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语言文化论文-从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用.doc

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语言文化论文-从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用.doc

语言文化论文从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用ABSTRACTTHEWORD“EUPHEMISM”COMESFROMTHEGREEK,EUMEANS“GOOD”,AND–PHEME,“SPEECH”OR“SAYING”,ANDTOGETHERITMEANSLITERALLY“TOSPEAKWITHGOODWORDSORINAPLEASANTMANNER”EUPHEMISM,ASACULTURALPHENOMENONASWELLASALINGUISTICCONCEPT,HASATTRACTEDPEOPLE’SATTENTIONFORALONGTIMEITHASLONGBEENATOPICOFMUCHINTERESTGENERALLYSPEAKING,PEOPLEWOULDUSEMOREEUPHEMISMSINCOMMUNICATINGWITHTHEOPPOSITESEX;WOMENWOULDUSEMORETHANMENWOULD;OLDERPEOPLEWOULDUSEMORETHANYOUNGERGENERATIONSPEOPLEWOULDMOREUSEEUPHEMISMSINPOWERRELATIONSTHANINCLOSERELATIONSPEOPLEWITHHIGHEREDUCATIONWOULDUSEMOREEUPHEMISMSTHEABOVEFACTORSAGE,SEX,SOCIALSTATUS,EDUCATION,ETCDONOTWORKSEPARATELYINCOMMUNICATING,THEYAREINTERLACEDWITHEACHOTHERANDGUIDEOURCHOICEOFEUPHEMISMSWHETHERTOUSEEUPHEMISMSORTABOOWORDSALSODEPENDS,TOALARGEEXTENT,ONTHEATTITUDESOFPARTICIPANTSPARTICULARLYSPEAKERSANDTHEPURPOSEOFCONVERSATIONSTHEARTICLECONSISTSOFSIXPARTSPARTONEEXPLAINSWHATTHEMEANINGOFEUPHEMISMISPARTTWOISSAYINGTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLEINBRIEFLYCOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLE,THECORNERSTONETHEORYOFPRAGMATICS,ISONEOFTHEMAINPRINCIPLESTHATGUIDEPEOPLE’SCOMMUNICATIONTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLEANDITSMAXIMSCANEXPLAINWHATTHELITERALMEANINGISANDITSREALINTENTIONINCOMMUNICATIONANDENSURETHATINANEXCHANGEOFCONVERSATIONPARTTHREEPRESENTS,THEFORMATIONEUPHEMISM,NAMELY,FORMALINNOVATION,SEMANTICINNOVATION,RHETORICALDEVICES,ANDGRAMMATICALWAYSPARTFOURDISCUSSESTHECOMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONOFEUPHEMISMISSUBSTITUTION,POLITENESS,DISGUISE,DEFENSE,ETCPARTFIVESERVESASTHEMAINBODYOFTHISARTICLEGENERALLYSPEAKING,EUPHEMISMSVIOLATETHEQUALITY,QUANTITYANDMANNERMAXIMOFTHECPDUETODIFFERENTREASONSLIKESUBSTITUTION,DISGUISEETCANDBASICALLYEUPHEMISMSOBSERVETHERELATIONMAXIMFROMTHEANALYSIS,ITCANBEALSOFOUNDTHATSOMETIMESANEUPHEMISMCANBEREGARDEDASVIOLATIONOFTWOMAXIMSOFTHECPATTHESAMETIMEPARTSIXCONCLUDESTHEWHOLEARTICLEKEYWORDSCOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLE;EUPHEMISM;COMMUNICATIVEFUNCTION【摘要】委婉语EUPHEMISM一词起源于希腊语。