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语言文化论文-不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响.doc

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语言文化论文-不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响.doc

语言文化论文不同的地理特征对汉英习语影响【Abstract】Thegeographyenvironmentisconnectedtothehumanslivesclosely.Fromtheancienttimes,thehumantriedtheirbesttoconquerthenature,torebuildit.Atthattime,themostimportantfunctionwastoimprovetheproduction.Sointhisperiod,thehumanscivilizationswereinfluencedbythegeography.ChinaislocatedintheeastoftheEurasiaandonthewestbankofthePacificOceanwhichcouldnotbecrossedatthattime.InthesouthwestofChina,thereistheHimalayas,andthesouthwestisalargedesert,becauseofthese,wecansaythatChinawasrelativelyisolatedfromtheoutsideworld.Meanwhile,Chinahasalargeoffieldfortillageandtheclimatesuitstoit.SotheChinesecivilizationisthegeographycivilization.ButinEnglandandthewesterncountries,theylackoftheinlandbutneartheMediterraneanandtheAtlanticOcean,theseweresuitedtodeveloptheseacivilization.TheidiomsaretheflowersoftheChineseandEnglishculture.SothispaperwilllisttheidiomsaboutthegeographyinChineseandEnglishlanguages.LeteveryoneknowmorethegeographyChineseandEnglishidioms【KeyWords】geographyidiomsChineseEnglish【摘要】地理环境与人类的生存密切相关,远古的人类就是在不断地征服自然,改造自然中,发展、壮大起来。可以说,古代人类最重要的活动就是征服自然,发展生产。当时的人类的文化受到地理环境的影响。中国位于欧亚大陆的东部,东边是难以逾越的太平洋,西南是有世界屋脊之称的喜马拉雅山,西北是一片大沙漠,可以说中国是相对地与外界隔离。并且中国有大片土地供耕耘,气候也适合农耕,因此中国的文化是农耕文化,其文化偏向土地。而英国,乃至整个西方,适合耕耘的土地少,而且面向地中海,大西洋,适合发展海洋文化。而西方文化的发源地古希腊,更可以被称为是典型的海洋文化,因此,英国的文化更偏向海洋。习语是中西文化中的精华,本篇将列出中西习语中受地理影响的部分。旨在弄清地理环境与文化之间的关系。【关键词】地理习语汉语英语1、IntroductionTheenvironmentinfluencestheculture.Humanandthenaturearerelatedclosely.Foronething,humandependsonthenature,andisboundbythenature.Foranther,humanalwaystrytomasterthenatureandrebuildit.1Asweallknow,theChinesecultureandtheEnglishculturehavedifferentnatureenvironments.Chinahasalargeplainfortillage.Butinthewesterncountries,especiallyintheGreece,themotherofthewesterncivilization,hassmalllandfortillage,thelandisforthestockbreeding.WhiletheGreekhavelesslandtodeveloptheagriculture,theylivenearthesea,theMediterranean,sotheycansailintheseaforcommerce.Becauseofthedifferences,theChinesecultureandtheEnglishculturearedifferent.TheChinesecultureistheagriculturecivilization2andtheEnglishcultureisfromtheGreekcivilization,sotheEnglishcultureistheseacivilization.32、ThesimilaritiesbetweenEnglishidiomsandChineseidiomsaboutthegeographyTheidiomsarethefossilsoftheChineseandEnglishcultures.IntheChineseandEnglishidioms,therearemanyidiomsaboutthegeography.SomeoftheChineseandEnglishidiomshavethesimilarmeanings,butothersareindifferentmeanings.Inthegroupofidioms,whichhavesimilarmeaning,manyofthemusethesameimages,whileothersusethedifferentimagestoexplainthesamething.2.1ThesimilaritiesbetweenEnglishidiomsandChineseidiomsaboutthegeographyInmanyoftheChineseandEnglishidioms,theyhavethesamemeanings.Coincidently,manyofthemusethesameimages.ItshowsthattheChinesepeopleandEnglishpeopleexperiencethesimilarconceptions.Meanwhile,someofthemhavethesamemeanings,buttheyusethedifferentimagestoexplain.Fromthat,wecouldknowthatalthoughtheChineseandEnglishpeoplehavethesameexperience,theyhavethedifferentcultures.Sotheidiomsalwaysusethedifferentimages.2.1.1TheChineseEnglishgeographyidiomsthatusethesimilarimagesIntheancientChinaandEngland,thepeoplemayhavethesameexperience,andcoincidentlyusethesameimagetodescribethesamething.Itisverycoincidental.1Fishintroublewaters4and浑水摸鱼5Meaningtoprofitinaconfusedenvironmente.g.Dontfishintroublewatersthatdoesyounogood.2Pour/throwcoldwateron6and泼冷水Meaningtodiscouragee.g.Theboardofdirectorpouredcoldwateronhisnewinvestmentproposalsinthatregion.3Makewaves7and兴风作浪8Meaningtomaketroublee.g.Theyliftitwasnotthetimetomakewavesbystagingasitin.4Gowiththestream9and随波逐流10Meaningdoasothersdoe.g.Helistenedtothesamemusicanddressedthesamewayashisfriends.Hewentwiththestream,forhelackedconfidenceinmakinghisowndecision.5Burnonesboat/bridges11and破釜沉舟12Meaningtodosomethingthatmakeitimpossibletogobacke.g.Startingyourownbusinesshasalotofrisk,sothinktwicebeforeyouburnyourboat.TheidiomsinthisgroupreflectthattheEnglishidiomsandChineseidiomsarenearlycoincidental.Peopleindifferentculturesexperiencethesimilarconceptions.Theexamples1to4areusingthesameimages.Theexample5,inChineseweuse釜and舟but,inEnglishtheyjustuseboatorbridge.InbothChineseandEnglishtheboat,thecookingpotandthebridgeareallveryimportanttopeoplelives.2.1.2TheChineseEnglishgeographyidiomsthatusedifferentimagesWhiletheancientChinesepeopleandEnglishpeoplecoincidentlyusethesameimagetoexplainthesamething.Mostofthetime,theChineseandEnglishpeopleusethedifferentimagestoexplainthesamething.1Bein/getinhotwater13orIndeepwater14and泥菩萨过江Meaningtobeinorgetintotroublee.g.Shehasgotintohotwateragainforherinquisitivenaturerecently.2Adropinthebucket/ocean15and九牛一毛Meaninganegligibleortinyquantitysomethingthatmakelittledifferencee.g.Tencentsmeansalotofmoneytothebeggaronthestreet,butisadropintheoceanformostpeople.3Paddleonesowncanoe16and自力更生Meaningtodependononeselfe.g.Dontworrytoomuchaboutyoursonheisbigenoughtopaddlehisowncanoe.4Abigfishinalittlepond17and顶天立地18Meaninganimportantpersoninasmallcommunitye.g.ItoldyouwhenGeorgecametoourdepartmenttwoyearsagothathedsoonjobhop.Heisabigfish.TheidiomsinthisgroupreflectthattheEnglishidiomsandChineseidiomshavethesamemeaning,butusethedifferentimages.Intheexample2inEnglishtheyuseocean,whileinChineseweuse牛.Theexample4,inEnglishtheyusefish,butinChineseweuse地.Theexample5,inEnglishtheyusefish,butinChineseweuse牛.TheseshowthattheEnglishculturebelongstotheseacivilization,andtheChineseculturebelongstotheagriculturecivilization.Becausefishisthenormalthinginseacivilization,andtheoxisaveryimportantanimalfortheagriculture.3ThedifferencesbetweenEnglishidiomsandChineseidiomsaboutthegeographyTheenvironmentinfluencedtheidiomsverymuch.Forexample,inChina,therealargelandfortillage,soinChineseidioms,therearemanyidiomsabouttu土、di(地)、andniu(牛)theseareallconnectedcloselytotheagriculture.Butthewesterncultureisdifferent.Inthewesterncountries,especiallyintheGreek–themotherofthewesterncivilizations,therearemanymountainsandsmalllandfortillage.Theyhadtodevelopthebusinessatsea.SointheEnglishidioms,therearemanyidiomsaboutthesea,theboatandthefish.Thereisatypicalexample,whichcouldexplainthis.InChina,wesayhuijinrutu(挥金如土),butinEnglish,theysayspendmoneylikewater.Thesetwoarealldescribingthatsomeonespendmoneyverymuch,butinChineseweusetu,whileinEnglishtheyusewater.3.1ThedifferentimagesaboutthegeographicalwordsinChineseandEnglishidiomsNomatterwhethertheidiomshavethesamemeaning,orhavethedifferentmeanings,theirimagesareallaboutthegeographicalwords.InChineseidioms,manyoftheimagesareconnectedtotheland.InEnglish,manyoftheimagesareconnectedtothesea.3.1.1TheChinesegeographyidiomsThelandisveryimportanttothepeopleslive.Alsotheagricultureisthemostimportantactivityinthepeoplescommonlive.Therearesomanyidiomsusethegeographicalwordstoexplainsomething.Therearesomeexamplecouldshowit.1Juantuchonglai卷土重来19Stageacomeback2Mianrutuse面如土色20Lookashenlookpalee.g.turnpalewithfright3Yibaitudi一败涂地21Failcompletelysufferacrushingdefeatberouted.e.g.Wejustcantpossiblyfailcompletely,afterallthepreparationwevemade.4Hutianqiangdi呼天抢地22Lamenttoheavenandknockonesheadonearthuttercriesofanguish.Fromthisgroupofidioms,wecouldseethatthelandisveryimportanttotheChinese.SointheChineseidioms,therearemanyidiomsabouttheland.TheChineseculturebelongstotheagriculturecivilization.3.1.2TheEnglishgeographyidiomsInEngland,theseaisconnectedtothepeopleslifeclosely.Englandisanislandcountry.InEngland,thefieldisless,thelandisforstockbreeding.TheEnglishpeoplealwaysmaketheirlivingonthesea.Sotherearemanyidiomsabouttheseaandtheship.1Atsea23①Onaship,etcontheseae.g.spendthreemonthsatsea②Notknowwhattodoconfusede.g.ImallatseaIhavenoideahowtorepaircars.2Misstheboat24Missanopportunitybetoolatetoparticipateinsomethinge.g.Sheputherapplicationinforherinterviewonedaylate.Unfortunatelyforhertheuniversityauthoritiescoulddonothingandshehadmissedtheboat3Atbottom25Inrealityreallybasicallye.g.Heseemsaggressivebutatbottomheiskindandgoodnatural4Anotherkettleoffishadifferentkettleoffish26Acompletelydifferentpersonorthingfromtheonepreviouslymentionede.g.Heisgoodatplayingtennisinprivate,butplayinginpublicisadifferentkettleoffish.Thisgroupofidiomsreflectthatthesea、theboat、thefishareveryimportanttothepeopleslives.TheEnglishculturebelongstotheseacivilization.Peopleliveinthedifferentgeographyenvironmentswillcreatedifferentcultures.Alltheculturescouldnotbeseparatedfromtheirenvironments.Becauseofitsregion,climateandenvironment,everyculturehasitsowncharacter.27Theenvironmentinfluencestheculturedeeply.TheChineseagriculturecivilizationmakestheChineseidiomsusethegeographicalwordsastheimages.AndtheEnglishseacivilizationmakestheEnglishidiomsusetheimageaboutthesea.3.2ThecausesoftheChineseandEnglishidiomsusingthedifferentimagesTheidiomsareacceptedthroughcommonpractice.Theyhavecomeintobeingforalongtime.Todaymostoftheidiomswereformedintheancienttimes.WhydoestheChineseculturebelongtotheagriculturecivilizationWhydoestheEnglishculturebelongtotheseacivilization.Ifwewanttoknowtheseclearly,wehadbetterlookintotheoriginsoftheChineseandEnglishcivilizations.3.2.1ThedifferenceoftheoriginsoftheChineseandwesterncivilizationsiTheoriginsoftheChinesecivilizationPeopleindifferentenvironmentswillcreatedifferentcultures.IntheoriginsoftheChinesecivilization,thetillageisthemostimportantthinginpeoplelive.SotheChinesecultureisconnectedtothefieldclosely.TheChinesecivilizationisverylong.Itcanderivefrom70005000yearsago.28FromtheYangShaoCivilizationtheChinesecivilizationhadbegun.Foritwassolongago,thatmanydataaboutthiscivilizationwerelost.TheChinesecivilizationisoneoftheoldestcivilizationsinthehumanhistory.TheorigincouldderivefromtheOldStoneAge.AndintheNewStoneAge,theChinesecivilizationdevelopedveryfast.In21stB.C.theXiaDynastywasfounded,whichwasthefirstmostgloriouscivilizationintheancientChina.Astheotherscreationoftheculture,intheearliestcreationoftheChineseculture,thestonewasthetoolsoftheagriculture.ThearchaeologistidentifiedthisperiodtheOldStoneAge.Withtheusingofthecoarsestonetools,ourancestoralsomasteredtheskillofgettingfirebythemselves.Before10,000to4000yearsago,theChineseancestorenteredtheNewStoneAge.Inthisperiod,theChineseenteredthedoorofthecivilization,beginningtheearlystageoftheChinesecivilization.Between1963and1964,thearchaeologistdiscoveredtheLanTianSimianinShanxi.TheLanTianSimianlivedinabout800,000yearsago.In1927,thearchaeologistdiscoveredtheBeijingSimianinBeijing,wholivedabout600,000yearsago.TheseareallprovedthatalltheChinesecivilizationwasalltheChinesepeoplecreatedinourownland.29Forexample,theChinesecharacter社,the示demonstratestheGod,andthe土demonstratestheland.Fromthiswecanseethelandisveryimportanttotheancientpeople.Thefollowingidiomswillreflectit.