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语言文化论文-A Brief Analysis of english teaching in senior high school.doc

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语言文化论文-A Brief Analysis of english teaching in senior high school.doc

语言文化论文ABriefAnalysisofenglishteachinginseniorhighschoolAbstractClassroomteachingisthemainwayforstudentstolearnEnglish.Butinseniorhighschool,alotsofprobelmsstillexsitintheEnglishteachingespeciallyintheteachingofreadingandwriting.Inthispaper,theimportanceandmethodsofreadingandwritingwillbefurtherdiscussed.KeywordsreadingwritingtechniquesIntroductionClassesshouldbelearnercentered,withmeaningful,functionalactivities,often,classesbeginbyfindingoutwhatthestudentsdontknow.Theseclassesoperateontheassumptionthatthereisagreatdealofinformationthatstudentslackandthattheteacherandtextbookswillimpactthatinformationtothestudents.Teacherswhoholdthisassumptionviewstudentsasplantswaitingpassivelytobefedandwatered.ButIthinkthestudentsshouldberegardedasexplorers,activelearnerswhobringagreatdealtothelearningprocessandatthesametime,drawfromtheirenvironmentastheydevelopnewunderstandings.Thebasicprinciplewillbeusedintheteachingofreadingandwriting.SectionOneHowtoteachreadingI.WhyteachreadingTherearemanyreasonswhygettingstudentstoreadEnglishtextsisanimportantpartoftheteachersjob.Inthefirstplace,manyofthemwanttobeabletoreadtextsinEnglisheitherfortheircareers,forstudypurposesorsimplyforpleasure.Anythingwecandotomakereadingeasierforthemmustbeagoodidea.ReadingtextsprovidegoodmodelsforEnglishwriting,provideopportunitiestostudylanguagevocabulary,grammar,punctuation,andthewaytoconstructsentences,paragraphsandtexts.Lastly,goodreadingtextscanintroduceinterestingtopics,stimulatediscussion,exciteimaginativeresponsesandbethespringboardforwellrounded,fascinatinglessons.Thelastbutnottheleast,studentsmustreadwidelybecauseonlyafractionofknowledgeabouttheworldcancomefromotherexperiencesintheirshortlives.II.WhatkindofreadingshouldstudentsdoWhentheteachersgivereadingclasstostudents,theyshouldnoticeabalanceabalancetobestruckbetweenrealEnglishontheonehandandthestudentscapabilitiesandinterestsontheother.Thereissomeauthenticwrittenmaterialwhichbeginnerstudentscanunderstandtosomedegreemenus,timetables,signsandbasicinstructions,forexample,and,whereappropriate,teacherscanusethese.Butforlongerprose,teacherscanoffertheirstudentstexts,which,whilebeinglikeEnglish,areneverthelesswrittenoradaptedespeciallyfortheirlevel.Anyway,thematerialstobereadshouldbeinterestingandmeaningful.Teachersshouldbecomebetteracquaintedwithbookswrittenspeciallyforteenagersanddealingwiththeirproblems.III.WhataretheprinciplesbehindtheteachingofreadingiPermitStudentsToReadNoonehaslearnedtoswimbypracticingtheskillsofbackstrokes,flutterkicksortreadingwaterwhilestayingontheedgeoftheswimmingpool.Yet,intheteachingofreadingteachersoftendojustthat.Ratherthanletthestudentsintothewater,teacherskeeptheminskillsbookslearningrulesaboutletters,syllablesordefinitionsofwordsratherthanlettingthemintothebookitself,permittingthemtobeimmersedinthelanguagewhichcomesfromtheauthorsasthereaderstrytoreconstructthewrittenmessage.iiEncouragestudentstorespondtothecontentofareadingtext,notjusttothelanguageOfcourse,itisimportanttostudyreadingtextsforthewaytheyuselanguage,howmanyparagraphstheycontainandhowmanytimestheyuserelativeclauses.Butthemeaning,themessageofthetext,ismuchmoreimportant.Teachersshouldhelpstudentsunderstandthatthemainreasontoreadisforthem.Theyhavetohavetheirownpurposetoreadandreadingmustmakesense,theyhavetofindwaysofdoingsomethingaboutit.Theyshouldbeencouragedeithertorereadortocontinuereadingtogainmeaning.Buttheymustrealizethatthemeaningisnotintheteacher,butintheinteractionbetweenthereaderandauthor.Studentsshouldbeencouragedtoaskthemselvesrepeatedly,DoesthismakesensetomeStudentsshouldbeencouragedtorejectandtobeintolerantofreadingmaterialsthatdonotmakesense.iiiEncouragestudentstoguessorpredictReadersguessesorpredictionsarebasedonthecumulativeinformationandsyntacticstructuretheyhavebeenlearningastheyhavebeenreading.Therefore,theirguessesaremoreoftenthannotappropriatetothematerials.Studentshavetorealizethatrisktakinginreadingisappropriatethatusingcontexttodecidewhatwordsmeanisaproficientreadingstrategyandthattheyhavethelanguagesensetomakeappropriateguesseswhichcanfitboththegrammaticalandsemanticsenseofwhattheyarereading.ivMatchthetasktothetopicOnceadecisionhasbeentakenaboutwhatkindofreadingtextthestudentsaregoingtoread,teachersneedtochoosegoodreadingtaskstherightkindofquestionsandusefulpuzzles,etc.Askingboringandinappropriatequestionscanunderminethemostinterestingtextthemostcommonplacepassagecanbemadereallyexcitingwithimaginativeandchallengingtasks.Workingingroups,theEnglishteacherandstudentstaketurnsaskingeachotherquestionsfollowingthereading.Theteachermayask,WhatisthesignificanceofthecharactersageThesequestionsrequireinferencesbasedondetailsfromthereadingtext.SectionTwoHowtoteachwritingDevelopingcorrectnessinstudentswritingStudentslearntowritebywriting,andtheylearntowritecorrectlybywriting,revising,andproofreadingtheirownworkwithsomehelpordirectionfromtheteacherwhenitisnecessary.Theydonotlearntowritecorrectlybystudyingaboutwritingordoingisolatedworkbookexercisesunrelatedtotheirownwriting.So,themostimportanttechniqueateachercanusetoguidestudentstowardgrammaticallycorrectwritingistoletthemwrite,letthemwritethingsrelatedtotheirownexperiences.Thereisnolimittothekindsoftexttheteachercanaskstudentstowrite.Teachersdecisions,though,shouldbasedonhowmuchlanguagethestudentsknow,whattheirinterestsare.DoIreadapaperandignoreallpunctuation,whatgoodisthatforstudentsWespendhoursatnightwithpapersImnotsurethestudentsgetasmuchfromitasthetimeIspendonit.ThesecommentsbyseniorhighschoolEnglishteachersdiscussingtheprocessofmarkingstudentpapersreflectthedissatisfactionandfrustrationofmanyteachersovertheproblemofdealingwiththeerrorsinstudentwritingtheobviousmistakesinspelling,punctuationTraditionally,teachershaveworkedtocorrecterrorsintwowaysbyteachinggrammaticallycorrectnessthroughexerciseingrammartextsbypointingoutallerrorswhenmakingstudentpapers.Moststudentsfinditverydispiritingiftheygetapieceofwrittenworkbackanditiscoveredinredink,underlingsandcrossingout.ItisapowerfulvisualstatementofthefactthattheirwrittenEnglishisterrible.Ofcourse,somepiecesofwrittenworkarecompletelyfullofmistakes,buteveninthesecases,theteacherhastoachieveabalancebetweenbeingaccurateandtruthfulontheonehandandtreatingstudentssensitivelyandsympatheticallyontheother.SometechniquescanbeusedindealingwiththeerrorsinstudentpapersiSelectivityRatherthanengageinintensiveerrorcorrectionwhenrespondingtostudentwriting,teachersareencouragedtoadoptamoremoderateapproachtoerror.Iftheteacherovercorrectsthestudentsmistakes,thestudentswouldbelikelytofocusonerrorsinsteadofideas.Studentsaremorelikelytogrowaswriterswhentheteachersprimarypurposeinreadingstudentpapersistorespondtocontent.However,ifattentiontocontentandcorrectnessarecombinedwhenmakingpapers,itismorehelpfultoselectoneortwokindsoferrorstheindividualstudentismakingthantopointouteveryerrorinthepaper.Theteachercanidentifyaselectederror,showanexampleortwoonthestudentpaper,andeitherexplainthecorrectformordirectthestudenttoahandbookforfurtherexplanation.ItisalwaysworthwritingacommentattheendofapieceofwrittenworkanythingfromWelldonetoThisisagoodstory,butyoumustlookagainatyouruseofpasttensesseeXgrammarbookpagexx.iiErroranalysisAnothermethodforworkingwithstudenterror,onethatcanbeespeciallyfruitfulforteachers,istoapproachitfromananalyticperspective.Teachers,aserroranalyst,lookforpatternsintheerrorsofanindividualstudent,triestodiscoverhowthemistakearrivedatthemistakesbyanalyzingtheerrorLackofknowledgeaboutacertaingrammaticalpointAcarelessoneoramislearnedrule,andplansstrategiesaccordingly.iiiPublishStudentWritingThefinalbasicstrategyispublishing.Studentsneedareasonforlaboringoveradraftuntilitisperfecttheurgetoseeoneselfinprintcanbeapowerfuldrivetowardrevisionandproofreading.ConclusionAsteacherstothestudentswhoareinseniorhighschool,theyshouldlearntoturnstudentshardworktowardsupportingthelanguagestrengthsstudentsalreadyhave,provingstudentswithafeelingofsuccess,findingmaterialsandplanningclassroomexperienceswillturnstudentsontoreadingandwriting,thereadingandwritingwilldevelopwithmuchgreatereasethanitdoesatthepresenttime.ReferenceGuXueliang,TheBasicTechnicalTraininginEnglishTeaching,HangzhouUniversityPress,1998.WilgaM.RiversMaryS.Temperley,ApracticalguidetotheteachingofEnglishasasecondorforeignLanguage,NewYorkOxfordUniversityPress,1978SmithF.UnderstandingReading2ded,NewYorkHolt,RinehartandWinston,1978DavidFreemanYvomeS.Freeman,ARoadtoSuccessforLanguage,NewYorkOxfordUniversityPress龚雅芳张连忠李静军(编辑),英语教学基本讲座,北京师范学院出版社,1991

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