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2012年考研英语25个阅读模版.doc

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2012年考研英语25个阅读模版.doc

12012年考研英语25个阅读模版SAMPLE1经济学类题目序号题型归类第1题中心主旨题型第2题反推题型第3题关键词语题型第4题反论题型第5题关键词语题型RECENTYEARSHAVEBROUGHTMINORITYOWNEDBUSINESSESINTHEUNITEDSTATESUNPRECEDENTEDOPPORTUNITIESASWELLASNEWANDSIGNIFICANTRISKSCIVILRIGHTSACTIVISTSHAVELONGARGUEDTHATONEOFTHEPRINCIPALREASONSWHYBLACKS,HISPANICS,ANDOTHERMINORITYGROUPSHAVEDIFFICULTYESTABLISHINGTHEMSELVESINBUSINESSISTHATTHEYLACKACCESSTOTHESIZABLEORDERSANDSUBCONTRACTSTHATAREGENERATEDBYLARGECOMPANIESNOWCONGRESS,INAPPARENTAGREEMENT,HASREQUIREDBYLAWTHATBUSINESSESAWARDEDFEDERALCONTRACTSOFMORETHAN500,000DOTHEIRBESTTOFINDMINORITYSUBCONTRACTORSANDRECORDTHEIREFFORTSTODOSOONFORMSFILEDWITHTHEGOVERNMENTINDEED,SOMEFEDERALANDLOCALAGENCIESHAVEGONESOFARASTOSETSPECIFICPERCENTAGEGOALSFORAPPORTIONINGPARTSOFPUBLICWORKSCONTRACTSTOMINORITYENTERPRISESCORPORATERESPONSEAPPEARSTOHAVEBEENSUBSTANTIALACCORDINGTOFIGURESCOLLECTEDIN1977,THETOTALOFCORPORATECONTRACTSWITHMINORITYBUSINESSESROSEFROM77MILLIONIN1972TO11BILLIONIN1977THEPROJECTEDTOTALOFCORPORATECONTRACTSWITHMINORITYBUSINESSESFORTHEEARLY1980’SISESTIMATEDTOBEOVER53BILLIONPERYEARWITHNOLETUPANTICIPATEDINTHENEXTDECADEPROMISINGASITISFORMINORITYBUSINESSES,THISINCREASEDPATRONAGEPOSESDANGERSFORTHEM,TOOFIRST,MINORITYFIRMSRISKEXPANDINGTOOFASTANDOVEREXTENDINGTHEMSELVESFINANCIALLY,SINCEMOSTARESMALLCONCERNSAND,UNLIKELARGEBUSINESSES,THEYOFTENNEEDTOMAKESUBSTANTIALINVESTMENTSINNEWPLANTS,STAFF,EQUIPMENT,ANDTHELIKEINORDERTOPERFORMWORKSUBCONTRACTEDTOTHEMIF,THEREAFTER,THEIRSUBCONTRACTSAREFORSOMEREASONREDUCED,SUCHFIRMSCANFACEPOTENTIALLYCRIPPLINGFIXEDEXPENSESTHEWORLDOFCORPORATEPURCHASINGCANBEFRUSTRATINGFORSMALLENTREPRENEURSWHOGETREQUESTSFORELABORATEFORMALESTIMATESANDBIDSBOTHCONSUMEVALUABLETIMEANDRESOURCES,ANDASMALLCOMPANY’SEFFORTSMUSTSOONRESULTINORDERS,ORBOTHTHEMORALEANDTHEFINANCIALHEALTHOFTHEBUSINESSWILLSUFFERASECONDRISKISTHATWHITEOWNEDCOMPANIESMAYSEEKTOCASHINONTHEINCREASINGAPPORTIONMENTSTHROUGHFORMATIONOFJOINTVENTURESWITHMINORITYOWNEDCONCERNSOFCOURSE,INMANYINSTANCESTHEREARELEGITIMATEREASONSFORJOINTVENTURES;CLEARLY,WHITEANDMINORITYENTERPRISESCANTEAMUPTOACQUIREBUSINESSTHATNEITHERCOULDACQUIREALONEBUTCIVILRIGHTSGROUPSANDMINORITYBUSINESSOWNERSHAVE2COMPLAINEDTOCONGRESSABOUTMINORITIESBEINGSETUPAS“FRONTS”WITHWHITEBACKING,RATHERTHANBEINGACCEPTEDASFULLPARTNERSINLEGITIMATEJOINTVENTURESTHIRD,AMINORITYENTERPRISETHATSECURESTHEBUSINESSOFONELARGECORPORATECUSTOMEROFTENRUNTHEDANGEROFBECOMINGANDREMAININGDEPENDENTEVENINTHEBESTOFCIRCUMSTANCES,FIERCECOMPETITIONFROMLARGER,MOREESTABLISHEDCOMPANIESMAKESITDIFFICULTFORSMALLCONCERNSTOBROADENTHEIRCUSTOMERBASESWHENSUCHFIRMSHAVENEARLYGUARANTEEDORDERSFROMASINGLECORPORATEBENEFACTOR,THEYMAYTRULYHAVETOSTRUGGLEAGAINSTCOMPLACENCYARISINGFROMTHEIRCURRENTSUCCESS1THEPRIMARYPURPOSEOFTHETEXTISTOAPRESENTACOMMONPLACEIDEAANDITSINACCURACIESBDESCRIBEASITUATIONANDITSPOTENTIALDRAWBACKSCPROPOSEATEMPORARYSOLUTIONTOAPROBLEMDANALYZEAFREQUENTSOURCEOFDISAGREEMENT2THETEXTSUGGESTSTHATTHEFAILUREOFALARGEBUSINESSTOHAVEITSBIDSFORSUBCONTRACTSRESULTQUICKLYINORDERSMIGHTCAUSESITTOAEXPERIENCEFRUSTRATIONBUTNOTSERIOUSFINANCIALHARMBFACEPOTENTIALLYCRIPPLINGFIXEDEXPENSESCHAVETORECORDITSEFFORTSONFORMSFILEDWITHTHEGOVERNMENTDINCREASEITSSPENDINGWITHMINORITYSUBCONTRACTORS3ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHETEXTTHAT,COMPAREDWITHTHEREQUIREMENTSOFLAW,THEPERCENTAGEGOALSSETBY“SOMEFEDERALANDLOCALAGENCIES”LINE9,PARAGRAPH1AREAMOREPOPULARWITHLARGECORPORATIONSBMORECONCRETECLESSCONTROVERSIALDLESSEXPENSIVETOENFORCE4WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWING,IFTRUE,WOULDMOSTWEAKENTHEAUTHOR’SASSERTIONTHAT,INTHE1970’S,CORPORATERESPONSETOFEDERALREQUIREMENTSLINE1,PARAGRAPH2WASSUBSTANTIALACORPORATECONTRACTSWITHMINORITYOWNEDBUSINESSESTOTALED2BILLIONIN1979BBETWEEN1970AND1972,CORPORATECONTRACTSWITHMINORITYOWNEDBUSINESSESDECLINEDBY25PERCENTCTHEFIGURESCOLLECTEDIN1977UNDERREPRESENTEDTHEEXTENTOFCORPORATECONTRACTSWITHMINORITYOWNEDBUSINESSESDTHE11BILLIONREPRESENTEDTHESAMEPERCENTAGEOFTOTALCORPORATESPENDINGIN1977ASDID77MILLIONIN19725THEAUTHORWOULDMOSTLIKELYAGREEWITHWHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSABOUTCORPORATERESPONSETOWORKINGWITHMINORITYSUBCONTRACTORS3AANNOYEDBYTHEPROLIFERATIONOF“FRONT”ORGANIZATIONS,CORPORATIONSARELIKELYTOREDUCETHEIREFFORTSTOWORKWITHMINORITYOWNEDSUBCONTRACTORSINTHENEARFUTUREBALTHOUGHCORPORATIONSSHOWEDCONSIDERABLEINTERESTINWORKINGWITHMINORITYBUSINESSESINTHE1970’S,THEIRAVERSIONTOGOVERNMENTPAPERWORKMADETHEMRELUCTANTTOPURSUEMANYGOVERNMENTCONTRACTSCTHESIGNIFICANTRESPONSEOFCORPORATIONSINTHE1970’SISLIKELYTOBESUSTAINEDANDCONCEIVABLYBEINCREASEDTHROUGHOUTTHE1980’SDALTHOUGHCORPORATIONSAREEAGERTOCOOPERATEWITHMINORITYOWNEDBUSINESSES,ASHORTAGEOFCAPITALINTHE1970’SMADESUBSTANTIALRESPONSEIMPOSSIBLE答案与考点解析1【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道中心主旨题。破解本题的关键在于考生是否完全理解本文第一段首句的内容,尤其是第一句中破折号后面的内容。破折号后面的内容和选项B中的“ITSPOTENTIALDRAWBACKS”是相互吻合的。望考生注意培养捕捉全文中心主旨句的能力。2【答案】A【考点解析】这是一道逻辑思维上的反推题,也可以说是逆向思维题。本题反推即逆向思维的信息依据在第三段的最后一句。该句在谈论小的企业,大概内容是“一个小企业的投资要马上在定货中反映出效果,否则其士气和财政前景都将深受影响”。根据小的企业的状况,我们可以推导出大的企业所面临的处境。希望考生加强逆向思维即反推的解题能力。3【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道关键词语的理解题目,其答案信息来源在第一段的尾句,原文当中的“SPECIFIC”一词是本题的答案所在。考生要加强对原文中重点形容词和副词的理解。4【答案】D【考点解析】这是一道反论题。这种题的关键在于利用原文的信息否定原文所要表达的观点。原文讲“少数民族企业签订的合同金额由1972年的7700万美元升至1977年的11亿美元”。原文所要表达的观点是合同金额的增长。选项D正是利用原文的信息否定了原文所要表达的观点。选项D所表达的信息是变化增长数字背后的不变。这种题属于较难的题型,希望考生加以重视。5【答案】C【考点解析】这是一道关键词语理解题。本题的答案信息在第二段的尾句,句中“LETUP”一词决定了本题的正确答案是C,因为该词的含义是“停顿,减弱”。考生在备考过程中要尽力扩大自己的词汇量。4参考译文最近几年美国少数民族所有的企业可以说是空前的机会和重大风险并存。人权活动家早就指出过黑人,拉美裔美国人,以及其他少数民族难以在生意场中立足的主要原因是他们缺少能得到有规模的订货或与大公司分合同的机会。现在议会以一致意见通过法律,要求企业获得价值50万美元以上的联邦合同后要尽最大可能来寻找少数民族合作者,并且需将他们在此点上的成效如何在政府中存档立案。实际上,一些联邦和地方机构走得更远,它们甚至规定了公共合同有多少比例要分给少数民族公司。企业对此的反应是强烈的。从1977年统计的数据看,与少数民族企业签订的合同金额由1972年的7700万美元升至1977年的11亿美元。预计此金额要在80年代前期达到每年30亿美元以上,在下一个10年中看来也不会停止。尽管这对少数民族企业来说前途光明,这种增加的财源也给它们带来了危险。首先,少数民族企业冒着过快膨胀和财政上力不从心的危险,因为它们大部分是小企业,和大企业不同之外在于它们为履行合同常需要在厂房、人员、设备(以及诸如此类)等上做一大笔投资。如果其后由于某种原因其合同量减少,它们将会遇到潜在的财政危机。对于被要求做正式评估和投标的小企业来说,市场供求情况有可能令人非常沮丧。评估和投标都消耗时间、资源,而且一个小企业的投资要马上在定货中反映出效果,否则其士气和财政前景都将深受影响。第二个危险是有些白人企业想通过和少数民族企业合资也能享受更好的待遇。当然,在许多时候,合资是有正当理由的;显然,白人和少数民族企业可以联合起来做成任何一方都无法单独完成的事业。但是人权组织和少数民族企业主已经向议会报怨少数民族企业常在合资中成为白人操纵者的前台傀儡,而不是平等的合作伙伴。第三,已获得一个大客户的生意的少数民族企业常会有陷入依赖性的危险。