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语言文化论文-The Organic Ethnologist of Algeriani Migration .doc

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语言文化论文-The Organic Ethnologist of Algeriani Migration .doc

语言文化论文THEORGANICETHNOLOGISTOFALGERIANIMIGRATIONADELMALEKSAYADPASSEDAWAYTWOYEARSAGOATTHISWRITING,LEAVINGBEHINDHIMONEOFTHEMOSTORIGINALANDFERTILECONTRIBUTIONSTOTHEANTHROPOLOGYOFIMMIGRATIONOFTHEPASTCENTURYTHROUGHOUTHISVOLUMINOUSANDVARIEDWRITINGSCLOSETOAHUNDREDPUBLICATIONS,INCLUDINGEIGHTBOOKSSPANNINGTHEDESTRUCTIONOFALGERIASTRADITIONALPEASANTRYATTHEHANDSOFFRENCHCOLONIALISM,THEDYNAMICSOFMIGRATIONCHAINSFROMKABYLIATOFRANCE,THEIMPACTOFDECOLONIZATIONONTHERECEPTIONOFALGERIANWORKERSINMARSEILLES,THEODYSSEYOFTHOSEWORKERSANDTHEIRCHILDRENTHROUGHTHELAYERSANDINSTITUTIONSOFFRENCHSOCIETY,THESOCIALUSESANDPOLITICALABUSESOFIMMIGRANTCULTURE,ANDTHEEVERYDAYLIFEOFALGERIANSLUMSONTHEPARISIANPERIPHERYDURINGTHEFIFTIES,ALLINFORMEDBYANACUTEAWARENESSOFTHEPOLITICALECONOMICROOTSANDIMPORTOFHUMANTRANSHUMANCE1THEALGERIANSOCIOLOGISTBOTHELABORATEDANDDEMONSTRATEDTHEPOTENCYOFTHREEPIVOTALPRINCIPLESFORTHESTUDYOFMIGRATIONTHEFIRSTISTHESIMPLEBUTFUNDAMENTALPROPOSITION,WHOSEIMPLICATIONSREMAINTOBEFULLYDRAWNOUTBYSCHOLARSANDPOLICYMAKERSALIKE,THATBEFOREHEORSHEBECOMESANIMMIGRANT,THEMIGRANTISALWAYSFIRSTANEMIGRANT,ANDTHATTHESOCIOLOGYOFMIGRATIONMUSTTHEREFOREIMPERATIVELYSTART,NOTFROMTHECONCERNSANDCLEAVAGESOFTHERECEIVINGSOCIETY,BUTFROMTHESENDINGCOMMUNITIES,THEIRHISTORY,STRUCTURE,ANDCONTRADICTIONSTHECOMMONCONTRACTIONOFTHEEMIGRATIONIMMIGRATIONDOUBLETTOITSSECONDCOMPONENTMUTILATESTHEPHENOMENONANDENTRAPSTHESTUDYOFMIGRANTSINTOANARTIFICIALPROBLEMATICOFLACKANDDEFICIENCYEXPLAINEDAWAYBYRITUALIZEDREFERENCES,NOWTOTHEIRLOWERCLASSCOMPOSITIONANDSUBSTANDARDCONDITIONSOFLIVING,NOWTOTHEPECULIARITIESOFTHECULTURETHEYHAVEBROUGHTWITHTHEM2RESISTINGSUCHETHNOCENTRICIMPOSITION,THESOCIOLOGYOFMIGRATIONMUSTTAKEASITSOBJECTNOTTHEPROBLEMSTHATMIGRANTSPOSEFORTHEADVANCEDSOCIETIESWHICHATTRACTTHEM,INMATTERSOFEMPLOYMENT,HOUSING,SCHOOLINGANDHEALTH,BUTTHEDYNAMICRELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHESYSTEMOFDISPOSITIONSOFEMIGRANTSANDTHEENSEMBLEOFMECHANISMSTOWHICHTHEYARESUBJECTEDOWINGTOTHISEMIGRATIONSAYAD1THESEBOOKSARERESPECTIVELYINENGLISHTITLESTHEUPROOTINGTHECRISISOFTRADITIONALAGRICULTUREINALGERIABOURDIEUANDSAYAD1964,ALGERIANIMMIGRATIONINFRANCEGILLETTEANDSAYAD1976,THESOCIALUSESOFTHECULTUREOFIMMIGRANTSSAYAD1978,TOWARDSASOCIOLOGYOFIMMIGRATIONSAYADANDFASSA1982,MIGRATINGAHISTORYOFMARSEILLESTHESHOCKOFDECOLONIZATIONTEMIME,JORDIANDSAYAD1991,IMMIGRATION,ORTHEPARADOXESOFOTHERNESSSAYAD1991,ANDANALGERIANNANTERRE,LANDOFSLUMSSAYADWITHDUPUY1995THECULMINATIONANDQUINTESSENCEOFSAYADSFIVEDECADESOFINCESSANTRESEARCHISDOUBLEABSENCEFROMTHEILLUSIONSOFTHEEMIGRANTTOTHESUFFERINGOFTHEIMMIGRANTSAYAD19992ARAREANDREMARKABLEEXCEPTIONTOTHISPATTERN,DESERVINGOFAWIDEREADERSHIPFORITSMULTILEVEL,COMPARATIVE,ANDINTERDISCIPLINARYAPPROACH,ISMASSEY,DURANDANDALARCON1987RECENTWORKONTRANSNATIONALCOMMUNITIESHASFOSTEREDABELATEDIFLIMITEDRECOGNITIONOFTHEDOUBLESIDEDNESSANDDUALDETERMINACYOFMIGRATIONSEETHESPECIALISSUEOFETHNICANDRACIALSTUDIESONTHETOPICEDITEDBYPORTES,GUARNIZOANDLANDOLT1999,ANDPORTES1999WHICHNECESSITATESTHATONERECONSTITUTESTHECOMPLETETRAJECTORYOFTHEINDIVIDUALS,HOUSEHOLDSANDGROUPSINVOLVEDINTHEPEREGRINATIONUNDEREXAMINATION,INORDERTOUNCOVERTHEFULLSYSTEMOFDETERMINANTSTHATFIRSTTRIGGEREDEXILEANDLATERCONTINUED,UNDERNEWGUISES,TOGOVERNTHEDIFFERENTIATEDPATHSTHEYFOLLOWEDRECOGNIZINGTHATIMMIGRATIONHEREANDEMIGRATIONTHEREARETHETWOINDISASSOCIABLESIDESOFTHESAMEREALITY,WHICHCANNOTBEEXPLAINEDTHEONEWITHOUTTHEOTHERSAYAD1999A15ENABLESSAYADTOREVOKE,BOTHEMPIRICALLYANDTHEORETICALLY,THECANONICALOPPOSITIONBETWEENLABORMIGRATIONANDSETTLEMENTMIGRATIONTHEFORMERALWAYSCONTAINSTHELATTERINNUCEANDALWAYSEVENTUATESINITTHEINDIVIDUALDEPARTUREOFWAGESEEKINGMENGRADUALLYSAPSTHEWORKOFPREVENTIONANDPRESERVATIONWHEREBYTHEGROUPSEEKSTOMAINTAINMORALCONTROLOVERITSMEMBERS,ANDSOONERORLATERTHELATTERABANDONSITSELFTOFAMILYMIGRATION,WHICHFURTHERACCELERATESTHEEROSIONOFGROUPBOUNDARIES3RELINKINGEMIGRATIONANDIMMIGRATIONPOINTSALSOTOTHESECONDPILLARPROPOSITIONANCHORINGABDELMALEKSAYADSWORKTHATMIGRATIONISTHEPRODUCTANDEXPRESSIONOFANHISTORICALRELATIONOFINTERNATIONALDOMINATION,ATONCEMATERIALANDSYMBOLICIMMIGRATIONISARELATIONFROMSTATETOSTATEBUTONETHATISDENIEDASSUCHINEVERYDAYREALITYNOLESSTHANINTHEPOLITICALFIELDSAYAD1991267,SOTHATITSMANAGEMENTMAYFALLWITHINTHESOVEREIGNPROVINCEOFTHERECEIVINGSOCIETYALONE,OFITSLAWS,ADMINISTRATIVERULESANDBUREAUCRATICDICTATES,ANDBETREATEDASTHEDOMESTICISSUEWHICHITISNOTSAYAD1979SHOWS,INTHEPARADIGMATICCASEOFFRANCEANDALGERIAINTHEPOSTCOLONIALANDPOSTFORDISTERAAFTERTHEFLOWOFMIGRANTLABORERSHASBEENOFFICIALLYSTOPPED,THATTHENEGOTIATIONSBETWEENCOUNTRIESTHATLEADTOINTERNATIONALCONVENTIONSANDREGULATIONSCONCERNINGIMMIGRATIONAREBILATERALTRANSACTIONSINNAMEONLYSINCETHEDOMINANTECONOMICPOWERANDFORMERCOLONIALRULERISINASTRUCTURALPOSITIONTOIMPOSEUNILATERALLYTHETERMS,GOALS,ANDMEANSOFTHESEAGREEMENTS4BUTTHEREISMOREEVERYMIGRANTCARRIESTHISREPRESSEDRELATIONOFPOWERBETWEENSTATESWITHINHIMSELFORHERSELFANDUNWITTINGLYRECAPITULATESANDREENACTSITINHERPERSONALSTRATEGIESANDEXPERIENCESTHUSTHEMOSTFLEETINGENCOUNTERBETWEENANALGERIANWORKERANDHISFRENCHBOSSINLYONORASURINAMESEBORNCHILDANDHISSCHOOLTEACHERINROTTERDAM,AJAMAICANMOTHERANDHERSOCIALWORKERINLOND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