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语言文化论文-What are the most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication that international managers should be aware of and why- .doc

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语言文化论文-What are the most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication that international managers should be aware of and why- .doc

语言文化论文WhatarethemostimportantculturedifferencesandelementsofinterculturalcommunicationthatinternationalmanagersshouldbeawareofandwhyAsweallknow,differentcountrieshavedifferentcultures.Cultureisthecollectiveprogrammingofthemindwhichdistinguishesthemembersofonecategoryofpeoplefromanother.Hofstede,1991Itisinevitablethattheculturaldifferencehasimpactonbusiness.Forexample,whenacompanyhavingmeeting,thewordtableinAmericanEnglishthatmeanstoputsomethingontheagenda.ButinBritishEnglishitmeanstoputsomethingofftheagenda.Thisexampleindicatedhowthecultureaffectsthebusiness.TherearefourculturaldimensionsthatweredefinedinHofstedesresearchPowerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Individualism,Masculinity,andrecentlyHofstedeaddonemorelongtermshorttermorientation.WhatIthinkthemostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Hoecklin,199528Itwouldconditiontheextenttowhichemployeesacceptthattheirbosshasmorepowerthantheyhaveandtheextenttowhichtheyacceptthattheirbosssopinionsanddecisionsarerightbecauseheorsheistheboss.Iconsidereditashowmuchsubordinatescanconsentordissentwithbossesormanagers.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thereishierarchism,greatercentralization,sometimescalledpowerorientedculture,duetothehistoricalreasons.Thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmangersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtobeentitledmoreprivileges.Theirdecisionalwaysclosesupervisionpositivelyevaluatedbysubordinates.Inthissituation,itisnotberegardedifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers,especiallyinMalaysia,Japan,China,India.Intheoriental,powerdistanceisalsoassociatedwiththefamilycultureTrompernaars,1993139.Inthiskindofcorporateculturethemanagerislikethecaringfatherwhoknowsbetterthanhissubordinateswhatshouldbedoneandwhatissuitableforthem.Thesubordinatesalwaysesteemthemanagers.Becauseofthemanagersageandexperience.Thatisusuallyhowemployeesgettheirpromotion.Therearebothpositiveandnegativepartsinthefamilycultures.Ifeelitisaneasymanagingsystem.Butsometimeitishardtogetyoungcreativeemployeesworkwellcauseofthehierarchy.AsTropmenaars1993142toldusfamilycultureattheirleasteffectivedraintheenergiesandloyaltiesofsubordinatestobuoyuptheleader.Soinfamilyculture,thepowerdistancecanbeviewedasthesubordinatesrespectthesuperiors.Thatisthecorporatecultureinorient.Letustakealookatthewesternway.Itisnotawholeconversephenomenon.ThereistheEiffelTowercultureTrompernaars,1997166intheinternationalmanagement.AbouttheEiffeltowerTrompenaars1993148toldusItshierarchyisverydifferentfromthatofthefamily.Eachhigherlevelhasaclearanddemonstrablefunctionofholdingtogetherthelevelbeneathit.German,AustrianhavethecharacteristicoftheEiffelTowerCulture,whichisalowpowerdistance.Inthelowerpowerdistance,Hoecklin,199531highereducatedemployeesholdmuchlessauthoritarianvaluesthanlowereducatedones.Theobedienceshowedfromthesubordinatestothesuperiorsisnotasmuchastheorientalway.Theleadershipcanbecalledashierarchyandconsensus.Employeecanhavedifferentopinionwithhis/herboss.Andwhenhe/shegotdifferentideas,he/shecangoallthewayuptothebossanddiscusstheproblem.Thisisagoodthingusuallycompanymayexploreallthepotentialsofitsemployees,becausesometimethesubordinatesmayhavethebetterideaofthebusiness.Ithinkbecauseofthedifferentrealizationofpowerdistance,peoplebehavecompletelydifferentinbusiness.Soconflictandmisunderstandingmustbeemergedwhentwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.Andthenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheuncertaintyavoidance.Hoecklin,199531definedUncertaintyavoidanceisthelackoftoleranceforambiguityandtheneedforformalrules.Thatmeanspeopletryingtosetuprulestofacetotheuncertainty.ThereishighuncertaintyavoidanceinmostorientalcountriessuchasJapan,China.Inthesecountries,peoplepreferastablejob.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplace.Underthiscircumstance,anexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Andtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisktaking.Butinmostwesterncountries,thereislowuncertaintyavoidanceshowed,whereashighjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Thewesternpeoplethinkthatwhentheychangetheirjobs,theycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Ibelievethatthedivergenceoftheuncertaintyavoidanceisfromdifferentbasicsocialideology.