即使在最好的环境下,来自更大、更完备的对手的竞争常使一个小企业很难扩展自己的客户;当这样的企业已拥有来自一个客户的近乎稳定的定货时,它们确实需要和眼前的胜利所滋生出的自满做斗争。SAMPLE2生物学类题目序号题型归类第1题审题定位题型第2题句间关系题型第3题审题定位题型第4题归纳推导题型第5题段落结构题型THEFOSSILREMAINSOFTHEFIRSTFLYINGVERTEBRATES,THEPTEROSAURS,HAVEINTRIGUEDPALEONTOLOGISTSFORMORETHANTWOCENTURIESHOWSUCHLARGECREATURES,WHICHWEIGHEDINSOMECASESASMUCHASAPILOTEDHANGGLIDERANDHADWINGSPANSFROM8TO12METERS,SOLVEDTHEPROBLEMSOFPOWEREDFLIGHT,ANDEXACTLYWHATTHESECREATURESWERE5REPTILESORBIRDSAREAMONGTHEQUESTIONSSCIENTISTSHAVEPUZZLEDOVERPERHAPSTHELEASTCONTROVERSIALASSERTIONABOUTTHEPTEROSAURSISTHATTHEYWEREREPTILESTHEIRSKULLS,PELVISES,ANDHINDFEETAREREPTILIANTHEANATOMYOFTHEIRWINGSSUGGESTSTHATTHEYDIDNOTEVOLVEINTOTHECLASSOFBIRDSINPTEROSAURSAGREATLYELONGATEDFOURTHFINGEROFEACHFORELIMBSUPPORTEDAWINGLIKEMEMBRANETHEOTHERFINGERSWERESHORTANDREPTILIAN,WITHSHARPCLAWSINBIRDSTHESECONDFINGERISTHEPRINCIPALSTRUTOFTHEWING,WHICHCONSISTSPRIMARILYOFFEATHERSIFTHEPTEROSAURSWALKEDONALLFOURS,THETHREESHORTFINGERSMAYHAVEBEENEMPLOYEDFORGRASPINGWHENAPTEROSAURWALKEDORREMAINEDSTATIONARY,THEFOURTHFINGER,ANDWITHITTHEWING,COULDONLYTURNUPWARDINANEXTENDEDINVERTEDVSHAPEALONGEACHSIDEOFTHEANIMAL’SBODYTHEPTEROSAURSRESEMBLEDBOTHBIRDSANDBATSINTHEIROVERALLSTRUCTUREANDPROPORTIONSTHISISNOTSURPRISINGBECAUSETHEDESIGNOFANYFLYINGVERTEBRATEISSUBJECTTOAERODYNAMICCONSTRAINTSBOTHTHEPTEROSAURSANDTHEBIRDSHAVEHOLLOWBONES,AFEATURETHATREPRESENTSASAVINGSINWEIGHTINTHEBIRDS,HOWEVER,THESEBONESAREREINFORCEDMOREMASSIVELYBYINTERNALSTRUTSALTHOUGHSCALESTYPICALLYCOVERREPTILES,THEPTEROSAURSPROBABLYHADHAIRYCOATSTHHUXLEYREASONEDTHATFLYINGVERTEBRATESMUSTHAVEBEENWARMBLOODEDBECAUSEFLYINGIMPLIESAHIGHRATEOFMETABOLISM,WHICHINTURNIMPLIESAHIGHINTERNALTEMPERATUREHUXLEYSPECULATEDTHATACOATOFHAIRWOULDINSULATEAGAINSTLOSSOFBODYHEATANDMIGHTSTREAMLINETHEBODYTOREDUCEDRAGINFLIGHTTHERECENTDISCOVERYOFAPTEROSAURSPECIMENCOVEREDINLONG,DENSE,ANDRELATIVELYTHICKHAIRLIKEFOSSILMATERIALWASTHEFIRSTCLEAREVIDENCETHATHISREASONINGWASCORRECTEFFORTSTOEXPLAINHOWTHEPTEROSAURSBECAMEAIRBORNEHAVELEDTOSUGGESTIONSTHATTHEYLAUNCHEDTHEMSELVESBYJUMPINGFROMCLIFFS,BYDROPPINGFROMTREES,OREVENBYRISINGINTOLIGHTWINDSFROMTHECRESTSOFWAVESEACHHYPOTHESISHASITSDIFFICULTIESTHEFIRSTWRONGLYASSUMESTHATTHEPTEROSAURS’HINDFEETRESEMBLEDABAT’SANDCOULDSERVEASHOOKSBYWHICHTHEANIMALCOULDHANGINPREPARATIONFORFLIGHTTHESECONDHYPOTHESISSEEMSUNLIKELYBECAUSELARGEPTEROSAURSCOULDNOTHAVELANDEDINTREESWITHOUTDAMAGINGTHEIRWINGSTHETHIRDCALLSFORHIGHWAVESTOCHANNELUPDRAFTSTHEWINDTHATMADESUCHWAVESHOWEVER,MIGHTHAVEBEENTOOSTRONGFORTHEPTEROSAURSTOCONTROLTHEIRFLIGHTONCEAIRBORNE1ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHETEXTTHATSCIENTISTNOWGENERALLYAGREETHATTHEAENORMOUSWINGSPANOFTHEPTEROSAURSENABLEDTHEMTOFLYGREATDISTANCESBSTRUCTUREOFTHESKELETONOFTHEPTEROSAURSSUGGESTSACLOSEEVOLUTIONARYRELATIONSHIPTOBATSCFOSSILREMAINSOFTHEPTEROSAURSREVEALHOWTHEYSOLVEDTHEPROBLEMOFPOWEREDFLIGHTDPTEROSAURSWEREREPTILES2THEAUTHORVIEWSTHEIDEATHATTHEPTEROSAURSBECAMEAIRBORNEBYRISINGINTOLIGHTWINDSCREATEDBYWAVESAS6AREVOLUTIONARYBUNLIKELYCUNASSAILABLEDPROBABLE3ACCORDINGTOTHETEXT,THESKELETONOFAPTEROSAURCANBEDISTINGUISHEDFROMTHATOFABIRDBYTHEASIZEOFITSWINGSPANBPRESENCEOFHOLLOWSPACESINITSBONESCANATOMICORIGINOFITSWINGSTRUTDPRESENCEOFHOOKLIKEPROJECTIONSONITSHINDFEET4THEIDEASATTRIBUTEDTOTHHUXLEYINTHETEXTSUGGESTTHATHEWOULDMOSTLIKELYAGREEWITHWHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSAANANIMAL’SBRAINSIZEHASLITTLEBEARINGONITSABILITYTOMASTERCOMPLEXBEHAVIORSBANANIMAL’SAPPEARANCEISOFTENINFLUENCEDBYENVIRONMENTALREQUIREMENTSANDPHYSICALCAPABILITIESCANIMALSWITHINAGIVENFAMILYGROUPAREUNLIKELYTOCHANGETHEIRAPPEARANCEDRAMATICALLYOVERAPERIODOFTIMEDTHEORIGINOFFLIGHTINVERTEBRATESWASANACCIDENTALDEVELOPMENTRATHERTHANTHEOUTCOMEOFSPECIALIZATIONORADAPTATION5WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGBESTDESCRIBESTHEORGANIZATIONOFTHELASTPARAGRAPHOFTHETEXTANEWEVIDENCEISINTRODUCEDTOSUPPORTATRADITIONALPOINTOFVIEWBTHREEEXPLANATIONSFORAPHENOMENONAREPRESENTEDANDEACHISDISPUTEDBYMEANSOFSPECIFICINFORMATIONCTHREEHYPOTHESESAREOUTLINEDANDEVIDENCESUPPORTINGEACHISGIVENDRECENTDISCOVERIESAREDESCRIBEDANDTHEIRIMPLICATIONSFORFUTURESTUDYAREPROJECTED答案与考点解析1【答案】D【考点解析】这是一道审题定位题型。该题的答案信息在第二段的第一句,根据本句的内容即可得出本题的正确答案是D。考生要加强对题干的理解和认识,并且要善于找

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