalrepresentation.Andthestatesmenspoliticallivesdependedonslavery.ThethreefifthsformulahandedJeffersonhisnarrowvictoryinthepresidentialelectionof1800byinflatingthevotesofthesouthernstatesintheElectoralCollege.Onceinoffice,JeffersonextendedslaverywiththeLouisianaPurchasein1803thenewlandwascarvedinto13states,includingthreeslavestates.Still,JeffersonfreedHemingsschildren–thoughnotHemingsherselforhisapproximately150otherslaves.Washington,whohadbeguntobelievethatallmenwerecreatedequalafterobservingthebraveryoftheblacksoldiersduringtheRevolutionaryWar,overcamethestrongoppositionofhisrelativestogranthisslavestheirfreedominhiswill.Onlyadecadeearlier,suchanactwouldhaverequiredlegislativeapprovalinVirginia.36.GeorgeWashingtonsdentalsurgeryismentionedto

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