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.ThethirddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheindividualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasanindividualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofselfconcernorgroupconcernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighindividualism.Becauseofthedifferentattitudetowork,theincubatorcultureTrompernaars,1997175ariseswhencrossculturalindividualsworktogetherasagroup.Trompenaars1993158toldustheincubatorisbothpersonalandegalitarian.Peopledonotcooperateatall.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Theydonotliketobeinterferedbyothers.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseindividualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.FinallyHofstedpointedoutthemasculinity.Thatisaboutthesexualinequality.AccordingtoHofstedesdefinitions,masculinesocietiesdefinegenderrolesmorerigidlythanfemininesocieties.Inbusiness,managersshouldtakeabigconcernofthetreatmenttodifferentsexunderdifferentculturalinfluence.Intodaysworld,becauseofthemasculinevalueandpointofview,malestakemostseniormanagingpositions.Butaexperiencedmanagersupposeknewthatitisharmoniousthatmenworkwithwomensincewomensometimesaremoresensitive.Therefore,howtobalancethemasculinity/femininityfromdifferentcultureandbackgroundinordertomaximizetheteampowerisworthconsideringbymanagers.Theabovefourdimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonbusiness.Internationalmanagersshouldbeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.GudykunstandKim19921314classifyinterculturalcommunicationasatransactional,symbolicprocessinvolvingtheattributionofmeaningbetweenpeoplefromdifferentcultures.Differentnationsusedifferentlanguages,sotherewillbelossormisunderstandingduringinterpreting.Andinsomeculture,peopleuseimplicitwordsmorethanothers,likeChina.Thus,thenonverbalcommunicationisimportant,especiallythesceniccommunication.Itincludesgestures,bodylanguage,eyecontacting.Themorescenicpartincommunication,theharderforpeopletotransmitandreceiveinformation.Anotherpartistheconceptoftime.Fromthat,punctualityisthesamebutreflectsdifferentreality.Weallknowtimeismoney.Butwhenthereisaconference,theGermanusuallypresents5minutesbeforethestart.Spanishwillbelatefor15minutes.Butintheirmindtheyarebothontime.Thatissomethingthatmanagersshouldunderstand.Inmymind,thereisanotheraspectoftime,calledtheuseoftime.TheAmericanandNorthernEuropeanhavealineartimeconcept.ThesesocietiesarereferredtoasTimeBoundsocieties.SouthernEuropeansandArabsregardtimeinalinearwaybutmorethingstheycandoorhandleatthesametime.Thatcanbecalledmultiactivetime.AndthenthereistheAsianviewoftime,cyclicaltime.Asianthinkstimewillcomearoundagainwhenitpassaway,alsotheopportunitiesandrisks.Besidestheabovethreeaspectsofcommunications,thereleftthespace.Itisabigconcernofininterculturalcommunications.Whenyouhaveaconversationwithaforeignbusinesspartner,thespacebetweenyouandhimarereferredtothepersonalboundaryofeveryculture.Ignoranceofspacecanbeleadtorealbadimpressionfromotherside.Thelastbutnottheleast,IwouldliketotalksomethingaboutthecrossculturenegotiationIresearched.Negotiationisacoursethatatleasttwogroupsofpeopletryingtoreachanagreementwiththeothersfortheirownbenefit.Therearetwothingsinnegotiationthetopicandthecourse.Duringcrossculturenegotiation,thecourseisthecrucialobstruction.Differentnegotiationwaysareproducedbydifferentcultures.Underthiscircumstance,thereisaclassicstandpointofproceduresexploringwithnoobjective,taskoriented,persuadingperiod,andsigncontract.Internationalmanagersshouldbeawareofeveryprocedure.Andduringeachprocedure,thestrategy,technique,substance,time,sequenceandthefocalpointaredifferent.Inthisessay,Iwroteabouttheculturaldifferences.Therearefourdimensionspowerdistance,uncertaintyavoidance,individualismandmasculinity.Afterthat,Italkedabouttheinterculturalcommunication,whichcontainslanguage,nonverbalcommunication,timeandspaceconcept.Theconclusionisdifferentculturesdocauseproblemsinbusiness.Wecannotchangeorsolvetheculturaldifference.Toavoidmisunderstanding,clashes,andbias,theinternationalmanagersshouldrealizeandunderstandthedifferentcultures,adaptthemselvestofitintothebusinessenvironmentinordertogetthebestachievementinbusiness.BibliographyGudykunst,W.B.KimY.Y.1992.CommunicatingwithstrangersAnapproachtointerculturalcommunication.NewYorkMcGrawHill,Inc.HoecklinL.1995.ManagingCulturalDifferencesStrategiesforCompetitiveAdvantage.EssexAddisonWesleyHofstedeG.2001.CulturesConsequence.LondonSagePublications.TrompenaarsF.1993.RidingtheWavesofCultureUnderstandingCulturalDiversityinBusiness.LondonTheEconomistBooks.TrompenaarsF.andHampdenTurnerC.1997.RidingtheWavesofCultureUnderstandingCulturalDiversityinBusiness.LondonNicholasBrealey

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