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语言文化论文-The essence of neoliberalism .doc

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语言文化论文-The essence of neoliberalism .doc

语言文化论文THEESSENCEOFNEOLIBERALISMASTHEDOMINANTDISCOURSEWOULDHAVEIT,THEECONOMICWORLDISAPUREANDPERFECTORDER,IMPLACABLYUNROLLINGTHELOGICOFITSPREDICTABLECONSEQUENCES,ANDPROMPTTOREPRESSALLVIOLATIONSBYTHESANCTIONSTHATITINFLICTS,EITHERAUTOMATICALLYORMOREUNUSUALLYTHROUGHTHEINTERMEDIARYOFITSARMEDEXTENSIONS,THEINTERNATIONALMONETARYFUNDIMFANDTHEORGANIZATIONFORECONOMICCOOPERATIONANDDEVELOPMENTOECDANDTHEPOLICIESTHEYIMPOSEREDUCINGLABOURCOSTS,REDUCINGPUBLICEXPENDITURESANDMAKINGWORKMOREFLEXIBLEISTHEDOMINANTDISCOURSERIGHTWHATIF,INREALITY,THISECONOMICORDERWERENOMORETHANTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFAUTOPIATHEUTOPIAOFNEOLIBERALISMTHUSCONVERTEDINTOAPOLITICALPROBLEMONETHAT,WITHTHEAIDOFTHEECONOMICTHEORYTHATITPROCLAIMS,SUCCEEDSINCONCEIVINGOFITSELFASTHESCIENTIFICDESCRIPTIONOFREALITYTHISTUTELARYTHEORYISAPUREMATHEMATICALFICTIONFROMTHESTARTITHASBEENFOUNDEDONAFORMIDABLEABSTRACTIONFOR,INTHENAMEOFANARROWANDSTRICTCONCEPTIONOFRATIONALITYASINDIVIDUALRATIONALITY,ITBRACKETSTHEECONOMICANDSOCIALCONDITIONSOFRATIONALORIENTATIONSANDTHEECONOMICANDSOCIALSTRUCTURESTHATARETHECONDITIONOFTHEIRAPPLICATIONTOGIVETHEMEASUREOFTHISOMISSION,ITISENOUGHTOTHINKJUSTOFTHEEDUCATIONALSYSTEMEDUCATIONISNEVERTAKENACCOUNTOFASSUCHATATIMEWHENITPLAYSADETERMININGROLEINTHEPRODUCTIONOFGOODSANDSERVICESASINTHEPRODUCTIONOFTHEPRODUCERSTHEMSELVESFROMTHISSORTOFORIGINALSIN,INSCRIBEDINTHEWALRASIANMYTH1OFPURETHEORY,FLOWALLOFTHEDEFICIENCIESANDFAULTSOFTHEDISCIPLINEOFECONOMICSANDTHEFATALOBSTINACYWITHWHICHITATTACHESITSELFTOTHEARBITRARYOPPOSITIONWHICHITINDUCES,THROUGHITSMEREEXISTENCE,BETWEENAPROPERLYECONOMICLOGIC,BASEDONCOMPETITIONANDEFFICIENCY,ANDSOCIALLOGIC,WHICHISSUBJECTTOTHERULEOFFAIRNESSTHATSAID,THISTHEORYTHATISDESOCIALISEDANDDEHISTORICISEDATITSROOTSHAS,TODAYMORETHANEVER,THEMEANSOFMAKINGITSELFTRUEANDEMPIRICALLYVERIFIABLEINEFFECT,NEOLIBERALDISCOURSEISNOTJUSTONEDISCOURSEAMONGMANYRATHER,ITISASTRONGDISCOURSETHEWAYPSYCHIATRICDISCOURSEISINANASYLUM,INERVINGGOFFMANSANALYSIS2ITISSOSTRONGANDSOHARDTOCOMBATONLYBECAUSEITHASONITSSIDEALLOFTHEFORCESOFAWORLDOFRELATIONSOFFORCES,AWORLDTHATITCONTRIBUTESTOMAKINGWHATITISITDOESTHISMOSTNOTABLYBYORIENTINGTHEECONOMICCHOICESOFTHOSEWHODOMINATEECONOMICRELATIONSHIPSITTHUSADDSITSOWNSYMBOLICFORCETOTHESERELATIONSOFFORCESINTHENAMEOFTHISSCIENTIFICPROGRAMME,CONVERTEDINTOAPLANOFPOLITICALACTION,ANIMMENSEPOLITICALPROJECTISUNDERWAY,ALTHOUGHITSSTATUSASSUCHISDENIEDBECAUSEITAPPEARSTOBEPURELYNEGATIVETHISPROJECTAIMSTOCREATETHECONDITIONSUNDERWHICHTHETHEORYCANBEREALISEDANDCANFUNCTIONAPROGRAMMEOFTHEMETHODICALDESTRUCTIONOFCOLLECTIVESTHEMOVEMENTTOWARDTHENEOLIBERALUTOPIAOFAPUREANDPERFECTMARKETISMADEPOSSIBLEBYTHEPOLITICSOFFINANCIALDEREGULATIONANDITISACHIEVEDTHROUGHTHETRANSFORMATIVEAND,ITMUSTBESAID,DESTRUCTIVEACTIONOFALLOFTHEPOLITICALMEASURESOFWHICHTHEMOSTRECENTISTHEMULTILATERALAGREEMENTONINVESTMENTMAI,DESIGNEDTOPROTECTFOREIGNCORPORATIONSANDTHEIRINVESTMENTSFROMNATIONALSTATESTHATAIMTOCALLINTOQUESTIONANYANDALLCOLLECTIVESTRUCTURESTHATCOULDSERVEASANOBSTACLETOTHELOGICOFTHEPUREMARKETTHENATION,WHOSESPACETOMANOEUVRECONTINUALLYDECREASES;WORKGROUPS,FOREXAMPLETHROUGHTHEINDIVIDUALISATIONOFSALARIESANDOFCAREERSASAFUNCTIONOFINDIVIDUALCOMPETENCES,WITHTHECONSEQUENTATOMISATIONOFWORKERS;COLLECTIVESFORTHEDEFENCEOFTHERIGHTSOFWORKERS,UNIONS,ASSOCIATIONS,COOPERATIVES;EVENTHEFAMILY,WHICHLOSESPARTOFITSCONTROLOVERCONSUMPTIONTHROUGHTHECONSTITUTIONOFMARKETSBYAGEGROUPSTHENEOLIBERALPROGRAMMEDRAWSITSSOCIALPOWERFROMTHEPOLITICALANDECONOMICPOWEROFTHOSEWHOSEINTERESTSITEXPRESSESSTOCKHOLDERS,FINANCIALOPERATORS,INDUSTRIALISTS,CONSERVATIVEORSOCIALDEMOCRATICPOLITICIANSWHOHAVEBEENCONVERTEDTOTHEREASSURINGLAYOFFSOFLAISSERFAIRE,HIGHLEVELFINANCIALOFFICIALSEAGERTOIMPOSEPOLICIESADVOCATINGTHEIROWNEXTINCTIONBECAUSE,UNLIKETHEMANAGERSOFFIRMS,THEYRUNNORISKOFHAVINGEVENTUALLYTOPAYTHECONSEQUENCESNEOLIBERALISMTENDSONTHEWHOLETOFAVOURSEVERINGTHEECONOMYFROMSOCIALREALITIESANDTHEREBYCONSTRUCTING,INREALITY,ANECONOMICSYSTEMCONFORMINGTOITSDESCRIPTIONINPURETHEORY,THATISASORTOFLOGICALMACHINETHATPRESENTSITSELFASACHAINOFCONSTRAINTSREGULATINGECONOMICAGENTSTHEGLOBALISATIONOFFINANCIALMARKETS,WHENJOINEDWITHTHEPROGRESSOFINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY,ENSURESANUNPRECEDENTEDMOBILITYOFCAPITALITGIVESINVESTORSCONCERNEDWITHTHESHORTTERMPROFITABILITYOFTHEIRINVESTMENTSTHEPOSSIBILITYOFPERMANENTLYCOMPARINGTHEPROFITABILITYOFTHELARGESTCORPORATIONSAND,INCONSEQUENCE,PENALISINGTHESEFIRMSRELATIVESETBACKSSUBJECTEDTOTHISPERMANENTTHREAT,THECORPORATIONSTHEMSELVESHAVETOADJUSTMOREANDMORERAPIDLYTOTHEEXIGENCIESOFTHEMARKETS,UNDERPENALTYOFLOSINGTHEMARKETSCONFIDENCE,ASTHEYSAY,ASWELLASTHESUPPORTOFTHEIRSTOCKHOLDERSTHELATTER,ANXIOUSTOOBTAINSHORTTERMPROFITS,AREMOREANDMOREABLETOIMPOSETHEIRWILLONMANAGERS,USINGFINANCIALDIRECTORATESTOESTABLISHTHERULESUNDERWHICHMANAGERSOPERATEANDTOSHAPETHEIRPOLICIESREGARDINGHIRING,EMPLOYMENT,ANDWAGESTHUSTHEABSOLUTEREIGNOFFLEXIBILITYISESTABLISHED,WITHEMPLOYEESBEINGHIRINGONFIXEDTERMCONTRACTSORONATEMPORARYBASISANDREPEATEDCORPORATERESTRUCTURINGSAND,WITHINTHEFIRMITSELF,COMPETITIONAMONGAUTONOMOUSDIVISIONSASWELLASAMONGTEAMSFORCEDTOPERFORMMULTIPLEFUNCTIONSFINALLY,THISCOMPETITIONISEXTENDEDTOINDIVIDUALSTHEMSELVES,THROUGHTHEINDIVIDUALISATIONOFTHEWAGERELATIONSHIPESTABLISHMENTOFINDIVIDUALPERFORMANCEOBJECTIVES,INDIVIDUALPERFORMANCEEVALUATIONS,PERMANENTEVALUATION,INDIVIDUALSALARYINCREASESORGRANTINGOFBONUSESASAFUNCTIONOFCOMPETENCEANDOFINDIVIDUALMERIT;INDIVIDUALISEDCAREERPATHS;STRATEGIESOFDELEGATINGRESPONSIBILITYTENDINGTOENSURETHESELFEXPLOITATIONOFSTAFFWHO,SIMPLEWAGELABOURERSINRELATIONSOFSTRONGHIERARCHICALDEPENDENCE,AREATTHESAMETIMEHELDRESPONSIBLEFORTHEIRSALES,THEIRPRODUCTS,THEIRBRANCH,THEIRSTORE,ETCASTHOUGHTHEYWEREINDEPENDENTCONTRACTORSTHISPRESSURETOWARDSELFCONTROLEXTENDSWORKERSINVOLVEMENTACCORDINGTOTHETECHNIQUESOFPARTICIPATIVEMANAGEMENTCONSIDERABLYBEYONDMANAGEMENTLEVELALLOFTHESEARETECHNIQUESOFRATIONALDOMINATIONTHATIMPOSEOVERINVOLVEMENTINWORKANDNOTONLYAMONGMANAGEMENTANDWORKUNDEREMERGENCYORHIGHSTRESSCONDITIONSANDTHEYCONVERGETOWEAKENORABOLISHCOLLECTIVESTANDARDSORSOLIDARITIES3INTHISWAY,ADARWINIANWORLDEMERGESITISTHESTRUGGLEOFALLAGAINSTALLATALLLEVELSOFTHEHIERARCHY,WHICHFINDSSUPPORTTHROUGHEVERYONECLINGINGTOTHEIRJOBANDORGANISATIONUNDERCONDITIONSOFINSECURITY,SUFFERING,ANDSTRESSWITHOUTADOUBT,THEPRACTICALESTABLISHMENTOFTHISWORLDOFSTRUGGLEWOULDNOTSUCCEEDSOCOMPLETELYWITHOUTTHECOMPLICITYOFALLOFTHEPRECARIOUSARRANGEMENTSTHATPRODUCEINSECURITYANDOFTHEEXISTENCEOFARESERVEARMYOFEMPLOYEESRENDEREDDOCILEBYTHESESOCIALPROCESSESTHATMAKETHEIRSITUATIONSPRECARIOUS,ASWELLASBYTHEPERMANENTTHREATOFUNEMPLOYMENTTHISRESERVEARMYEXISTSATALLLEVELSOFTHEHIERARCHY,EVENATTHEHIGHERLEVELS,ESPECIALLYAMONGMANAGERSTHEULTIMATEFOUNDATIONOFTHISENTIREECONOMICORDERPLACEDUNDERTHESIGNOFFREEDOMISINEFFECTTHESTRUCTURALVIOLENCEOFUNEMPLOYMENT,OFTHEINSECURITYOFJOBTENUREANDTHEMENACEOFLAYOFFTHATITIMPLIESTHECONDITIONOFTHEHARMONIOUSFUNCTIONINGOFTHEINDIVIDUALISTMICROECONOMICMODELISAMASSPHENOMENON,THEEXISTENCEOFARESERVEARMYOFTHEUNEMPLOYEDTHISSTRUCTURALVIOLENCEALSOWEIGHSONWHATISCALLEDTHELABOURCONTRACTWISELYRATIONALISEDANDRENDEREDUNREALBYTHETHEORYOFCONTRACTSORGANISATIONALDISCOURSEHASNEVERTALKEDASMUCHOFTRUST,COOPERATION,LOYALTY,ANDORGANISATIONALCULTUREASINANERAWHENADHERENCETOTHEORGANISATIONISOBTAINEDATEACHMOMENTBYELIMINATINGALLTEMPORALGUARANTEESOFEMPLOYMENTTHREEQUARTERSOFHIRESAREFORFIXEDDURATION,THEPROPORTIONOFTEMPORARYEMPLOYEESKEEPSRISING,EMPLOYMENTATWILLANDTHERIGHTTOFIREANINDIVIDUALTENDTOBEFREEDFROMANYRESTRICTIONTHUSWESEEHOWTHENEOLIBERALUTOPIATENDSTOEMBODYITSELFINTHEREALITYOFAKINDOFINFERNALMACHINE,WHOSENECESSITYIMPOSESITSELFEVENUPONTHERULERSLIKETHEMARXISMOFANEARLIERTIME,WITHWHICH,INTHISREGARD,ITHASMUCHINCOMMON,THISUTOPIAEVOKESPOWERFULBELIEFTHEFREETRADEFAITHNOTONLYAMONGTHOSEWHOLIVEOFFIT,SUCHASFINANCIERS,THEOWNERSANDMANAGERSOFLARGECORPORATIONS,ETC,BUTALSOAMONGTHOSE,SUCHASHIGHLEVELGOVERNMENTOFFICIALSANDPOLITICIANS,WHODERIVETHEIRJUSTIFICATIONFOREXISTINGFROMITFORTHEYSANCTIFYTHEPOWEROFMARKETSINTHENAMEOFECONOMICEFFICIENCY,WHICHREQUIRESTHEELIMINATIONOFADMINISTRATIVEORPOLITICALBARRIERSCAPABLEOFINCONVENIENCINGTHEOWNERSOFCAPITALINTHEIRINDIVIDUALQUESTFORTHEMAXIMISATIONOFINDIVIDUALPROFIT,WHICHHASBEENTURNEDINTOAMODELOFRATIONALITYTHEYWANTINDEPENDENTCENTRALBANKSANDTHEYPREACHTHESUBORDINATIONOFNATIONSTATESTOTHEREQUIREMENTSOFECONOMICFREEDOMFORTHEMASTERSOFTHEECONOMY,WITHTHESUPPRESSIONOFANYREGULATIONOFANYMARKET,BEGINNINGWITHTHELABOURMARKET,THEPROHIBITIONOFDEFICITSANDINFLATION,THEGENERALPRIVATISATIONOFPUBLICSERVICES,ANDTHEREDUCTIONOFPUBLICANDSOCIALEXPENSESECONOMISTSMAYNOTNECESSARILYSHARETHEECONOMICANDSOCIALINTERESTSOFTHETRUEBELIEVERSANDMAYHAVEAVARIETYOFINDIVIDUALPSYCHICSTATESREGARDINGTHEECONOMICANDSOCIALEFFECTSOFTHEUTOPIAWHICHTHEYCLOAKWITHMATHEMATICALREASONNEVERTHELESS,THEYHAVEENOUGHSPECIFICINTERESTSINTHEFIELDOFECONOMICSCIENCETOCONTRIBUTEDECISIVELYTOTHEPRODUCTIONANDREPRODUCTIONOFBELIEFINTHENEOLIBERALUTOPIASEPARATEDFROMTHEREALITIESOFTHEECONOMICANDSOCIALWORLDBYTHEIREXISTENCEANDABOVEALLBYTHEIRINTELLECTUALFORMATION,WHICHISMOSTFREQUENTLYPURELYABSTRACT,BOOKISH,ANDTHEORETICAL,THEYAREPARTICULARLYINCLINEDTOCONFUSETHETHINGSOFLOGICWITHTHELOGICOFTHINGSTHESEECONOMISTSTRUSTMODELSTHATTHEYALMOSTNEVERHAVEOCCASIONTOSUBMITTOTHETESTOFEXPERIMENTALVERIFICATIONANDARELEDTOLOOKDOWNUPONTHERESULTSOFTHEOTHERHISTORICALSCIENCES,INWHICHTHEYDONOTRECOGNISETHEPURITYANDCRYSTALLINETRANSPARENCYOFTHEIRMATHEMATICALGAMES,WHOSETRUENECESSITYANDPROFOUNDCOMPLEXITYTHEYAREOFTENINCAPABLEOFUNDERSTANDINGTHEYPARTICIPATEANDCOLLABORATEINAFORMIDABLEECONOMICANDSOCIALCHANGEEVENIFSOMEOFITSCONSEQUENCESHORRIFYTHEMTHEYCANJOINTHESOCIALISTPARTYANDGIVELEARNEDCOUNSELTOITSREPRESENTATIVESINTHEPOWERSTRUCTURE,ITCANNOTDISPLEASETHEMBECAUSE,ATTHERISKOFAFEWFAILURES,IMPUTABLETOWHATTHEYSOMETIMESCALLSPECULATIVEBUBBLES,ITTENDSTOGIVEREALITYTOTHEULTRALOGICALUTOPIAULTRALOGICALLIKECERTAINFORMSOFINSANITYTOWHICHTHEYCONSECRATETHEIRLIVESANDYETTHEWORLDISTHERE,WITHTHEIMMEDIATELYVISIBLEEFFECTSOFTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEGREATNEOLIBERALUTOPIANOTONLYTHEPOVERTYOFANINCREASINGLYLARGESEGMENTOFTHEMOSTECONOMICALLYADVANCEDSOCIETIES,THEEXTRAORDINARYGROWTHININCOMEDIFFERENCES,THEPROGRESSIVEDISAPPEARANCEOFAUTONOMOUSUNIVERSESOFCULTURALPRODUCTION,SUCHASFILM,PUBLISHING,ETC,THROUGHTHEINTRUSIVE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