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语言文化论文-How to improve the ability of listening, speaking, reading and writing .doc

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语言文化论文-How to improve the ability of listening, speaking, reading and writing .doc

语言文化论文Howtoimprovetheabilityoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingI.IntroductionThepurposeofmiddleschoolEnglishteachingistoimprovethestudentsfourskillsoflistening,speaking,readingandwriting,withthebaseofnecessaryphonetics,largevocabularyandgoodgrammar,Butthisisnotthefinalpurpose.Thefinalpurposeistolotletstudentsbeabletousethelanguage.WhydowestudyEnglishIfamanisonlygoodatlisteningandspeaking,canwesaythatheisgoodatEnglishNo,Ifamanisonlygoodatreadingandwriting,canwesaythatheisgoodatthelanguageNo,IfastudentisgoodatEnglish,heshouldbeabletousethelanguage,bothinspokingandwriting.NowmostofthestudentsdobetterinreadingandwritingEnglishthaninlisteningandspeaking.Theycanreadandwrite,buttheycanhardlycommunicate.Theycanhardlyexpressthemselveswiththeirownwords.Thisispartiallybecauseofourexaminationsystem,andpartiallyoftheteachingmethod.Wearenotabletochangetheexaminationsystem,butwecanimproveourteachingmethod.Mostofalltheteachersliketoprovidethestudentswithalotofknowledgewords,phrases,grammar,usagesandsoon,Theyarefocusingthesething,especiallyonthegrammar.Yes,thestudentsdoneedthese,butmanyteachersforgettoteachthemhowtostudyEnglish,andhowtouseit.Sowhenyouaregivingtheknowledgetothestudents,dontforgettoteachthemalltheabilitiesofthefourskills.II.Waysondevelopingthefourabilities1.ListeningTheteachersoftenspeakofthefourskillslistening,speaking,readingandwriting.Thatmeanseachofthemisimportant.Youcantsaythatyouhavemasteredthelanguagewithoutanyoneofthem,Listening,oneofthemeansoflanguagecommunication,isusedmostwidelyinpeoplesdailylives.About45ofanadultstimeconcernslisteningtootherpeople,listeningtotheradio,listeningtothemusic.Inlinguistics,givingthestudentsalotoflisteningactivitiesisagoodwayofenlargingtheirvocabulary.Ontheotherhand,italsohelpsthestudentsimprovetheirlisteningcomprehension.Ihavedoneaninvestigation.About43.2ofthestudentsthinkthatthemostbotheringandmostdifficultislisteningcomprehension,andevensomeofthemhavedifficultyinunderstandingtheirteacherwhogiveslessonsinEnglish.Withoutquestion,itisdifficultofamiddleschoolstudenttounderstandthelisteningmaterial,ifhehasntenoughvocabularyandtheabilityoftellingthegrammarconstruction.Inmyinvestigation,about35ofthestudentswithlowlisteningcomprehensionthingthisisbecausetheydontunderstandorknowtheknowledgeaboutlinguistic,theyarenotabletotellthemeansofawhattheyhaveheard.Inmyanotherinvestigation,studentswereaskedtolistentoadialogueof244words,inwhichthewordsandgrammarhavealreadybeenlearned.But80ofthemthoughtitwastoodifficult.Then,usingthesamedialogueasareadingcomprehensionmaterial,Ifoundonly5ofthemthoughtitwasalittledifficult,ontheotherhandtheresponseabilityisalsoanotherreason.Itisclearthatthereadingspeedofamaterialalsoaffects.About43ofthestudentsthoughtthatthematerialwasreadtoofastandtheycouldntfollow.Alotofstudentshavetheirownlisteninghabits.Somestudentsoftentriestounderstandeachwordoreachsentence.Theywillthinkhardwhentheymeetsomedifficultwordsorsentences,andagreatmanystudentscouldunderstandthematerialdirectly,TheyoftentranslatetheEnglishintoChineseintheirheart,thinkingthatonlyinthiswaycanthesentencebeunderstood.Thisisalsoareason,tryingtounderstandeachwordisdifficult,anditisnotnecessaryatall.Youshouldcatchthemostimportantpoints.ThenhowtoimprovethestudentslisteningskillWeknowthelargestdifferencebetweenmotherlanguagelearningandforeignlanguagelearningistheenvironment.Achildcansoonlearnhismotherlanguagewell.Hehasheardalotbeforehecansaysomethingandwalk.Thenafterheisabletowalkandsay,hehasachanceoflisteningtomore.Beforehegoestoschool,hehasalreadybeenagoodlistenerandspeaker.Butforaforeignlanguage,youcanmeetitonlyinformalplaces,classes,forexample,otherwise,youcanhardlyhaveachancetomeetit.SoIthinkyoushouldtrytoletthestudentsbeinalanguageenvironment.Letthestudentsgraspthephoneticsymbol.Ithinkthephoneticsymbolisthebase.Agoodintonationandphoneticdependsonthebase.Oralreadingafteraradioorateacherisagoodwayatthebeginning,Studentsshoulddomuchaboutit.Payattentiontotheoralreadingskill,Itincludesstress,strongform,weakform,intonationincompleteplosiveconsonant,affricateconsonant,syllableandsoon.Trainingandpracticingtheoralreadingisnotadaysword.Theteachermustgivecorrectinformationaboutit.Thereisnoeasyway.EnlargethestudentsknowledgeaboutEnglish.Encouragethestudentstoreadsomethingintheirsparetimeaboutgeography,history,culture,storiesandsoon.Forexample,therearetwomaterialsofthesamedifficulty.OneexplainssomethingaboutChinasSpringFestival,theotherisaboutThanksgivingDayofthewesterncountries.Theformeriseasytounderstandbutthelatterismoredifficult.WhyItisclearlybecausethestudentsknowlittleaboutthelatter.Bothlisteningtestandlisteningpracticearenecessary,butpracticeismoreimportant.Youcanunderstandyourstudentsthroughlisteningtests.Onlythroughthepracticecanthestudentsimprovetheirlisteningcomprehension.2.SpeakingSpeakingcantbetaughtseparately.Itisoftenconnectedwithlistening.Soweoftenspeakoflisteningandspeaking.Thetraditionalwayoflisteningandspeakingisauraloralmethod.Now,thenewmethodoftwowaycommunicationisverypopular.Asyouknowthatanyteachingmethodhasitspsychologicalbase.Theauraloralmethodbeganinthe1940s.Itisbasedonbehaviourism.Oneofitspsychologicaltheoryisthatlearningalanguageisformingasetofnewlanguagehabit.ThisisitsusualprocessStimulusResponseReinforcement.Theauraloralmethodisfitfortheteachingofbeginningstage.ItfocusesonthepracticeoforalEnglishdrills.Buttoomanydrillsarebeingpracticedwithoutanycontextorgivenconditions.Sowhatislearnedisisolatedclauses.Andithasfewcommunicativefunctions.Thetwowaycommunicationmakesupforthedefectincommunicativeabilityinthetraditionalteaching.Twowaymeanstherelationshipofthecommunicationbetweentheteacherandthestudents.Thisrelationshipisconnectedwiththecommunicativeactivitiesbetweentwopeople.Thismethodisdifferentfromthetraditionalauraloralmethod.ButitalsobasesontheprocessofSRR.Sowecallitamewtypeofauraloralmethodhassomepeculiarities.ItcancreateafreshenvironmentforspeakingEnglish.ItneedssomenecessaryexplanationsofGrammar,includingsomesentencestructures.Hintsarethemajorwayofpractice.Teacherscancontrolthepracticewhollyorpartly.Thepracticecanalsobecontroledbystudentsfreely.Theinternalforceofstudyisnotduetotheinsterestsinphoneticstructure,butthecontentofthematerial.Tomakethecorrectresponse,thestudentsareaskedtopaymoreattention.ExampleTeacherAskmeifIamastudent.StudentAreyouastudentTTellmeNo,Youreateacher.SNo,Imateacher.Inthisexample,AskmemeansthatthestudentmustsayaquestionsentencewhileTellmeshowsthatthestudentmustsayadecarativesentence.Butbeforedoingthis,theteachermustexplainsomethingabouttheexchangeofinterrogativesentenceanddeclarativesentence.Thetwowaycommunicationcanlengthenthedialoguelimitlessly.Thisisitsadvantage.Atthesametime,ifthestudentwantstogivethecorrectresponse,hehastothinkithard,Thesentenceisnoteasilyforgottenwhichisereatedbythemselvesthroughthinking,sometimeswiththeteachershint.Youcantalkfreely.Youcanexpressyourselfaswellasyoucan.ForexampleTAskmehowmangpeoplethereareinmyfamily.ShowmanypeoplearethereinyourfamilyTTellmetherearefiveSTherearefiveTAskmewhatmyprreutsdo.SWhatdoyourparentsdoTtellmeyourfatherisateacherandyourmotherworksinacompany.SMyfatherisateacherandmymotherwordsinacompany.TAskmeifmyfatherlikeshisjob.SDoesyourfatherlikehisjob.TTellmeSure,helikesteachingverymuch.SSure,helikesteachingverymuch.Alltheseresponsesformacompletedialogue.AHowmanypeoplearethereinyourfamilyBTherearefive.AWhatdoyourparentsdoBMyfatherisateacherandmymotherworksinacompany.ADoesyourfatherlikehisjobBSure,helikesteachingverymuch.Ifyouwanttoaskmoreaboutfatherorotherfamilymembers,thedialoguecangoonasfarapossible.So,inaword,theauraloralmethodisnotaoutofdateone,butausefulone.Especiallyitisfitforthebeginningstage.Itattachestheimportancetotheoraldrills,andhasabadcommunicativefunction.Itisonlyusedtoaphoneticbase.Afterall,theaimofthelanguagelearningistocommunicate.Sothetwowaycomunicationismoreeffectiveanddirect,butitisalsofitforthebeginningstage.3.ReadingReadingisanimportantwayofgaininginformationinforeignlanguagelearning,Itisabasicskillforaforeignlanguagelearner.Thereisalotofreadingexercisesinanexaminationtoday.Butallthesereadingsmustbedoneinlimitedtime.Sostudentsareaskedtoreadthemcorrectlyandwithacertainspeed.Todothis,youshouldchangeyourbadreadinghabitandraiseyourreadingefficiency.Newwordspreventyoufromreadingfast.Onewaytoovercomethisproblemistoguess.Therearemanywaystoguessthemeaningofanewword.Firstyoushouldfindsomehints.Context,somephrases,suchasmeans,referto,inotherwords,Thatistosagareallthehints.Model1.Amiddleagedprofessorsaidthathiswifewastooextravant,becausenomatterhowmuchhegiveherforthehouseholdexpenses,shealwaysranshort.Inthissentence,themeaningofthewordextravagantcanbeeasilyguessed.Model2.Prometheusstayedchaiedtothelockformanyyears,Thenatlastthemighty.HerculescameforthandbrokethebondsbutthatisanotherofthewonderfulstoriesoftheGreeks.InThispargraph,thewordsstayedchainedisthehint,Soyoucanguesswhatbondsmeans.Model3.Thetinydropletsthatformondustparticlesverysmallpiecesofdust,toproduceacloudarefarapartfromeachother.Inthissentence,thewordsafterthedashshowsthemeaningofthewordpartides微粒Besidesthewaysmentionedabove,youcanguessaccordingtothewordformation,forexampleChildchildless,MarxMarxismLargeenlarge,tellforetellAustraliansatellite→Aussate

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