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商务谈判礼仪调查问卷(来自哈佛商学院)英文版.pdf

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商务谈判礼仪调查问卷(来自哈佛商学院)英文版.pdf

Copyright©2008byJamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQianWorkingpapersareindraftform.Thisworkingpaperisdistributedforpurposesofcommentanddiscussiononly.Itmaynotbereproducedwithoutpermissionofthecopyrightholder.Copiesofworkingpapersareavailablefromtheauthor.EtiquetteandProcessPuzzlesofNegotiatingBusinessinChinaAQuestionnaireJamesK.SebeniusChengJasonQianWorkingPaper09077Copyright©2008byJamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian.Workingpapersareindraftform.Thisworkingpaperisdistributedforpurposesofcommentanddiscussiononly.Itmaynotbereproducedwithoutpermissionofthecopyrightholder.Copiesofworkingpapersareavailablefromtheauthor.ETIQUETTEANDPROCESSPUZZLESOFNEGOTIATINGBUSINESSINCHINAAQUESTIONNAIREJamesK.Sebeniusjsebeniushbs.eduChengJasonQianJQIANHBS.EDUHARVARDBUSINESSSCHOOL,BOSTON,MAUSADecember24,2008JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian1Culturaldifferencescanaffectnegotiationsinmanyways,frominfluencingthebasicmotivationsandperceptionsoftheplayerstoguidingthesurfaceaspects,suchasetiquette,protocol,andprocess,ofbusinessinteractions.Navigatingthechallengesofthesesurfacebehavioralissuesisusefultoplumbsomeofthedeeperculturalfactorsanddifferencesingovernanceanddecisionmakingofcrossborderbusinessnegotiation.Assuggestedbyaniceberganalogy,thoughetiquette,protocol,anddeportmentcomprisethevisibletip,theymightbelinkedtomoredeeplyrooted,lessobviousforcesthatarefullycapableofsinkingtheship.Thisworkingpaper,throughaquestionnaireformatintendedasaninstrumenttocollectdatafromarangeofpeoplewithvaryingChinarelatednegotiatingexperiencepresentsaseriesofsituationsofatypicalSinoforeignbusinessnegotiationtoaddressboththesurfaceandtherootculturalfactors.ThisquestionnairewillservenotonlytoevaluatesubjectsappreciationforChinesecultureasitbearsonnegotiation,butalsotobetterunderstandingoftheprocessaspectsofcrossbordernegotiationingeneral.NavigatingtheChineseEtiquetteMazeAstheseniorvicepresidentinchargeofthebusinessdevelopmentunitofafastgrowingcompany,youarelookingforthefirsttimeforlongtermsuppliersinChina.AmongseveralcandidatesonyourradarscreenthatappeartobeagoodfitfortheproposedsupplycontractisacompanylocatedinJinan,acityinnortheastChina.Thefindingsofyourconsultantsduediligencebeingconsistentwithyourownassessmentthatarelationshipwiththissuppliercouldimproveyourcompanysperformance,youdecidethatyouandseveralassociateswillvisitthefirmwithinnextcoupleofweekstoexplorethepossibilityofnegotiatingasupplycontract.Youarewellpreparedforthenegotiationsfromacorporateperspective,butlesssureofyourselfwithregardtoissuesofprotocolandetiquetteinaChinesebusinesssetting.Nonetheless,yourcolleaguesarecountingonyoutoleadthemgracefullythroughtheupcomingsessions.Readthefollowingscenariosandselectwhatyoubelievetobethemostappropriateresponseineachsituation.Feelfreetoaddtoeachscenario,asanadditionalfoption,yourownresponseoranycommentsorobservations.1YouarequitecertainthatyourcompanyandtheJinansupplierhavenopriorknowledgeofeachother.WhatwouldbethemosteffectivewaytoestablishcontactwiththisprospectivesupplieraColdcalltheChinesesuppliertoexpressyourcompanysinterestinvisitingwithinnexttwoweekstoexploreabusinesscollaboration,thenmakeyourowntravelarrangements.bIdentifyandaskanintermediaryorfriendinChinawhoisknowntotheJinanfirmtointroduceyouandarrangeameetingduringyourtrip.cLeverageyourlocalcontactsGuanxipersonalnetworktoestablishconnectionswithintheChinesefirm,thenasktheinsiderstodeliveryourmessagetotheappropriateexecutivesandwaittobecontactedbythem.JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian2dMakeotherimportanttasksforwhichyouaretravelingtoJinanyourfirstpriority,thencalltheChinesecompanytoarrangeabriefmeetingbeforeyouleave.eContacttheChinesecompanyviaemailandfax,sendasmuchinformationaspossibleaboutyourcompanyandwhatyouhopetoachievee.g.,yourcompanysbrochure,aletterofintent,andsoforth,andwaittobecontacted.f___________________________________________________________________________.2AmeetinghasbeensetwiththeJinansupplierandyouarepreparingthetrip.WhowouldyouhavetoaccompanyyouaNoone.Youlltravelalonetosavemoneyandbemoreflexible,andtrustthattheChinesecompanywillhaveinterpreters.bYoulltakewithyouindividualswhocanadviceyournegotiationandhelpyoucraftacontract,suchasyourcorporatecounselandanaccountant.cYoulltakewithyouaChinesecolleaguewhocanplaythedualroleofnegotiatorandinterpreter.dYoullengagetheservicesofandtakealongaprofessionalChineseinterpreter.eYoullbeaccompaniedbyyourCEOforsymbolicpurposes.f___________________________________________________________________________.3Givenlimitedresourcesandtimetoprepareforpreliminarynegotiations,whatisyourtoppriorityaPerformaStrengths,Weaknesses,Opportunities,ThreatsanalysisoftheChinesecompanysbusiness.bThoroughlyinvestigatethebackgroundsofthepeoplenegotiatorsanddecisionmakerswithwhomyouwillbedealing.cPolishandrehearseyourpresentation.dBriefandarrangeappropriatenegotiatingrolesforeachofyourteammembers.eConsultChinaexpertsorexpatriatesregardinghowtoconductbusinesswiththeChinese.f___________________________________________________________________________.4Upondeplaning,youandyourcolleaguesaresurprisedtofindarepresentativeoftheChinesecompanywaitingtoprovideyourtransportation.Onthewaytohotel,thisindividualcasuallyinquiresaboutyourplanse.g.,howlongyouplantostay,whatotheractivitiesortasksyouexpecttooccupyyou,andsoforthandyourexperiencedoingbusinessinChina.HowdoyourespondaTellthisindividual,frankly,thatyouarevisitingJinanforthefirsttimeandwillstayonlyfourdays.Expressyourhopethatsomeactivitiesorsightseeingmightbearrangedforyou.JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian3bTalkonlyaboutpartsofyourplanthatarerelatedto,andaboutthemajortopicsyouwishtodiscussat,thescheduledmeeting.cTogiveanimpressionthatyouarenotanewcomerwhocouldbeeasilytakenadvantageof,boastthatyouareaveteranofdoingbusinessinChinaandveryfamiliarwithlocalcustoms.Inthemeantime,youprivatelydecidetospendtherestofthedaytakingatourbyyourowntobecomeacquaintedwiththehistoryandcultureofthecityandregion.dUsejetlagasanexcusetosayaslittleaspossible.eBeingawarethatnegotiationhasalreadybeguninformally,strategicallydisclosesomeinformationthatwillsubsequentlyworkinyourfavor.f___________________________________________________________________________.5Thenextday,youandyourcolleaguesarriveatthecompanysofficepunctuallyat1000a.m.Thereceptionistgreetsyou,informsyouthatthepersonwithwhomyouaretomeetisinameetingthatisrunninglate,andoffersyouaseatinawaitingarea.Almostfortyminuteshavepassedandyouveheardnothingfurtherfromthereceptionist.WhatshouldyoudoaDemonstratethatyourtimeisvaluablebyaskingthereceptionisttoinformthepersonwithwhomyouweretomeetthatyouwillmeethim/heratyourhotelpunctuallyat1000a.m.thefollowingmorning,andleave.bWaitpatientlyandregisternocomplaint.cTrytojudgewhetheryourChinesecounterpartisindeeddetainedinameetingorisreluctanttomeetwithyouyouhavebeengiventounderstandthatChinesewillputoffameetingforwhichtheyareunprepared,andtactfullyaskthereceptionistifthemeetingisstilltobeheld.dTactfullyregisteryourimpatiencewiththereceptionist.eWait,butresolvetoregisteryourdispleasureatbeingkeptwaitinglateratakeypointinthenegotiations.f___________________________________________________________________________.6YouareinformedthatthemeetingcannowtakeplaceandareescortedtoaconferenceroomwhereyourChinesehostsarewaitingforyou.Uponenteringtheroom,whatshouldyoudoaGreeteachpersonintheChinesedelegationwithafirmhandshaketodemonstrateyourseriousnessabouttheimpendingproceedingsandtoavoidanyimplicationofhierarchyoneitherside.bWaitforyourassistantorinterpretertogreetyourChinesehostsandformallyintroduceyoutoeachofthem.cStandstiffly,withoutsmiling,andawaitcuesfromyourChinesehosts.dDeterminewhichofyourhostsissenior,andgreetthatpersonfirstwithamoderatelyfirmhandshakeandusingthecorrecttitlewhenaddressinghim/her.JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian4eIgnoringtherest,godirectlytoyourcontactpersonortoindividualsyouknowand,addressingthembyname,greetthemwithahugorhandshakeandapatontheshouldertoshowintimacy.f___________________________________________________________________________.7Aftergreetingshavebeenexchanged,howshouldyouofferyourbusinesscardaCasuallyhandonecardtoeachmemberoftheChinesedelegation.bHandasinglecardtotheseniormemberofthedelegationandignoretheothers.cPlaceasmanybusinesscardsastherearemembersoftheChinesedelegationattheendoftheconferencetableandletthemtakeoneornotattheirdiscretion.dHoldingafewofyourbusinesscardsinyourlefthand,presentonetoeachmemberoftheChinesedelegationwithyourrighthand,ensuringthatnodirecteyecontactismade.eUsingbothhands,presentonecardatatime,printedsidefacingawayfromyou,toindividualstowhomhavebeenformallyintroducedbytheprincipleChinesehost.f___________________________________________________________________________.8Whatdoyouintendtodowithseveralgiftsyouhavebroughtanexpensivecrystalclockwrappedinoceanbluegiftpaperwithapurpleribbon,anelegantSwissArmyKnifewithablackleathercase,andahandengravedsilvercigarettelighterinaredsilkcoveredboxtiedwithgoldenribbonsaPresenttheclocktotheprinciplehostasagiftfortheChinesecompanytosignifyattheoutsetofthenegotiationsyoursincereinterestinpursuingalongtermbusinesspartnership.bIgnoringtheotherChinesehosts,presenttheclocktotheprinciplehostasapersonalgiftattheconclusionofthenegotiationstosignifyyourearnestdesireforlongtermfriendship.cIgnoringtheotherseniorChinesehosts,presenttheSwissArmyKnifetotheprincipleChinesehostprivatelyideallyduringthewelcomingbanquet,indicatingthatthegiftisexpensiveconsistentwithyourhostsstatus.dPresentthesilvercigarettelightertotheprinciplehostpublicly,attheconclusionofthenegotiations,asagiftfortheChinesecompany.eWithholdthemforthetimebeing,thisbeingjusttheinitialcontact,andnothingbeingcertainyet.f___________________________________________________________________________.9TheheadoftheChinesedelegationoffersyoutheseatofhonorattheheadoftheconferencetable,thatis,thechairinthemiddleofthetablefacingthedoor.WhatshouldyoudoaUndernocircumstancesaccepttheoffer.JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian5bGraciouslyaccepttheseat.cExplainthatyouarehonoredbythegesture,butprefertoallowanothermemberofyourdelegationtotakethehonoredseattherebydemonstratingthatyouvalueallmembersofyourteamequally.dPolitelyrefusetheseatseveraltimesbeforeacquiescing.eInsistthatyourhosttakethehonoredseat.f___________________________________________________________________________.10Astaffmemberarrivesandoffersyoutea,whichyougreatlydislike.WhatshouldyoudoaIndicatethatyouwouldpreferadifferentbeverage.bAcceptthetea.cPolitelydecline,andremoveabottleofEvianspringwaterfromyourbriefcase.dRiseandaccepttheteawithaslightbow.eAcceptthetea,andimmediatelyofferittoanothermemberofyourparty.f___________________________________________________________________________.11Whenallhavebeenintroducedandseated,whatshouldyou,astheprincipleguest,dobeforetheformalmeetingstartsaTaketheleadbyinitiatingasubstantivediscussionofthepotentialforcollaboration,andthenproceedwithyourcompanyspresentation.bWaitforyourhoststobegintheconversation,andfollowtheirleadwithoutinterrupting.cSolicitfromyourhostsinformationabouttheircompanyanditsbusinessinterests.dSetalighttonefortheconversationbymakingjokesorrelatingapersonalbadbutfunnyexperienceinChina.eEstablishrapportbyinitiatingconversationsaboutnonbusinesstopics,suchasfamily,theweather,sightseeing,andsoforth,andengaginginsmalltalkwiththeprincipleChinesehost.f___________________________________________________________________________.12Whentalking,howshouldyouaddressthoseintheroomaSpeakdirectlyto,andmaintainconstanteyecontactwith,theChineseinterpretertoensurethatyouareheardclearlyandyourwordsaretranslatedaccurately.bLookatandspeakdirectlytoyourprinciplehostasifyourEnglishwerebeingunderstoodperfectly,andconcealingyourfrustrationatthelackofspontaneousreactionfromyourChinesecounterpart.cSpeaktoandmaintaineyecontactwiththeChinesehostsittingclosesttoyou.dFaceyourprinciplehost,butwithdowncasteyestoavoiddirecteyecontact.JamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian6eAddresstheentireChinesegroup,shiftingyoureyesfromonepersontoanothertomaintainasenseofconnectionwithyouraudience.f___________________________________________________________________________.13Astheatmospheregraduallywarms,yourChinesehostsbegintoaskpersonalquestions,suchasHowoldareyou,Fromwhichschooldidyougraduate,Whatisyoursalary,Whatdoesyourspousedoandsoforth.Youfindthesequestionsaboutwhatyouconsidertobeprivatemattersuncomfortable.WhatshouldyoudoaAnswerhonestly,understandingthatthisisaChinesewayofexpressingconcernandintimacy,andanecessarysteptowardsdevelopingapersonalrelationship.bDeclinetoanswerthequestionsandaskyourhoststorespectyourprivacy.cSelectivelyanswerthelessprivatequestions,andaskyourChinesehostssimilarquestions.dTrytododgethequestionsbychangingthesubject.eAnswerthequestions,butfeelatlibertytoprevaricate.f___________________________________________________________________________.14Thegrouphasbeenchattingfreelyforalmostanhour.Eagertogettothebusinessathand,andwithyourhostsstillshowingnosignofdoingso,whatshouldyoudoaInterruptyourhostsandproposethattheconversationbeshiftedtothediscussionofbusiness.bListenwithoutcomplaining,andwithoutcontributingtotheconversation.cListenwithoutcomplaining,contributingtotheconversationoccasionally.dShowyourimpatiencewithbodylanguage.ePolitelyinquirewhetheritwouldntbeagoodideatogetdowntobusiness,andtosticktothemeetingagendainsubsequentsessions.f___________________________________________________________________________.SolvingtheDeeperCulturalandProcessPuzzlesinChineseBusiness15Earlierintheconversation,youhadclearlystatedthepurposeofyourtripandyourChinesehostshadseemedquiteinterested.Now,theygiveyouthefloorforabout45minutes.WhatshouldyoudoaBeginyourpresentationimmediatelyinordertotakefullestadvantageofthetimeallotted.Makeyourpointsorargumentssystematicallyandconsistently,discouraginginterruptionsanddeclininganyopportunitiestobreak.bDividethepresentationintoseveralpartseach1015minutesandpauseaftereachparttogivetheChineseanopportunitytocommentorraisequestions.cSummarizethestructureofthepresentationandinvitesuggestionsfromyourChinesehostsabouthowbestwaytodeliverit.FollowtheirsuggestionsJamesK.SebeniusandChengJasonQian7dBrieflystateeachissueandattendantpoints,andlettheChinesecommentfullybeforemovingontothenext.Interruptorbreakinasnecessaryinordertoclarifyordefendyourpoints.eCourteouslydeclineseveraltimes,insistingthatrespectandperhapsadesiretohavethemshowtheirhanddictatesthatyouletyourChinesehostspresenttheirproposalfirst.f___________________________________________________________________________.16YourChinesehostsevidencelittleinterestinthespecificsofthepotentialcollaborationschedulesandagendas,forexample,preferringtotalkonlyaboutvague,appealingsoundingandnoncontroversialgeneralitieslikemutualunderstanding,trust,longtermcooperation,andgeneratingsynergies.WhatisyourtakeonthesethingsaTheyareonlyhelpfultotheChineseside.bTheyareequallyhelpfultobothsidesintermsofestablishingacommonground.cTheyareoflittleconsequencetoeithersidebecauseoncenegotiationsareunderway,bothsideswillbefocusedonspecifictermsandthesehollowgeneralprincipleswillbecomeirrelevant.dTheyareequallyhelpfulandnecessarytobothsidesatthehighestlevel,butnotrelevanttonegotiationsatthetechnicallevel.eTheyare,infact,detrimentalbecauseagreeingtosuchgeneralprinciples,totheextentthatitgivesrisetounrealisticexpectationonthepartofmanagementonbothsidesabouttheprogressofthenegotiationprocess,addsanunnecessaryburdentothefrontlinenegotiators.f___________________________________________________________________________.17YoureffortstoredirectthediscussionawayfromvaguegeneralprinciplestowardsthespecificsofcollaborationareresistedbyyourChinesehosts.WhatcanyoudoaInsistthattimebemadetodiscussspecificsoftheproposedcollaboration.bSaynothing,butmentallyregisterthatthismightbeaployonthepartoftheChinesetoavoidmeetingnecessaryobligationsinthefuture.cExpresstoyourhoststhatitisawasteoftimetotalkaboutthingswithoutsubstantialvalueandendthemeetingbeforethenextmeeting,sendyourChinesehostsaformalagendaandschedule.dIntheinterestofestablishingamutuallyagreeablecommongroundaswellastonurturetherelationship,trytokeeptheconversationflowingnaturallyuntilbothsideshavearrivedatacomfortablelevelofconfidenceandtrust,andonlythentrytointerestyourChinesehostsindiscussingspecifics.eGowiththeflowandcontinuediscussingvaguegeneralitieswiththeChinese,trustingthatthespecificswillbeworkedoutastherelationshipevolves.f___________________________________________________________________________.

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