土崩瓦解crumblefallapartcollapse30人杰地灵Thegreatnessofamanlendsglorytoaplace31谈天说地Talkofeverythingunderthesun32铺天盖地Blotouttheskyandcoveruptheearth33.Fromtheseidioms,wecouldseethatthelandisthemostimportantthingtotheancientpeople.Sointheidiomstherearesomanyidiomsaboutthegeography.iiTheoriginsoftheEnglishcivilizationTheEnglishcultureisfromtheGreececivilization.TheoldGreececivilizationinfluencedthecreationanddevelopmentofthewesternscivilization.ItssaidthattheoldGreececivilizationwasthemotheroftheEuropeanculture.34WiththeRomanConquest,theRomanbroughttheircultureandcustomsintoBritain.TheRomancostume,ornament,potteryandglassesvesselsspreadinBritain.OfcoursethesociallivebecameRoman.WiththesethingsbroughtintoBritain,theLatinwasspreadinBritain.Atthattime,inBritain,theofficiallanguage,thelawandthecommercewereallusedtheLatin.LatinbecamethesecondlanguageoftheupperCelts.35LatinwasoriginallythelanguageofLatium,butcametobethedialectofRome.TheuseofLatinspreadwiththegrowthoftheRomanEmpire,whichincludedmodernItaly,SpainandPortugal,mostofBritain,FranceandGermany,SouthoftheRhineandtheDanube.BeyondEuropeitincludedNorthAfricaandPalestine.EvenwhereLatindidnotsurviveasaspokenlanguage,itremainedastheinternationallanguageofscholarship.ThisisaroleitwastoretainthroughoutEuropeforwelloverathousandyears.Asaresult,allthemajorlanguagesoftheEuropehavebeenprofoundlyinfluencedbyLatin,notonlyintheirvocabulary,butalsointheirgrammar.36Intheliteralrecord,theoldGreececivilizationhadbegunin800B.C.,itwas2000yearslaterthantheoldBabyloncivilizationandtheEgyptcivilization.Butatthetimeitappeared,itshownitslivelycharacter,itsactivityandsprite.Itinfluencedthedevelopmentofthewesterncivilizationdeeply.37Thefollowingidiomswillreflectit.MuddythewaterTomakeasituationconfusedandnotclear38,beinthesameboatTobeinthesamedifficultcircumstance39,Acrosstheboardinvolvingallstaff40.Fromtheseidioms,wecanseethattheseaisveryimportanttothewesternpeopleslives.TherearesomanygeographyidiomsintheEnglishidioms.Fromthese,wecouldknowclearlythat,theChinesecivilizationisverydifferentfromthewesterncivilization.IntheoriginsoftheChinesecivilization,thelandswereveryimportanttothepeople,soourcultureisdependingonthelandandagriculture.InEnglish,thelandisnotveryimportanttopeople,thepeoplemadetheirlivingfromthesea,theirculturedependonthesea.3.2.2ThedifferencesofthegeographyoftheChinaandEnglandiTheChinesegeographyIntheeastofChina,itisthePacificOcean,whichisntliketheMediterraneansea,theancientpeoplecannotcrossit.Inthenorthwest,thereisalargedesert,andinthesouthwest,thereistheQingzanghighlandandtheHengduanMountain.Sointhisenvironment,theChinesepeoplearerelativelyisolatedfromtheoutsidewould.MostoftheChineseareaslocateinthemiddlelatitude,sotheweatherismild.ChinalocatesintheeastofthebiggestmainlandtheEurasia,andinthewestofthebiggestoceanthePacificOcean,theSouthwestoftheChinaisneartheIndianOcean,andisinfluencedbythemonsoon.SoinmostoftheChineseareasaresuitableforthedevelopingoftheagriculture.41Therearemanygeographyidiomscanreflectthatthegeographyinfluencedtheculturemuch.沧海桑田Fromseasintomulberryfieldandfrommulberryfieldintoseastimebringsgreatchangestotheworld42.土生土长(Locallybornandbredbornandbroughtupinthelocality)43.

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