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语言文化论文-不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响.doc

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语言文化论文-不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响.doc

语言文化论文不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响【ABSTRACT】THEGEOGRAPHYENVIRONMENTISCONNECTEDTOTHEHUMANSLIVESCLOSELYFROMTHEANCIENTTIMES,THEHUMANTRIEDTHEIRBESTTOCONQUERTHENATURE,TOREBUILDITATTHATTIME,THEMOSTIMPORTANTFUNCTIONWASTOIMPROVETHEPRODUCTIONSOINTHISPERIOD,THEHUMANSCIVILIZATIONSWEREINFLUENCEDBYTHEGEOGRAPHYCHINAISLOCATEDINTHEEASTOFTHEEURASIAANDONTHEWESTBANKOFTHEPACIFICOCEANWHICHCOULDNOTBECROSSEDATTHATTIMEINTHESOUTHWESTOFCHINA,THEREISTHEHIMALAYAS,ANDTHESOUTHWESTISALARGEDESERT,BECAUSEOFTHESE,WECANSAYTHATCHINAWASRELATIVELYISOLATEDFROMTHEOUTSIDEWORLDMEANWHILE,CHINAHASALARGEOFFIELDFORTILLAGEANDTHECLIMATESUITSTOITSOTHECHINESECIVILIZATIONISTHEGEOGRAPHYCIVILIZATIONBUTINENGLANDANDTHEWESTERNCOUNTRIES,THEYLACKOFTHEINLANDBUTNEARTHEMEDITERRANEANANDTHEATLANTICOCEAN,THESEWERESUITEDTODEVELOPTHESEACIVILIZATIONTHEIDIOMSARETHEFLOWERSOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHCULTURESOTHISPAPERWILLLISTTHEIDIOMSABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHYINCHINESEANDENGLISHLANGUAGESLETEVERYONEKNOWMORETHEGEOGRAPHYCHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMS【KEYWORDS】GEOGRAPHY;IDIOMS;CHINESE;ENGLISH【摘要】地理环境与人类的生存密切相关,远古的人类就是在不断地征服自然,改造自然中,发展、壮大起来。可以说,古代人类最重要的活动就是征服自然,发展生产。当时的人类的文化受到地理环境的影响。中国位于欧亚大陆的东部,东边是难以逾越的太平洋,西南是有世界屋脊之称的喜马拉雅山,西北是一片大沙漠,可以说中国是相对地与外界隔离。并且中国有大片土地供耕耘,气候也适合农耕,因此中国的文化是农耕文化,其文化偏向土地。而英国,乃至整个西方,适合耕耘的土地少,而且面向地中海,大西洋,适合发展海洋文化。而西方文化的发源地古希腊,更可以被称为是典型的海洋文化,因此,英国的文化更偏向海洋。习语是中西文化中的精华,本篇将列出中西习语中受地理影响的部分。旨在弄清地理环境与文化之间的关系。【关键词】地理;习语;汉语;英语1、INTRODUCTIONTHEENVIRONMENTINFLUENCESTHECULTUREHUMANANDTHENATUREARERELATEDCLOSELYFORONETHING,HUMANDEPENDSONTHENATURE,ANDISBOUNDBYTHENATUREFORANTHER,HUMANALWAYSTRYTOMASTERTHENATUREANDREBUILDIT1ASWEALLKNOW,THECHINESECULTUREANDTHEENGLISHCULTUREHAVEDIFFERENTNATUREENVIRONMENTSCHINAHASALARGEPLAINFORTILLAGEBUTINTHEWESTERNCOUNTRIES,ESPECIALLYINTHEGREECE,THEMOTHEROFTHEWESTERNCIVILIZATION,HASSMALLLANDFORTILLAGE,THELANDISFORTHESTOCKBREEDINGWHILETHEGREEKHAVELESSLANDTODEVELOPTHEAGRICULTURE,THEYLIVENEARTHESEA,THEMEDITERRANEAN,SOTHEYCANSAILINTHESEAFORCOMMERCEBECAUSEOFTHEDIFFERENCES,THECHINESECULTUREANDTHEENGLISHCULTUREAREDIFFERENTTHECHINESECULTUREISTHEAGRICULTURECIVILIZATION2ANDTHEENGLISHCULTUREISFROMTHEGREEKCIVILIZATION,SOTHEENGLISHCULTUREISTHESEACIVILIZATION32、THESIMILARITIESBETWEENENGLISHIDIOMSANDCHINESEIDIOMSABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHYTHEIDIOMSARETHEFOSSILSOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHCULTURESINTHECHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMS,THEREAREMANYIDIOMSABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHYSOMEOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMSHAVETHESIMILARMEANINGS,BUTOTHERSAREINDIFFERENTMEANINGSINTHEGROUPOFIDIOMS,WHICHHAVESIMILARMEANING,MANYOFTHEMUSETHESAMEIMAGES,WHILEOTHERSUSETHEDIFFERENTIMAGESTOEXPLAINTHESAMETHING21THESIMILARITIESBETWEENENGLISHIDIOMSANDCHINESEIDIOMSABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHYINMANYOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMS,THEYHAVETHESAMEMEANINGSCOINCIDENTLY,MANYOFTHEMUSETHESAMEIMAGESITSHOWSTHATTHECHINESEPEOPLEANDENGLISHPEOPLEEXPERIENCETHESIMILARCONCEPTIONSMEANWHILE,SOMEOFTHEMHAVETHESAMEMEANINGS,BUTTHEYUSETHEDIFFERENTIMAGESTOEXPLAINFROMTHAT,WECOULDKNOWTHATALTHOUGHTHECHINESEANDENGLISHPEOPLEHAVETHESAMEEXPERIENCE,THEYHAVETHEDIFFERENTCULTURESSOTHEIDIOMSALWAYSUSETHEDIFFERENTIMAGES211THECHINESEENGLISHGEOGRAPHYIDIOMSTHATUSETHESIMILARIMAGESINTHEANCIENTCHINAANDENGLAND,THEPEOPLEMAYHAVETHESAMEEXPERIENCE,ANDCOINCIDENTLYUSETHESAMEIMAGETODESCRIBETHESAMETHINGITISVERYCOINCIDENTAL1FISHINTROUBLEWATERS4AND浑水摸鱼5MEANINGTOPROFITINACONFUSEDENVIRONMENTEGDON’TFISHINTROUBLEWATERS;THATDOESYOUNOGOOD2POUR/THROWCOLDWATERON6AND泼冷水MEANINGTODISCOURAGEEGTHEBOARDOFDIRECTORPOUREDCOLDWATERONHISNEWINVESTMENTPROPOSALSINTHATREGION3MAKEWAVES7AND兴风作浪8MEANINGTOMAKETROUBLEEGTHEYLIFTITWASNOTTHETIMETOMAKEWAVESBYSTAGINGASITIN4GOWITHTHESTREAM9AND随波逐流10MEANINGDOASOTHERSDOEGHELISTENEDTOTHESAMEMUSICANDDRESSEDTHESAMEWAYASHISFRIENDSHEWENTWITHTHESTREAM,FORHELACKEDCONFIDENCEINMAKINGHISOWNDECISION5BURNONE’SBOAT/BRIDGES11AND破釜沉舟12MEANINGTODOSOMETHINGTHATMAKEITIMPOSSIBLETOGOBACKEGSTARTINGYOUROWNBUSINESSHASALOTOFRISK,SOTHINKTWICEBEFOREYOUBURNYOURBOATTHEIDIOMSINTHISGROUPREFLECTTHATTHEENGLISHIDIOMSANDCHINESEIDIOMSARENEARLYCOINCIDENTALPEOPLEINDIFFERENTCULTURESEXPERIENCETHESIMILARCONCEPTIONSTHEEXAMPLES1TO4AREUSINGTHESAMEIMAGESTHEEXAMPLE5,INCHINESEWEUSE“釜”AND“舟”BUT,INENGLISHTHEYJUSTUSE“BOAT”OR“BRIDGE”INBOTHCHINESEANDENGLISHTHEBOAT,THECOOKINGPOTANDTHEBRIDGEAREALLVERYIMPORTANTTOPEOPLELIVES212THECHINESEENGLISHGEOGRAPHYIDIOMSTHATUSEDIFFERENTIMAGESWHILETHEANCIENTCHINESEPEOPLEANDENGLISHPEOPLECOINCIDENTLYUSETHESAMEIMAGETOEXPLAINTHESAMETHINGMOSTOFTHETIME,THECHINESEANDENGLISHPEOPLEUSETHEDIFFERENTIMAGESTOEXPLAINTHESAMETHING1BEIN/GETINHOTWATER13ORINDEEPWATER14AND泥菩萨过江MEANINGTOBEINORGETINTOTROUBLEEGSHEHASGOTINTOHOTWATERAGAINFORHERINQUISITIVENATURERECENTLY2ADROPINTHEBUCKET/OCEAN15AND九牛一毛MEANINGANEGLIGIBLEORTINYQUANTITY;SOMETHINGTHATMAKELITTLEDIFFERENCEEGTENCENTSMEANSALOTOFMONEYTOTHEBEGGARONTHESTREET,BUTISADROPINTHEOCEANFORMOSTPEOPLE3PADDLEONE’SOWNCANOE16AND自力更生MEANINGTODEPENDONONESELFEGDON’TWORRYTOOMUCHABOUTYOURSON;HEISBIGENOUGHTOPADDLEHISOWNCANOE4ABIGFISHINALITTLEPOND17AND顶天立地18MEANINGANIMPORTANTPERSONINASMALLCOMMUNITYEGITOLDYOUWHENGEORGECAMETOOURDEPARTMENTTWOYEARSAGOTHATHE’DSOONJOBHOPHEISABIGFISHTHEIDIOMSINTHISGROUPREFLECTTHATTHEENGLISHIDIOMSANDCHINESEIDIOMSHAVETHESAMEMEANING,BUTUSETHEDIFFERENTIMAGESINTHEEXAMPLE2INENGLISHTHEYUSE“OCEAN”,WHILEINCHINESEWEUSE“牛”THEEXAMPLE4,INENGLISHTHEYUSE“FISH”,BUTINCHINESEWEUSE“地”THEEXAMPLE5,INENGLISHTHEYUSE“FISH”,BUTINCHINESEWEUSE“牛”THESESHOWTHATTHEENGLISHCULTUREBELONGSTOTHESEACIVILIZATION,ANDTHECHINESECULTUREBELONGSTOTHEAGRICULTURECIVILIZATIONBECAUSEFISHISTHENORMALTHINGINSEACIVILIZATION,ANDTHEOXISAVERYIMPORTANTANIMALFORTHEAGRICULTURE3THEDIFFERENCESBETWEENENGLISHIDIOMSANDCHINESEIDIOMSABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHYTHEENVIRONMENTINFLUENCEDTHEIDIOMSVERYMUCHFOREXAMPLE,INCHINA,THEREALARGELANDFORTILLAGE,SOINCHINESEIDIOMS,THEREAREMANYIDIOMSABOUT“TU”土、“DI”(地)、AND“NIU”(牛)THESEAREALLCONNECTEDCLOSELYTOTHEAGRICULTUREBUTTHEWESTERNCULTUREISDIFFERENTINTHEWESTERNCOUNTRIES,ESPECIALLYINTHEGREEK–THEMOTHEROFTHEWESTERNCIVILIZATIONS,THEREAREMANYMOUNTAINSANDSMALLLANDFORTILLAGETHEYHADTODEVELOPTHEBUSINESSATSEASOINTHEENGLISHIDIOMS,THEREAREMANYIDIOMSABOUTTHESEA,THEBOATANDTHEFISHTHEREISATYPICALEXAMPLE,WHICHCOULDEXPLAINTHISINCHINA,WESAY“HUIJINRUTU”(挥金如土),BUTINENGLISH,THEYSAY“SPENDMONEYLIKEWATER”THESETWOAREALLDESCRIBINGTHATSOMEONESPENDMONEYVERYMUCH,BUTINCHINESEWEUSE“TU”,WHILEINENGLISHTHEYUSE“WATER”31THEDIFFERENTIMAGESABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHICALWORDSINCHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMSNOMATTERWHETHERTHEIDIOMSHAVETHESAMEMEANING,ORHAVETHEDIFFERENTMEANINGS,THEIRIMAGESAREALLABOUTTHEGEOGRAPHICALWORDSINCHINESEIDIOMS,MANYOFTHEIMAGESARECONNECTEDTOTHELANDINENGLISH,MANYOFTHEIMAGESARECONNECTEDTOTHESEA311THECHINESEGEOGRAPHYIDIOMSTHELANDISVERYIMPORTANTTOTHEPEOPLE’SLIVEALSOTHEAGRICULTUREISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTACTIVITYINTHEPEOPLE’SCOMMONLIVETHEREARESOMANYIDIOMSUSETHEGEOGRAPHICALWORDSTOEXPLAINSOMETHINGTHEREARESOMEEXAMPLECOULDSHOWIT1JUANTUCHONGLAI卷土重来19STAGEACOMEBACK2MIANRUTUSE面如土色20LOOKASHEN;LOOKPALEEGTURNPALEWITHFRIGHT3YIBAITUDI一败涂地21FAILCOMPLETELY;SUFFERACRUSHINGDEFEAT;BEROUTEDEGWEJUSTCAN’TPOSSIBLYFAILCOMPLETELY,AFTERALLTHEPREPARATIONWE’VEMADE4HUTIANQIANGDI呼天抢地22LAMENTTOHEAVENANDKNOCKONE’SHEADONEARTHUTTERCRIESOFANGUISHFROMTHISGROUPOFIDIOMS,WECOULDSEETHATTHELANDISVERYIMPORTANTTOTHECHINESESOINTHECHINESEIDIOMS,THEREAREMANYIDIOMSABOUTTHELANDTHECHINESECULTUREBELONGSTOTHEAGRICULTURECIVILIZATION312THEENGLISHGEOGRAPHYIDIOMSINENGLAND,THESEAISCONNECTEDTOTHEPEOPLE’SLIFECLOSELYENGLANDISANISLANDCOUNTRYINENGLAND,THEFIELDISLESS,THELANDISFORSTOCKBREEDINGTHEENGLISHPEOPLEALWAYSMAKETHEIRLIVINGONTHESEASOTHEREAREMANYIDIOMSABOUTTHESEAANDTHESHIP1ATSEA23①ONASHIP,ETCONTHESEAEGSPENDTHREEMONTHSATSEA②NOTKNOWWHATTODO;CONFUSEDEGI’MALLATSEA;IHAVENOIDEAHOWTOREPAIRCARS2MISSTHEBOAT24MISSANOPPORTUNITY;BETOOLATETOPARTICIPATEINSOMETHINGEGSHEPUTHERAPPLICATIONINFORHERINTERVIEWONEDAYLATEUNFORTUNATELYFORHERTHEUNIVERSITYAUTHORITIESCOULDDONOTHINGANDSHEHADMISSEDTHEBOAT3ATBOTTOM25INREALITY;REALLYBASICALLYEGHESEEMSAGGRESSIVEBUTATBOTTOMHEISKINDANDGOODNATURAL4ANOTHERKETTLEOFFISHADIFFERENTKETTLEOFFISH26ACOMPLETELYDIFFERENTPERSONORTHINGFROMTHEONEPREVIOUSLYMENTIONEDEGHEISGOODATPLAYINGTENNISINPRIVATE,BUTPLAYINGINPUBLICISADIFFERENTKETTLEOFFISHTHISGROUPOFIDIOMSREFLECTTHATTHESEA、THEBOAT、THEFISHAREVERYIMPORTANTTOTHEPEOPLE’SLIVESTHEENGLISHCULTUREBELONGSTOTHESEACIVILIZATIONPEOPLELIVEINTHEDIFFERENTGEOGRAPHYENVIRONMENTSWILLCREATEDIFFERENTCULTURESALLTHECULTURESCOULDNOTBESEPARATEDFROMTHEIRENVIRONMENTSBECAUSEOFITSREGION,CLIMATEANDENVIRONMENT,EVERYCULTUREHASITSOWNCHARACTER27THEENVIRONMENTINFLUENCESTHECULTUREDEEPLYTHECHINESEAGRICULTURECIVILIZATIONMAKESTHECHINESEIDIOMSUSETHEGEOGRAPHICALWORDSASTHEIMAGESANDTHEENGLISHSEACIVILIZATIONMAKESTHEENGLISHIDIOMSUSETHEIMAGEABOUTTHESEA32THECAUSESOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHIDIOMSUSINGTHEDIFFERENTIMAGESTHEIDIOMSAREACCEPTEDTHROUGHCOMMONPRACTICETHEYHAVECOMEINTOBEINGFORALONGTIMETODAYMOSTOFTHEIDIOMSWEREFORMEDINTHEANCIENTTIMESWHYDOESTHECHINESECULTUREBELONGTOTHEAGRICULTURECIVILIZATIONWHYDOESTHEENGLISHCULTUREBELONGTOTHESEACIVILIZATIONIFWEWANTTOKNOWTHESECLEARLY,WEHADBETTERLOOKINTOTHEORIGINSOFTHECHINESEANDENGLISHCIVILIZATIONS321THEDIFFERENCEOFTHEORIGINSOFTHECHINESEANDWESTERNCIVILIZATIONSITHEORIGINSOFTHECHINESECIVILIZATIONPEOPLEINDIFFERENTENVIRONMENTSWILLCREATEDIFFERENTCULTURESINTHEORIGINSOFTHECHINESECIVILIZATION,THETILLAGEISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTTHINGINPEOPLE’LIVESOTHECHINESECULTUREISCONNECTEDTOTHEFIELDCLOSELYTHECHINESECIVILIZATIONISVERYLONGITCANDERIVEFROM70005000YEARSAGO28FROMTHE“YANGSHAOCIVILIZATION”THECHINESECIVILIZATIONHADBEGUNFORITWASSOLONGAGO,THATMANYDATAABOUTTHISCIVILIZATIONWERELOSTTHECHINESECIVILIZATIONISONEOFTHEOLDESTCIVILIZATIONSINTHEHUMANHISTORYTHEORIGINCOULDDERIVEFROMTHEOLDSTONEAGEANDINTHENEWSTONEAGE,THECHINESECIVILIZATIONDEVELOPEDVERYFASTIN21STBCTHEXIADYNASTYWASFOUNDED,WHICHWASTHEFIRSTMOSTGLORIOUSCIVILIZATIONINTHEANCIENTCHINAASTHEOTHER’SCREATIONOFTHECULTURE,INTHEEARLIESTCREATIONOFTHECHINESECULTURE,THESTONEWASTHETOOLSOFTHEAGRICULTURETHEARCHAEOLOGISTIDENTIFIEDTHISPERIODTHEOLDSTONEAGEWITHTHEUSINGOFTHECOARSESTONETOOLS,OURANCESTORALSOMASTEREDTHESKILLOFGETTINGFIREBYTHEMSELVESBEFORE10,000TO4000YEARSAGO,THECHINESEANCESTORENTEREDTHENEWSTONEAGEINTHISPERIOD,THECHINESEENTEREDTHEDOOROFTHECIVILIZATION,BEGINNINGTHEEARLYSTAGEOFTHECHINESECIVILIZATIO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