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语言文化论文-Learning Strategy Instruction in L2 Acquisition and Metacognitive Strategy.doc

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语言文化论文-Learning Strategy Instruction in L2 Acquisition and Metacognitive Strategy.doc

语言文化论文LearningStrategyInstructioninL2AcquisitionandMetacognitiveStrategy【Abstract】LearningstrategyinstructioninL2acquisitionisreallyatissue.Itisaverycomplextask.Thegoalofstrategyinstructionistohelplearnerstolearnhowtoemploystrategiesflexiblyandhowtoselectappropriatestrategiestoperformaparticularlearningtask.Metacognitivestrategiesmaybethoughtofascorelearningstrategiesbecausetheyareapplicabletoavarietyoflearningtasksandalsobecausetheyareoverarchingstrategiesabovecognitivestrategiesandsocial/affectivestrategies.ThispaperexplorestheissuesofstrategytraininginL2,andstressestheimportanceofmetacognitivestrategiesinstrategyinstruction.【Keywords】learningstrategiesstrategyinstructionmetacognitivestrategymetacognitiveskills.WhenitcomestotraininglearnersintheuseoflearningstrategiesinL2acquisition,maybeitismostappropriatetosaythereisalottoplayforSkehan1991ascitedinEllis,1994,p.558.Uptonow,therearealargenumberofmaterialontraininglearnerstouseeffectivelanguagelearningstrategiese.g.,EllisandSinclair1989Brown1989Oxford1990Wenden1986band1991.However,therehavebeenfewempiricalstudiesevaluatingthethesuccessofthetrainingonL2learnersEllis,1994.IthasnotprovedaneasytasktoincorporatetheaccumulationofknowledgeaboutstrategiesineffectivelearningintotheteachingprocessWilliamsBurden,2000.Becauseofthelackofsolidevidence,thereappearedtwooppositeviewpointsontheissueofstrategyinstruction.1.ArgumentonstrategyinstructionItisarguedthatsincenotenoughisyetknownabouttherelationsbetweenlearningstrategiesandlanguagelearning,cautionshouldbeexercisedinattemptingtotrainlearnerstouseparticularstrategies.ReesMiller19931994arguesthatinviewofthelackofevidencefortheeffectiveness,resourcesspentonstrategytrainingmightbebetterdirectedelsewhere.Benson2005arguethatthecorrelationbetweenstrategyuseandimprovedperformanceisnotnecessarilyacausaleffectrelationship.Theresearchliteraturecontainsawealthofdescriptionsofattemptstoteachlanguagelearningstrategies.TheseresearchersmainlyincludeOMalleyandChamot1990,WendenandRubin1987,andOxfordandCrookall1989.ItisworthnotingthattheresultsofmostoftheirstudiesindicatethatthosewhowereexplicitlytaughtstrategiesperformbetteronarangeoflanguagetasksthandidthecontrolgroupswhoreceivednostrategytrainingWilliamsBurden,2000.McDonoughs1999reviewofresearchsuggeststhatthehypothesisthatlearnerscanlearnhowtouseeffectivestrategiesremainsvalid.Obviously,theexplicitteachingofstrategieshasreceivedaconsiderableamountofattention.Mostofresearchersareinfavorinstrategytraining.InChina,thesummerinstituteonL2learningstrategytrainingandresearchwasheldinNanjingUniversityin2003Wang,L.FWenQ.F.,2003.2IssuesofstrategytraininginL2Ellis1994identified5keyissuesinlanguagelearningstrategiestrainingafterreviewingthemajorstudiesonstrategytraining.Hegaveawarningthatissuesshouldbepaidmuchattentiontobeforestrategytrainingisimplemented⑴moreworkisneededtodiscoverwhatstrategiesand,inparticular,whatcombinationsofstrategiesshouldbetaught.⑵wayshavetobefoundoftakingintoaccountlearnersownpreferredlearningstrategies.⑶Somelearnersmayneedconvincingthatstrategytrainingisworthwhile.⑷Itisnotclearwhetherlearnertrainingwillworkbestwhenitexistsasaseparatestrandinalanguageprogramorwhenitisfullyintegratedintothelanguageteachingmaterials.⑸whetherlearnersshouldbemadeconsciousofthestrategiestheyaretaught,orwhetherjustprovidingpracticeopportunitiesissufficient.WhyistheissueofstrategytrainingsocomplexItmaybeduetothedifferentfactorsthatinteracttoinfluencetheteachingandlearningofstrategiesage,gender,personallearningstyleandteachersattitudeandbeliefs.Forexample,thelearningstrategiesemployedbythechildlearnersandadultlearnersaredifferent.Thestudiesmadebyresearcherse.g.,OMalleyetal1985Chamotetal1987suggestthatlearnersabilitytouseabroadrangeofstrategiesflexiblymaydependtoalargeextentonthenatureofandrangeoftheinstructionaltasksintheclassroom.However,itmaynotbepossibletopredictthekindsofstrategiesthatalearnerwillemployinaparticulartask.Ontheonehand,strategyinstructionisdependentonthetasksontheotherhand,thetasksisunlikelytospecifycertainstrategiestobeusedbythelearners.MaybeitisbettertociteElliswords1994specifictasksmaypredisposelearnerstouseparticularstrategies,buttheycannotpredeterminetheactualstrategiestobeused.p.5453.RoleofmetacognitioninL2trainingThegoalofstrategyinstructionistohelplearnerstolearnhowtoemploystrategiesflexiblyandhowtoselectappropriatestrategiestoperformaparticularlearningtask.ButhereistheproblemfortheteachersandthelearnershowtodefinethewordappropriateAmongthreetypesofstrategiesintheclassificationofOMalleyandChamot,metacognitivestrategiesmaybethoughtofascorelearningstrategiesbecausetheyareapplicabletoavarietyoflearningtasksandalsobecausetheyareoverarchingstrategiesabovecognitivestrategiesandsocial/affectivestrategies.Metacognivestrategiesarehigherorderexecutiveskillsentailinggoalidentification,planning,monitoringandevaluation.AccordingtoAnderson2002,understandingandcontrollingcognitiveprocessesmaybeoneofthemostessentialskillsintheclassroom.Thedistinctionsbetweencognitiveandmetacognitivestrategiesareimportant,partlybecausetheygivesomeindicationofwhichstrategiesarethemostcrucialindeterminingtheeffectivenessoflearning.Itseemsthatmetacognitivestrategies,whichallowstudentstoplan,control,andevaluatetheirlearning,havethemostcentralroletoplayinthisrespect,ratherthanthosethatmerelymaximizeinteractionandinput.Thustheabilitytochooseandevaluateonesstrategiesisofcentralimportance.Therearealsootherresearcherswhoemphasizemetacogitioninlearningstrategies.WilliamsandBurden2000stressmetacognitioniscentraltoeffectivelearning.Wenden1987saysthatmetacognitionistheprocessthatunderliestheefficientuseofstrategiesandtheessenceofintelligentactivityp.573.Quicke1994similarlyviewsthatmetacognitiveawarenessiscrucialinlearningstrategies.Ellis1994isrelativelyreserved,sayingthatmetacognitivestrategiesassumeconsiderableimportanceatleastforadults.Hecontinuestosaythatmanylearnersseemtounderutilizethisstrategy.Thisfindingsuppliesmeaningfulimplicationsforstrategytraining.Inaddition,mostofthestudiesOMalleysndChamot1990WendenandRubin1987OxfordandCrookall1989foundthelearnerswhowereparticularlytaughtmetacognitivestrategiesperformedbetterthanthoseinthecontrolgroup.Goodlanguagelearnersmakeuseofmetacognitiveknowledgetohelpthemassesstheneeds,evaluateprogressandgivedirectionstotheirlearning.4.TeachingmetacognitiveskillsSincetheimportanceofmetacognitionhasbeenstressed,itisadvisabletoheightenlearnersmetacognitiveawareness.Wen1995emphasizedthatsuccessfullearnersarethoughfulandawareofthemselvesinrelationtothelearningprocess.Theyareabletoemploystrategiesunconciously,andmaketheirmetacogitiveawarenessintoplaywhennecessaryorwhentheyarefacedwithdifficulties.Suchawarenessgiveslearnerscontrolovertheirownlearning.Therefore,metacoginitiveawarenessisanecessaryandessentialfocusinlearningtoregulatelearning.Traininginmetacognitiveawarenessincludeawarenessofwhatlearningalanguageinvlovesaswellastrainingintheselectionofappropriatestrategiesfordifferentsituations.Inaddition,metacognitivetrainingshouldincludeheighteningawarenessofthefeelingsindefferentaspectsoflanguagelearning,andofalearnerspersonalitiesandstrengths.WilliamsBurden,2000Toraisemetacognitiveawarenessinvolvesfiveaspects.⑴preparingandplanningforlearningTheseimportantmetacognitiveskillsrelatestoidentifyingwhatistobeaccomplished.Teachersarticulatetheparticularlearninggoalsforclassandguidethestudensinsettingtheirownlearninggoals.⑵knowinghowtoselectanduselearningstrategiesInthisrespect,teachersteachstudentshowtousespecificstrategiesbasedonvarioustasks.Teachersshowhowtochoosethestrategythatismostlikelytosucceedinagivensituation.Itisthemostdifficultskillforteacherstoinstructstudents.⑶monitoringstrategyuseBymonitoring,studentscankeepthemselvesontracktomeettheiraims.Duringthetimestudentsimplementspecificstrategies,teachersneedtoremindstudentstostopregularlyandthinkaboutwhethertheyusestrategiesasintended.⑷knowinghowtodeployvariousstrategiesTeacherscanaidstudentsbymakingthemawareofvariousstrategiesavailable.Tomasterthisskillmeansthatastudenthastheabilitytocoordinate,organizeandmakeassociationamongthevariousstrategies.⑸selfassessingonesownstrategyuseSelfassessmenthelpsstudentsreflectthroughthecycleoflearning.TeachersmayasksuchquestionsasWhatamItryingtoaccomplishHowwellamIusingthem.Throughthisskill,studentscanlearntoassesstheirperformancemoreaccurately.Thefiveaspectsarevaluablesuggestionsforteacherstoinstructthemetacognitivestrategies.Tohavegoodmetacognitiveawarenesscangreatlyfacilitatetheimprovementofstrategyuseandempowersecondlanguagelearners.5.ConclusionItmustbereemphasizedinconclusionthattheissueofstrategytraininginL2acquisitionisfarfromsimple,andtherearenosimplesolutionstothequestionsofhowtopromoteefficientemploymentofstrategies.TheaimofstrategytraininginL2learningliesnotinthemasteryofstrategiesbutinheighteningstrategyawareness,inenlargingtherangeofstrategiestobeselected,andinenhancingtheabilitytoselfmonitorandselfregulateinthelearningprocess.Mostofimportant,metacognitivestrategiesthecorelearningstrategies,shouldbepaidmuchmoreattentiontoinlanguageinstruction.【References】1Anderson,N.J.2002.Theroleofmetacognitioninsecondlanguageteachingandlearning.fromhttp//www.cal.org/resources/digest_pdfs/0110_Anderson.pdf/survey20077.2Benson,P.2005.TeachingandResearchingAutonomyinLanguageLearning.BeijingForeignLanguageTeachingandReaearchPress.

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