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语言文化论文-Learning Strategy Instruction in L2 Acquisition and Metacognitive Strategy.doc

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语言文化论文-Learning Strategy Instruction in L2 Acquisition and Metacognitive Strategy.doc

语言文化论文LEARNINGSTRATEGYINSTRUCTIONINL2ACQUISITIONANDMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGY【ABSTRACT】LEARNINGSTRATEGYINSTRUCTIONINL2ACQUISITIONISREALLYATISSUEITISAVERYCOMPLEXTASKTHEGOALOFSTRATEGYINSTRUCTIONISTOHELPLEARNERSTOLEARNHOWTOEMPLOYSTRATEGIESFLEXIBLYANDHOWTOSELECTAPPROPRIATESTRATEGIESTOPERFORMAPARTICULARLEARNINGTASKMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESMAYBETHOUGHTOFASCORELEARNINGSTRATEGIESBECAUSETHEYAREAPPLICABLETOAVARIETYOFLEARNINGTASKSANDALSOBECAUSETHEYAREOVERARCHINGSTRATEGIESABOVECOGNITIVESTRATEGIESANDSOCIAL/AFFECTIVESTRATEGIESTHISPAPEREXPLORESTHEISSUESOFSTRATEGYTRAININGINL2,ANDSTRESSESTHEIMPORTANCEOFMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESINSTRATEGYINSTRUCTION【KEYWORDS】LEARNINGSTRATEGIES;STRATEGYINSTRUCTION;METACOGNITIVESTRATEGY;METACOGNITIVESKILLSWHENITCOMESTOTRAININGLEARNERSINTHEUSEOFLEARNINGSTRATEGIESINL2ACQUISITION,MAYBEITISMOSTAPPROPRIATETOSAY“THEREISALOTTOPLAYFOR”SKEHAN1991ASCITEDINELLIS,1994,P558UPTONOW,THEREAREALARGENUMBEROFMATERIALONTRAININGLEARNERSTOUSEEFFECTIVELANGUAGELEARNINGSTRATEGIESEG,ELLISANDSINCLAIR1989;BROWN1989;OXFORD1990;WENDEN1986BAND1991HOWEVER,THEREHAVEBEENFEWEMPIRICALSTUDIESEVALUATINGTHETHESUCCESSOFTHETRAININGONL2LEARNERSELLIS,1994ITHASNOTPROVEDANEASYTASKTOINCORPORATETHEACCUMULATIONOFKNOWLEDGEABOUTSTRATEGIESINEFFECTIVELEARNINGINTOTHETEACHINGPROCESSWILLIAMSBURDEN,2000BECAUSEOFTHELACKOFSOLIDEVIDENCE,THEREAPPEAREDTWOOPPOSITEVIEWPOINTSONTHEISSUEOFSTRATEGYINSTRUCTION1ARGUMENTONSTRATEGYINSTRUCTIONITISARGUEDTHATSINCENOTENOUGHISYETKNOWNABOUTTHERELATIONSBETWEENLEARNINGSTRATEGIESANDLANGUAGELEARNING,CAUTIONSHOULDBEEXERCISEDINATTEMPTINGTOTRAINLEARNERSTOUSEPARTICULARSTRATEGIESREESMILLER1993;1994ARGUESTHATINVIEWOFTHELACKOFEVIDENCEFORTHEEFFECTIVENESS,RESOURCESSPENTONSTRATEGYTRAININGMIGHTBEBETTERDIRECTEDELSEWHEREBENSON2005ARGUETHATTHECORRELATIONBETWEENSTRATEGYUSEANDIMPROVEDPERFORMANCEISNOTNECESSARILYACAUSALEFFECTRELATIONSHIPTHERESEARCHLITERATURECONTAINSAWEALTHOFDESCRIPTIONSOFATTEMPTSTOTEACHLANGUAGELEARNINGSTRATEGIESTHESERESEARCHERSMAINLYINCLUDEO’MALLEYANDCHAMOT1990,WENDENANDRUBIN1987,ANDOXFORDANDCROOKALL1989ITISWORTHNOTINGTHATTHERESULTSOFMOSTOFTHEIRSTUDIESINDICATETHATTHOSEWHOWEREEXPLICITLYTAUGHTSTRATEGIESPERFORMBETTERONARANGEOFLANGUAGETASKSTHANDIDTHECONTROLGROUPSWHORECEIVEDNOSTRATEGYTRAININGWILLIAMSBURDEN,2000MCDONOUGH’S1999REVIEWOFRESEARCHSUGGESTSTHATTHEHYPOTHESISTHATLEARNERSCANLEARNHOWTOUSEEFFECTIVESTRATEGIESREMAINSVALIDOBVIOUSLY,THEEXPLICITTEACHINGOFSTRATEGIESHASRECEIVEDACONSIDERABLEAMOUNTOFATTENTIONMOSTOFRESEARCHERSAREINFAVORINSTRATEGYTRAININGINCHINA,THESUMMERINSTITUTEONL2LEARNINGSTRATEGYTRAININGANDRESEARCHWASHELDINNANJINGUNIVERSITYIN2003WANG,LFWENQF,20032ISSUESOFSTRATEGYTRAININGINL2ELLIS1994IDENTIFIED5KEYISSUESINLANGUAGELEARNINGSTRATEGIESTRAININGAFTERREVIEWINGTHEMAJORSTUDIESONSTRATEGYTRAININGHEGAVEAWARNINGTHATISSUESSHOULDBEPAIDMUCHATTENTIONTOBEFORESTRATEGYTRAININGISIMPLEMENTED⑴MOREWORKISNEEDEDTODISCOVERWHATSTRATEGIESAND,INPARTICULAR,WHATCOMBINATIONSOFSTRATEGIESSHOULDBETAUGHT⑵WAYSHAVETOBEFOUNDOFTAKINGINTOACCOUNTLEARNERS’OWNPREFERREDLEARNINGSTRATEGIES⑶SOMELEARNERSMAYNEEDCONVINCINGTHATSTRATEGYTRAININGISWORTHWHILE⑷ITISNOTCLEARWHETHERLEARNERTRAININGWILLWORKBESTWHENITEXISTSASASEPARATESTRANDINALANGUAGEPROGRAMORWHENITISFULLYINTEGRATEDINTOTHELANGUAGETEACHINGMATERIALS⑸WHETHERLEARNERSSHOULDBEMADECONSCIOUSOFTHESTRATEGIESTHEYARETAUGHT,ORWHETHERJUSTPROVIDINGPRACTICEOPPORTUNITIESISSUFFICIENTWHYISTHEISSUEOFSTRATEGYTRAININGSOCOMPLEXITMAYBEDUETOTHEDIFFERENTFACTORSTHATINTERACTTOINFLUENCETHETEACHINGANDLEARNINGOFSTRATEGIESAGE,GENDER,PERSONALLEARNINGSTYLEANDTEACHERS’ATTITUDEANDBELIEFSFOREXAMPLE,THELEARNINGSTRATEGIESEMPLOYEDBYTHECHILDLEARNERSANDADULTLEARNERSAREDIFFERENTTHESTUDIESMADEBYRESEARCHERSEG,O’MALLEYETAL1985;CHAMOTETAL1987SUGGESTTHATLEARNERS’ABILITYTOUSEABROADRANGEOFSTRATEGIESFLEXIBLYMAYDEPENDTOALARGEEXTENTONTHENATUREOFANDRANGEOFTHEINSTRUCTIONALTASKSINTHECLASSROOMHOWEVER,ITMAYNOTBEPOSSIBLETOPREDICTTHEKINDSOFSTRATEGIESTHATALEARNERWILLEMPLOYINAPARTICULARTASKONTHEONEHAND,STRATEGYINSTRUCTIONISDEPENDENTONTHETASKS;ONTHEOTHERHAND,THETASKSISUNLIKELYTOSPECIFYCERTAINSTRATEGIESTOBEUSEDBYTHELEARNERSMAYBEITISBETTERTOCITEELLIS’WORDS1994SPECIFICTASKSMAYPREDISPOSELEARNERSTOUSEPARTICULARSTRATEGIES,BUTTHEYCANNOTPREDETERMINETHEACTUALSTRATEGIESTOBEUSEDP5453ROLEOFMETACOGNITIONINL2TRAININGTHEGOALOFSTRATEGYINSTRUCTIONISTOHELPLEARNERSTOLEARNHOWTOEMPLOYSTRATEGIESFLEXIBLYANDHOWTOSELECTAPPROPRIATESTRATEGIESTOPERFORMAPARTICULARLEARNINGTASKBUTHEREISTHEPROBLEMFORTHETEACHERSANDTHELEARNERSHOWTODEFINETHEWORD“APPROPRIATE”AMONGTHREETYPESOFSTRATEGIESINTHECLASSIFICATIONOFO’MALLEYANDCHAMOT,METACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESMAYBETHOUGHTOFASCORELEARNINGSTRATEGIESBECAUSETHEYAREAPPLICABLETOAVARIETYOFLEARNINGTASKSANDALSOBECAUSETHEYAREOVERARCHINGSTRATEGIESABOVECOGNITIVESTRATEGIESANDSOCIAL/AFFECTIVESTRATEGIESMETACOGNIVESTRATEGIESAREHIGHERORDEREXECUTIVESKILLSENTAILINGGOALIDENTIFICATION,PLANNING,MONITORINGANDEVALUATIONACCORDINGTOANDERSON2002,UNDERSTANDINGANDCONTROLLINGCOGNITIVEPROCESSESMAYBEONEOFTHEMOSTESSENTIALSKILLSINTHECLASSROOMTHEDISTINCTIONSBETWEENCOGNITIVEANDMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESAREIMPORTANT,PARTLYBECAUSETHEYGIVESOMEINDICATIONOFWHICHSTRATEGIESARETHEMOSTCRUCIALINDETERMININGTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFLEARNINGITSEEMSTHATMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIES,WHICHALLOWSTUDENTSTOPLAN,CONTROL,ANDEVALUATETHEIRLEARNING,HAVETHEMOSTCENTRALROLETOPLAYINTHISRESPECT,RATHERTHANTHOSETHATMERELYMAXIMIZEINTERACTIONANDINPUTTHUSTHEABILITYTOCHOOSEANDEVALUATEONE’SSTRATEGIESISOFCENTRALIMPORTANCETHEREAREALSOOTHERRESEARCHERSWHOEMPHASIZEMETACOGITIONINLEARNINGSTRATEGIESWILLIAMSANDBURDEN2000STRESSMETACOGNITIONISCENTRALTOEFFECTIVELEARNINGWENDEN1987SAYSTHATMETACOGNITIONIS“THEPROCESSTHATUNDERLIESTHEEFFICIENTUSEOFSTRATEGIESANDTHEESSENCEOFINTELLIGENTACTIVITY”P573QUICKE1994SIMILARLYVIEWSTHATMETACOGNITIVEAWARENESSISCRUCIALINLEARNINGSTRATEGIESELLIS1994ISRELATIVELYRESERVED,SAYINGTHATMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESASSUMECONSIDERABLEIMPORTANCEATLEASTFORADULTSHECONTINUESTOSAYTHATMANYLEARNERSSEEMTOUNDERUTILIZETHISSTRATEGYTHISFINDINGSUPPLIESMEANINGFULIMPLICATIONSFORSTRATEGYTRAININGINADDITION,MOSTOFTHESTUDIESO’MALLEYSNDCHAMOT1990;WENDENANDRUBIN1987;OXFORDANDCROOKALL1989FOUNDTHELEARNERSWHOWEREPARTICULARLYTAUGHTMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESPERFORMEDBETTERTHANTHOSEINTHECONTROLGROUPGOODLANGUAGELEARNERSMAKEUSEOFMETACOGNITIVEKNOWLEDGETOHELPTHEMASSESSTHENEEDS,EVALUATEPROGRESSANDGIVEDIRECTIONSTOTHEIRLEARNING4TEACHINGMETACOGNITIVESKILLSSINCETHEIMPORTANCEOFMETACOGNITIONHASBEENSTRESSED,ITISADVISABLETOHEIGHTENLEARNERS’METACOGNITIVEAWARENESSWEN1995EMPHASIZEDTHATSUCCESSFULLEARNERSARETHOUGHFULANDAWAREOFTHEMSELVESINRELATIONTOTHELEARNINGPROCESSTHEYAREABLETOEMPLOYSTRATEGIESUNCONCIOUSLY,ANDMAKETHEIRMETACOGITIVEAWARENESSINTOPLAYWHENNECESSARYORWHENTHEYAREFACEDWITHDIFFICULTIESSUCHAWARENESSGIVESLEARNERSCONTROLOVERTHEIROWNLEARNINGTHEREFORE,METACOGINITIVEAWARENESSISANECESSARYANDESSENTIALFOCUSINLEARNINGTOREGULATELEARNINGTRAININGINMETACOGNITIVEAWARENESSINCLUDEAWARENESSOFWHATLEARNINGALANGUAGEINVLOVESASWELLASTRAININGINTHESELECTIONOFAPPROPRIATESTRATEGIESFORDIFFERENTSITUATIONSINADDITION,METACOGNITIVETRAININGSHOULDINCLUDEHEIGHTENINGAWARENESSOFTHEFEELINGSINDEFFERENTASPECTSOFLANGUAGELEARNING,ANDOFALEARNER’SPERSONALITIESANDSTRENGTHSWILLIAMSBURDEN,2000TORAISEMETACOGNITIVEAWARENESSINVOLVESFIVEASPECTS⑴PREPARINGANDPLANNINGFORLEARNINGTHESEIMPORTANTMETACOGNITIVESKILLSRELATESTOIDENTIFYINGWHATISTOBEACCOMPLISHEDTEACHERSARTICULATETHEPARTICULARLEARNINGGOALSFORCLASSANDGUIDETHESTUDENSINSETTINGTHEIROWNLEARNINGGOALS⑵KNOWINGHOWTOSELECTANDUSELEARNINGSTRATEGIESINTHISRESPECT,TEACHERSTEACHSTUDENTSHOWTOUSESPECIFICSTRATEGIESBASEDONVARIOUSTASKSTEACHERSSHOWHOWTOCHOOSETHESTRATEGYTHATISMOSTLIKELYTOSUCCEEDINAGIVENSITUATIONITISTHEMOSTDIFFICULTSKILLFORTEACHERSTOINSTRUCTSTUDENTS⑶MONITORINGSTRATEGYUSEBYMONITORING,STUDENTSCANKEEPTHEMSELVESONTRACKTOMEETTHEIRAIMSDURINGTHETIMESTUDENTSIMPLEMENTSPECIFICSTRATEGIES,TEACHERSNEEDTOREMINDSTUDENTSTOSTOPREGULARLYANDTHINKABOUTWHETHERTHEYUSESTRATEGIESASINTENDED⑷KNOWINGHOWTODEPLOYVARIOUSSTRATEGIESTEACHERSCANAIDSTUDENTSBYMAKINGTHEMAWAREOFVARIOUSSTRATEGIESAVAILABLETOMASTERTHISSKILLMEANSTHATASTUDENTHASTHEABILITYTOCOORDINATE,ORGANIZEANDMAKEASSOCIATIONAMONGTHEVARIOUSSTRATEGIES⑸SELFASSESSINGONE’SOWNSTRATEGYUSESELFASSESSMENTHELPSSTUDENTSREFLECTTHROUGHTHECYCLEOFLEARNINGTEACHERSMAYASKSUCHQUESTIONSAS“WHATAMITRYINGTOACCOMPLISH”“HOWWELLAMIUSINGTHEM”THROUGHTHISSKILL,STUDENTSCANLEARNTOASSESSTHEIRPERFORMANCEMOREACCURATELYTHEFIVEASPECTSAREVALUABLESUGGESTIONSFORTEACHERSTOINSTRUCTTHEMETACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESTOHAVEGOODMETACOGNITIVEAWARENESSCANGREATLYFACILITATETHEIMPROVEMENTOFSTRATEGYUSEANDEMPOWERSECONDLANGUAGELEARNERS5CONCLUSIONITMUSTBEREEMPHASIZEDINCONCLUSIONTHATTHEISSUEOFSTRATEGYTRAININGINL2ACQUISITIONISFARFROMSIMPLE,ANDTHEREARENOSIMPLESOLUTIONSTOTHEQUESTIONSOFHOWTOPROMOTEEFFICIENTEMPLOYMENTOFSTRATEGIESTHEAIMOFSTRATEGYTRAININGINL2LEARNINGLIESNOTINTHEMASTERYOFSTRATEGIESBUTINHEIGHTENINGSTRATEGYAWARENESS,INENLARGINGTHERANGEOFSTRATEGIESTOBESELECTED,ANDINENHANCINGTHEABILITYTOSELFMONITORANDSELFREGULATEINTHELEARNINGPROCESSMOSTOFIMPORTANT,METACOGNITIVESTRATEGIESTHECORELEARNINGSTRATEGIES,SHOULDBEPAIDMUCHMOREATTENTIONTOINLANGUAGEINSTRUCTION【REFERENCES】1ANDERSON,NJ2002THEROLEOFMETACOGNITIONINSECONDLANGUAGETEACHINGANDLEARNINGFROMHTTP//WWWCALORG/RESOURCES/DIGEST_PDFS/0110_ANDERSONPDF/SURVEY200772BENSON,P2005TEACHINGANDRESEARCHINGAUTONOMYINLANGUAGELEARNINGBEIJINGFOREIGNLANGUAGETEACHINGANDREAEARCHPRESS

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