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语言文化论文-The Organic Ethnologist of Algeriani Migration .doc

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语言文化论文-The Organic Ethnologist of Algeriani Migration .doc

语言文化论文TheOrganicEthnologistofAlgerianiMigrationAdelmalekSayadpassedawaytwoyearsagoatthiswriting,leavingbehindhimoneofthemostoriginalandfertilecontributionstotheanthropologyofimmigrationofthepastcentury.Throughouthisvoluminousandvariedwritingsclosetoahundredpublications,includingeightbooksspanningthedestructionofAlgeriastraditionalpeasantryatthehandsofFrenchcolonialism,thedynamicsofmigrationchainsfromKabyliatoFrance,theimpactofdecolonizationonthereceptionofAlgerianworkersinMarseilles,theodysseyofthoseworkersandtheirchildrenthroughthelayersandinstitutionsofFrenchsociety,thesocialusesandpoliticalabusesofimmigrantculture,andtheeverydaylifeofAlgerianslumsontheParisianperipheryduringthefifties,allinformedbyanacuteawarenessofthepoliticaleconomicrootsandimportofhumantranshumance1theAlgeriansociologistbothelaboratedanddemonstratedthepotencyofthreepivotalprinciplesforthestudyofmigration.Thefirstisthesimplebutfundamentalproposition,whoseimplicationsremaintobefullydrawnoutbyscholarsandpolicymakersalike,thatbeforeheorshebecomesanimmigrant,themigrantisalwaysfirstanemigrant,andthatthesociologyofmigrationmustthereforeimperativelystart,notfromtheconcernsandcleavagesofthereceivingsociety,butfromthesendingcommunities,theirhistory,structure,andcontradictions.Thecommoncontractionoftheemigrationimmigrationdoublettoitssecondcomponentmutilatesthephenomenonandentrapsthestudyofmigrantsintoanartificialproblematicoflackanddeficiencyexplainedawaybyritualizedreferences,nowtotheirlowerclasscompositionandsubstandardconditionsofliving,nowtothepeculiaritiesoftheculturetheyhavebroughtwiththem.2Resistingsuchethnocentricimposition,thesociologyofmigrationmusttakeasitsobjectnottheproblemsthatmigrantsposefortheadvancedsocietieswhichattractthem,inmattersofemployment,housing,schoolingandhealth,butthedynamicrelationshipbetweenthesystemofdispositionsofemigrantsandtheensembleofmechanismstowhichtheyaresubjectedowingtothisemigrationSayad1ThesebooksarerespectivelyinEnglishtitlesTheUprootingTheCrisisofTraditionalAgricultureinAlgeriaBourdieuandSayad1964,AlgerianImmigrationinFranceGilletteandSayad1976,TheSocialUsesoftheCultureofImmigrantsSayad1978,TowardsaSociologyofImmigrationSayadandFassa1982,MigratingAHistoryofMarseillesTheShockofDecolonizationTemime,JordiandSayad1991,Immigration,ortheParadoxesofOthernessSayad1991,andAnAlgerianNanterre,LandofSlumsSayadwithDupuy1995.TheculminationandquintessenceofSayadsfivedecadesofincessantresearchisDoubleAbsenceFromtheIllusionsoftheEmigranttotheSufferingoftheImmigrantSayad1999.2Arareandremarkableexceptiontothispattern,deservingofawidereadershipforitsmultilevel,comparative,andinterdisciplinaryapproach,isMassey,DurandandAlarcon1987.RecentworkontransnationalcommunitieshasfosteredabelatediflimitedrecognitionofthedoublesidednessanddualdeterminacyofmigrationseethespecialissueofEthnicandRacialStudiesonthetopiceditedbyPortes,GuarnizoandLandolt1999,andPortes1999.Whichnecessitatesthatonereconstitutesthecompletetrajectoryoftheindividuals,householdsandgroupsinvolvedintheperegrinationunderexamination,inordertouncoverthefullsystemofdeterminantsthatfirsttriggeredexileandlatercontinued,undernewguises,togovernthedifferentiatedpathstheyfollowed.Recognizingthatimmigrationhereandemigrationtherearethetwoindisassociablesidesofthesamereality,whichcannotbeexplainedtheonewithouttheotherSayad1999a15enablesSayadtorevoke,bothempiricallyandtheoretically,thecanonicaloppositionbetweenlabormigrationandsettlementmigration.Theformeralwayscontainsthelatterinnuceandalwayseventuatesinittheindividualdepartureofwageseekingmengraduallysapstheworkofpreventionandpreservationwherebythegroupseekstomaintainmoralcontroloveritsmembers,andsoonerorlaterthelatterabandonsitselftofamilymigration,whichfurtheracceleratestheerosionofgroupboundaries.3RelinkingemigrationandimmigrationpointsalsotothesecondpillarpropositionanchoringAbdelmalekSayadsworkthatmigrationistheproductandexpressionofanhistoricalrelationofinternationaldomination,atoncematerialandsymbolic.ImmigrationisarelationfromstatetostatebutonethatisdeniedassuchineverydayrealitynolessthaninthepoliticalfieldSayad1991267,sothatitsmanagementmayfallwithinthesovereignprovinceofthereceivingsocietyalone,ofitslaws,administrativerulesandbureaucraticdictates,andbetreatedasthedomesticissuewhichitisnot.Sayad1979shows,intheparadigmaticcaseofFranceandAlgeriainthepostcolonialandpostFordisteraaftertheflowofmigrantlaborershasbeenofficiallystopped,thatthenegotiationsbetweencountriesthatleadtointernationalconventionsandregulationsconcerningimmigrationarebilateraltransactionsinnameonlysincethedominanteconomicpowerandformercolonialrulerisinastructuralpositiontoimposeunilaterallytheterms,goals,andmeansoftheseagreements.4Butthereismoreeverymigrantcarriesthisrepressedrelationofpowerbetweenstateswithinhimselforherselfandunwittinglyrecapitulatesandreenactsitinherpersonalstrategiesandexperiences.ThusthemostfleetingencounterbetweenanAlgerianworkerandhisFrenchbossinLyonoraSurinamesebornchildandhisschoolteacherinRotterdam,aJamaicanmotherandhersocialworkerinLondon,anEthiopianelderlyandhislandlordinNaplesisfraughtwiththewholebaggageofpastintercoursebetweentheimperialmetropoleanditserstwhilecolony.Therelationoftheemigranttohishomelandislikewiseinvisiblyoverdeterminedbydecadesofconflictualandasymmetricrelationsbetweenthetwocountrieshelinksthesuspicionoftreason,evenofapostasythatenshroudshimthereSayad1999a171findsitsrootinthefactthatemigrationhasshakentheveryfoundationsofthesocialorder,ontheonehand,bycorrodingtheestablishedfrontiersbetweengroupsinthesendingsocietyand,ontheother,byaffordingthemigrantandhiskinanacceleratedpathofmobilitybutinanallochtonoushierarchy,onedevoidoflegitimacyinthemoralandculturalcodesoftheoriginatingcommunity.53Sayad1999a422424pointsoutthat,howevervirulenttheymaybeinthesocietyofimmigration,thereactionsofprotestandoppositiontomigrationareinitiallyevenstrongeramongtheemigratingcommunity,sostrongindeedthattheyoftenmakenativistandxenophobicresistancetoforeignersinthereceivingcountrysuperfluous.4Thesameistrue,mutatismutandis,fortheUnitedStateswithMexicoandtheCaribbean,orGermanywithTurkey,SpainwithMorocco,JapanwithKorea,etc.5Thisexplainswhypublicaccusationsagainstemigrationtypicallyaimprimarilyandmoreviolentlyattheemigratedfemalepopulationand,moreprecisely,atthebodiesofwomen,perceivedastheultimaterepositoryandvectorofthevaluesofthegroupSayad1984.3AthirdpropositionanimatesSayadstirelessinquirieslikeotherkeyprocessesofgroupmakingandunmaking,migrationhasforrequisitecollectivedissimulationandsocialduplicity.Emigration,andlaterimmigration,operatesinthewayitdoesonlytotheextentthatitcontinuallymystifiesandmisrecognizesitselfforwhatitisor,toputitmoreprecisely,themagicaldenegationVerneinungoftheobjectiverealityofmigrationispartandparcelofitsfullobjectivity,itsdoubletruth.Thus,throughoutthetwentiethcentury,theFrenchauthorities,Algeriansociety,andthemigrantsthemselvescolludedinconcoctingatripleliethatallowedallthreetojustifytothemselvesthetrekofmillionsofpeasantsfromtheMaghribtothehexagonthatmigrationwasprovisionalandtransitory,thatitwasdeterminedsolelybythequestforlaborIcameheretoworksoIdrownmyselfinwork,intonesaKabylefactoryhand,andthatitwaspoliticallyneutralandwithoutcivicconsequenceoneithersideoftheMediterraneanSayad19911718.Allthreeofthesebeliefswereglaringlyandcontinuallydisputed,ifnotrefuted,bysocialreality,yetnoneofthepartiestotheAlgerianmigrationwaswillingtofacethatreality.EmigrationisneveranexportofrawlaborpowerandnothingmoreSayad1999a20because,asatotalsocialfactinMarcelMausss1990senseoftheterm,itdisruptsthewholearrayofinstitutionsthatmakeuptheoriginatingsociety.Conversely,attheotherend,immigrantworkersarebutexceptionallybirdsofpassage,torecallMichaelPiores1977wellknownbook,fortheytooarechangedinandbymigrationtheybecomeirrevocablydistancedanddislocatedfromtheiroriginatingmilieu,losingaplaceintheirnativecircleofhonorwithoutsecuringoneintheirnewsettingtheyacquirethisfalseanddisjointeddoubleconsciousness6thatissourceofbothsuccorandpaintheyareconsumedbydoubt,guiltandselfaccusation,worndownbyanunjustanduncertainbattlewiththeirownchildren,thesesociologicalbastardswhopersonifythehorrifyingimpossibilityofthereturnhomeSayad1988.AretiredAlgerianlaborersettledinaworkingclassbanlieueofParisputsitpithilyFrance,Imgonnatellyou,isalowlifewoman,likeawhore.Withoutyouknowit,sheencirclesyou,shetakestoseducingyouuntilyouvefallenforherandthenshesucksyourblood,shemakesyouwaitonherhandandfoot....Sheisasorceress.Shehastakensomanymenwithher...shehasawayofkeepingyouaprisoner.Yes,sheisaprison,aprisonfromwhichyoucannotgetout,aprisonforlife.Thisisacurse....NowIhavenomorereasontoreturntomyhomevillageinAlgeria.Ihavenothinglefttodothere.Itnolongerinterestsme.Everythinghaschanged.Thingsnolongerhavethesamemeaning.YounolongerknowwhyyouarehereinFrance,ofwhatuseyouare.Thereisnomoreorder.citedinSayad1991126127,137Acorollaryofthesethreeanalyticprinciplesisthatthesociologyofmigrationmustbereflexive,turnedbackontoitsownconditionsofpossibilityandeffectivity.Itmustincludeasocialhistorynotonlyofthedoublesidedfactofemigrationimmigrationbutalsoofthelayandscholarlydiscoursesthatswirlaboutthisfactinthetwosocietiesinvolved.Forthecollectiveperceptionofmigration,itssymbolicelaborationanditspoliticalconstructionofwhichsocialsciencepartakeseverytimeittakesoverthepresuppositionsoftheofficialviewpointareanintegralconstituentofitsobjectivereality.SayadinspectstheloadedsemanticsthathavegovernedtheframingofthequestionofNorthAfricanentryintoFrancesinceWorldWarII,6HerethewritingsofSayadevokestronglythoseofW.E.B.DuBois.Compare,forinstance,hisdiscussionofthesociologicaldoublingupoftheemigrant,whobearswithinhimself,asaproductofhishistory,inthemannerofthecolonized,atwofoldandcontradictorysystemofreferencesinhisbrilliantessayTheIllegitimateChildrenSayad1977andDuBoiss1903classicanalysisofthetwonessordoubleconsciousnessofAfricanAmericansintheUnitedStatesinTheSoulsofBlackFolks.4FromadaptationtotherequirementsofindustriallaborandassimilationtotheRepublicannationalculturetoinsertionandintegrationintothesocialfabricandinstitutionsofthesocietyofsettlement,torevealthatdiscoursesonimmigrationarealwaysperformativediscourseswhichhelpeffectthewondroussocialalchemywherebyaforeignerismadeintoanationalSayad1987and1994.AllthisSayadknewordiscoveredbecausehewasmorethanascholarofimmigrationhewasthephenomenonitself.AsanativesonoftheprovinceofSidiA颿h,intheLittleKabyliamountains,whohadrisentotherankofprimaryschoolteacherbeforereceivinghistraininginphilosophy,psychologyandsociologyattheuniversitiesofAlgiersandParisduringthewarofnationalliberationandwhothenbecameaResearchdirectorattheFrenchNationalCenterforScientificResearchCNRS,thebrutefactsofimperialoppression,chainmigration,communitydislocationandfracturedacculturationwereconstantlywithhimbecausetheywerewithinhimtheywerehisentrails,hiseyes,hissoul.7Yethefacedthemwithamoralintrepidityandanintellectualdeftnessthatastonishthereaderwhoknewhim,hishistory,andthatofhispeopleonbothsidesoftheMediterraneanandthatcannotbutimpresseventhosewhodonot.Forfortysomeyears,Sayadwaspresentinthefield,inhishomevillageofKabylia,inthemilitaryrelocationsettlementsoftheOuarsenisandColloregions,intheslumsofConstantineandthebazaarsofAlgiers,andlaterstillinthesocialhousingestatesofSaintDenis,Nanterre,andVilleurbanne.There,hedisplayedallthesepersonalvirtuesofwhichtextbooksofmethodologysaynothingbutwhichalltoooftendecidethedepthandjustnessofethnographicwork,inlistening,observing,recording,transcribingandtransmittingthewordsheelicitedandwelcomed,withasympathydevoidofpathos,acomplicityshornofnaivetacomprehensionstrippedofcomplacencyandcondescension.Afrail,softspokenandselfeffacingperson,SayadwasamongthisverysmallgroupofindividualswithwhomonefeelsgenuinelyathomewhenintroducedtoafarmerfromKabyliaorB閍rn,orenteringtheabodeofaBerberspeakingmanualworkerfromS閠ifortheParisianRedBelt.Theuncommoncombinationofdiscretionanddignityhedisplayed,thesensitivityandmodestyheinvestedineveryexchangewithhisinformantscanbereadilydetectedintheadroitnesswithwhichheaccountsfortheirwords,thesensitivitywithwhichhepriesintothecausesandthereasonsbehindtheiractions.HisactivesolidaritywiththemostdispossessedwasthebasisofanexceptionalepistemologicalluciditythatallowedAbdelmalekSayadtodismantleagoodmanyprefabricatedrepresentationsaboutimmigrationsuchastheeconomisticproblematicofitscostsandbenefits,whichjournalistsandpolicymakersperiodicallyinvoke,withthediligenthelpofeconomists,soasbettertomaskthespecificallypoliticaldimensionandspringsofthephenomenonandtouncoverandconfrontheadonthemostcomplexissuessuchastheorchestratedliesofcollectivebadfaiththatfuelmigrationstreamsortheexistentialrootsofthemigrationmalaisethatafflictstheimmigrantworkerevenafterhehasbeenmedicallycuredofoccupationalillness8justashewouldenteranunknownhouseholdtofindhimselfimmediatelygreetedwithrespect,trust,andaffection.Itallowedhimtofindtherightwords,andtherighttone,tospeakofandtoexperiencesascontradictoryandchaoticasthesocialconditionsofwhichtheyweretheproductandtoanatomizethembymobilizingwithequalperspicacitytheintellectualresourcesoftraditionalKabyleculture,rethoughtthroughethnologicalworksas7SayaddescribeshisearlyintellectualandpoliticalexperiencesaswellashisintellectualtraininginArfaoui1996readalsoSayad1995.8Cf.,respectively,Sayad1977,1986,1981a,1981bandhisvivisectionofexileasafallintosocialdarknessinElGhorbaSayad2000,inthisissue.5Withthenotionofelghorbaortheoppositionbetweenthaymatsandthaddjjaddith,andtheconceptualarsenalelaboratedbytheresearchteamattheCentredesociologieeurop閑nneofwhichhewas,fromitsveryinception,anactiveandinfluentialmember.Inthehandsofsoskilledananalyst,theimmigrantfunctionsinthemannerofalive,fleshandbloodanalyzerofthemostobscureregionsofthesocialunconscious.Sayadultimatelyshowsushow,likeSocratesaccordingtoPlato,theimmigrantisatopos,aquainthybriddevoidofplace,displaced,inthetwofoldsenseofincongruousandinopportune,trappedinthatmongrelsectorofsocialspacebetwixtandbetweensocialbeingandnonbeing.Neithercitizennorforeigner,neitheronthesideoftheSamenoronthatoftheOther,heexistsonlybydefaultinthesendingcommunityandbyexcessinthereceivingsociety,andhegeneratesrecurrentrecriminationandressentimentinbothSayad1984and1988.Outofplaceinthetwosocialsystemswhichdefinehisnonexistence,themigrantforcesus,throughtheobduratesocialvexationandmentalembarrassmenthecauses,torethinkrootandbranchthequestionofthelegitimatefoundationsofcitizenshipandoftherelationshipbetweencitizen,state,andnation.Forthephysicalandmoralsufferingenduredbytheemigrantrevealstotheethnographerwhofollowshisslowandpainfulmetamorphosisintotheimmigranteverythingthatnativei.e.,natalembedednessinadefinitenationandstateburiesintothedeepestrecessesoftheorganism,inastateofquasinature,beyondthereachofconsciousnessandratiocination,startingwiththeviscerallyfeltequationmostsocietiesestablishbetweennationalityandmembershipinthecitizenry.ThroughexperiencesinthesenseofErlebniswhichare,forshewhoknowshowtodissectanddecipherthem,somanyexperimentationsinthesenseofErfahrung,heenablesustodiscoverthosestatified閠atis閟mindsandbodies,asThomasBernardcallsthemBourdieu1994,Sayad1999b,whichahighlypeculiarhistoryhasendoweduswithandwhichalltoooftenpreventusfromrecognizingandrespectingallthemanifoldformsofthehumancondition.AstheorganicethnologistofAlgerianmigration,thewitnessanalystofthesilentdramaofthemassexodusoftheBerberpeasantsofKabyliaintotheindustrialunderbellyoftheirformercolonialoverlord,AbdelmalekSayadgivesusanexemplaryfigureofthesociologistaspublicscribe,whorecordsandbroadcasts,withanthropologicalacuityandpoeticgrace,thevoiceofthosemostcruellydispossessedofitbythecrushingweightofimperialsubordinationandclassdomination,withouteverinstitutinghimselfasaspokesperson,withouteverusingthesegivenwordstogivelessons,exceptlessonsinethnographicintegrity,scientificrigor,andciviccourage.

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