EU意思是“好的”,PHEME意思是“话语”,因此字面上的意思是说好听的话或用礼貌的方式说话。委婉语是一个语言学概念,同时也是一种文化现象,长久以来一直受到人们的关注。总体上讲人们在与异性进行言语交际时,要比在同性面前更多地使用委婉语,女性要比男性更多地使用委婉语,年长的人要比年青的人更多地使用委婉语。人们在“权势关系”的语境中往往要比在“亲密关系”的语境中更多地使用委婉语。受教育程度越高的人,越注意自己的言谈,因而更多地使用委婉语。上述因素年龄、性别、社会地位、教育等并不孤立存在,在交际中,他们交织在一起决定着委婉语的使用。是否使用委婉语还要考虑说话者的态度和交谈的目的。文章由六个部分组成。第一部分解释了什么是委婉语。第二部分简单列出合作原则的各项原则。它作为语用学的理论基石之一,是指导人们语言交际的原则之一。它可以很好地解释话语的字面意义和实际意义的关系,这对于交际委婉语显得尤为重要。第三部分说明委婉语的构成可以有很多种方式形式变化,语义变化,修辞手段和语法手段。第四部分阐述了交际委婉语出于替代、掩饰、和礼貌等功能。第五部分是文章的主体,并说明委婉语出于替代、掩饰、和礼貌等原因主要违反了合作原则中的质、量和方式三个次则,基本上是遵循了合作原则中的相关原则。第六部分总结全文。【关键字】合作原则;委婉语;交际功能1INTRODUCTIONINTHEOXFORDADVANCEDLEARNER’SENGLISH–CHINESEDICTIONARYTHEEXPLANATIONOFEUPHEMISMISEXAMPLEOFTHEUSEOFPLEASANT,MILDORINDIRECTWORDSORPHRASESINPLACEOFMOREACCURATEORDIRECTONES1ANDINTHELONGMANDICTIONARYOFCONTEMPORARYENGLISHTHEEXPLANATIONOFEUPHEMISMISANEXAMPLEOFTHEUSEOFAPLEASANTER,LESSDIRECTNAMEFORSOMETHINGTHOUGHTTOBEUNPLEASANT2FOREXAMPLE,THEMANWHOWANTSTOUSTOCALLHIMA“SANITATIONENGINEER”INSTEADOFA“GARBAGEMAN”ISHOPINGWEWILLTREATHIMWITHMORERESPECTTHANWEPRESENTLYDOTHEWORDEUPHEMISMCOMESFROMTHEGREEKEUMEANINGGOODANDPHEMEMEANINGSPEECHORSAYING,ANDTHUSMEANSLITERALLYTOSPEAKWITHGOODWORDSORINAPLEASANTMANNER3EUPHEMISMSHAVEVARIOUSREASONSFOREXISTENCETHEYCONCEALTHETHINGSPEOPLEFEARTHEMOSTDEATH,THEDEAD,THESUPERNATURALTHEYCOVERUPTHEFACTSOFLIFEOFSEXANDREPRODUCTIONANDEXCRETIONWHICHINEVITABLYREMINDEVENTHEMOSTREFINEDPEOPLETHATTHEYAREMADEOFCLAY,ORWORSETHEYAREBELOVEDBYINDIVIDUALSANDINSTITUTIONSGOVERNMENTS,ESPECIALLYTHATAREANXIOUSTOPRESENTONLYTHEHANDSOMESTPOSSIBLEIMAGESOFTHEMSELVESTOTHEWORLDANDTHEYAREIMBEDDEDSODEEPLYINOURLANGUAGETHATFEWOFUS,EVENTHOSEWHOPRIDETHEMSELVESONBEINGPLAINSPOKEN,EVERGETTHROUGHADAYWITHOUTUSINGTHEMBUTSOMEPEOPLESTILLMISTAKETHEEUPHEMISMSINTHECONVERSATIONBYTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLEVIOLATINGTHECP,PEOPLEALSOCANCONTINUETHECONVERSATIONWITHEUPHEMISMS,WHICHMAKETHEAUTHORINTERESTINATTITUDESOFPARTICIPANTSANDTHEPURPOSEOFCONVERSATIONTHATISOURBODYTODAY2FORMATIONOFEUPHEMISMS21FORMALINNOVATIONTOAVOIDTHEEMERGENCEOFCERTAINLETTERORSOUNDMAYACHIEVETHEEFFECTOFEUPHEMIZINGTHEFORMALINNOVATIONCANHIDEAUDIOVISUALLYTHOSEWORDSWEDON’TWANTTOSAYORWESHOULDN’TSAYSOASTOACHIEVEBETTEROUTCOMEINCOMMUNICATION211ABBREVIATIONABBREVIATIONISTHESHORTENINGOFAWORDANDMAYBESEENINTHEUSEOFTHEBRITISHEXPRESSIONLADIESFORLADIES’ROOMTHEREALSOISGENTSFORGENTLEMEN’SROOM212APOCOPATIONAPOCOPATIONISANOTHERFORMOFABBREVIATIONAPPARENTINTHEUSEOFVAMPFORVAMPIREHEREMEANINGASEDUCTIVEWOMANANDLAVISFORLAVATORY;HOMOISFORHOMOSEXUAL;COCAISFORCOCAINE;BRAISFORBRASSIERE213INITIALINGINITIALINGISTHEUSEOFACRONYMSINSTEADOFTHEIRCOMPONENTPARTSASINJCFOR“JESUSCHRIST”,BMFORBOWELMOVEMENT4,WCFORWATERCLOSET,BOFORBODYODOR,VDFORVENEREALDISEASE,AIDSFORACQUIREDIMMUNEDEFICIENCYSYNDROME,SARSFORSEVEREACUTERESPIRATORYSYNDROME5214BACKFORMINGBACKFORMINGISTHESUBSTITUTIONFORONEPARTOFSPEECHUSEDINSHORTENEDFORMFORANOTHER,ASINBURGLEROBWHICHISDERIVEDFROMBURGLAR6215REDUPLICATIONREDUPLICATIONISTHEREPETITIONOFASYLLABLEORLETTEROFAWORDPARTICULARLYCOMMONINCHILDREN’SBATHROOMVOCABULARY,ITSUBSTITUTESPEEPEEFORPISS,POOPOOFORBOWELMOVEMENT7216BLENDWORDABLENDWORDISAFORMOFPHONETICDISTORTIONINWHICHTWOORMOREWORDSARESQUEEZEDTOGETHERBOTHORTHOGRAPHICALLYANDPHONETICALLYANEXAMPLEOFTHISISGEZUNDAFORACHAMBERPOT,ATERMDERIVEDFROMTHEFACTTHATTHISOBJECTGOESUNDERTHEBED8217DIMINUTIVEADIMINUTIVEISTHEFORMATIONOFANEWTERMBYNICKINGORSHORTENINGANAMEANDADDINGASUFFIXINDICATINGAFFECTIONORSMALLNESSHEINIE,FOREXAMPLE,ISTHEDIMINUTIVEOFHINDENDANDREFERSTOTHEBUTTOCKS922SEMANTICINNOVATION221BORROWINGMOSTOBVIOUSLY,EUPHEMISMSMAYBEFORMEDBYBORROWINGWORDSFROMOTHERLANGUAGESTERMSTHATARELESSFREIGHTEDWITHNEGATIVEASSOCIATIONSTHUS,WEUSEGREEKANDLATINEXPRESSIONSFORMANYBODILYPARTSANDFUNCTIONSWEHAVECOINEDHALITOSISBADBREATHFROMTHELATINHALITUSFOR“BREATH”ANDWEHAVESUBSTITUTEDMICTURITIONFORTHEMOREVULGARINDOEUROPEAN“PISS”INADDITION,ENGLISHEUPHEMISMSALSOBORROWEDALOTOFSCIENTIFICORACADEMICTERMS,WHICHAREBELIEVEDTOBEMOREEUPHEMISTICANDOBJECTIVETHANTHEUSUALTERMS,SUCHASMAGNETICFOR“SEXY”ANDPERSPIREFOR“SWEAT”ANDSOON222WIDENINGEUPHEMISMSMAYBEMADEBYASEMANTICPROCESSCALLEDWIDENINGWHENASPECIFICTERMBECOMESTOOPAINFULORVIVID,WEMOVEUPINTHELADDEROFABSTRACTIONINTHISWAY,CANCERBECOMESGROWTHANDAGIRDLEBECOMESAFOUNDATIONSOMETIMES,INADDITIONTOWIDENINGWEDIVIDETHENEGATIVECONNOTATIONSOFASINGLEDIRECTTERMBETWEENTWOORMOREWORDSINSTEADOFSAYING“SYPHILIS”OPENLY,WESPEAKOFASOCIALDISEASE223SEMANTICSHIFTALLIEDTOTHEPHENOMENONOFWIDENINGISTHATOFSEMANTICSHIFTTHISISTHESUBSTITUTIONOFTHEWHOLE,ORASIMILARGENERALITY,FORTHESPECIFICPARTWEDONOTCHOOSETODISCUSSWEMAYCREATESUCHMETONYMIESSUBSTITUTIONSOFTHEWHOLEFORTHEPARTASREARENDFOR“BUTTOCKS”SOMETIMES,ASINTHEEXPRESSIONSTOSLEEPWITH/GOTOBEDWITHSOMEONE10,WEUSEWORDSNAMINGTHELARGEREVENTINPLACEOFMOREPRECISEREFERENCESTOTHESEXUALRELATIONSTHATAREPARTOFTHEPROCESS23RHETORICALDEVICES231METAPHOREUPHEMISMSMAYBEMADEBYAPROCESSCALLEDMETAPHORICALTRANSFER,THECOMPARISONOFTHINGSOFONEKINDTOTHINGSOFANOTHERTHEEUPHEMISMSCHOSENAREOFTENROMANTICIZING,POETICIZINGANDSOFTENINGOFTHEORIGINALWORDSLIKEGOTOSLEEP;GOTOHISLONGHOME;BEHOMEANDFREE;RESTINPEACE;BEATREST;GOTOHEAVEN/PARADISE;JOINONESANCESTORS;BEGATHEREDTOONESFATHERS;JOINTHEIMMORALSFORDIE11,SHOCKFORRANDOMBOMBING,CONSTRUCTIVEDESTRUCTIONFORSEVEREDAMAGE,HAVEAROADTOTRAVELFORHAVEALONGTIMETOREACHANAGREEMENTANDETC232APOSIOPESISINENGLISH,THEREISAKINDOFRHETORICCALLEDAPOSIOPESISTHATCANALSOACTASTHEWAYOFEUPHEMIZINGWHENWETHINKWESHOULDNOTSAYSOMETHINGUNDERCERTAINCONDITIONS,WESUDDENLYSTOPASWHENWESAYSOMEONEISOUTOFWORK;SHEISEXPECTINGABABY;TOTAKEPRECAUTIONSAGAINSTPREGNANCY;TODEPARTFROMTHISWORLD12233ANALOGYANALOGYCANOFTENBESEENINTHEVOCABULARIESOFWORKATENDENCYTOELEVATEMENIALORUNSKILLEDJOBSSOMETIMESSUBSTITUTINGAGRANDTITLEFORALARGESALARYCANMAKEOFFALSMELLLIKEAROSEBYPROMOTINGGARBAGEMENTOSANITATIONENGINEERSOREVENTOWASTEREDUCTIONMANAGERSBYIMPLICATION,THEYBECOMEHIGHLYTRAINEDTECHNICIANSANDEXECUTIVESHEALTHCLUBSTAFFSBECOMEFITNESSCOORDINATORS,ANDSENATORSNOWHAVETHEIRSHOESSHINEDBYTHEFOOTWEARMAINTENANCEENGINEER,FORMERLYTHESENATEBOOTBLACKEVENIFYOUARENOTAGOVERNMENTOFFICIAL,YOURJANITORISNOWYOURBUIDINGMAINTENANCEENGINEER234UNDERSTATEMENTUNDERSTATEMENTDISPLAYSPEOPLE’SDESIRETOMAKETHEIRLANGUAGELESSPAINFULANDDIRECTSOTHEREISNEVERANUGLYWOMANINTHISWORLD,SHEISATLEASTPLAINTEACHERSONLYTELLPARENTSTHATTHEIRCHILDISABITSLOWFORHISAGE,NOTRETARDEDANDCALLSENIORCITIZENFOROLDPERSONTAKEOTHERSTHINGSWITHOUTPERMISSIONCANBEINSTEADOFSTEAL235PERIPHRASISPERIPHRASISISJUSTBEATINGAROUNDTHEBUSHPEOPLEOFTENSAYEUPHEMISMSAREWEASELWORDS,BECAUSEPEOPLENEVERCALLASPADEASPADEWHENUSINGEUPHEMISMSFARTISNOTPLEASANTTOEAR,SOPEOPLECALLITWINDFROMTHEBEHINDSOMEONEWANTSYOUTOGOAWAY,BUTHEONLYSAYSHEWILLCALLYOURCARRIAGEFORYOUSOMEONELIVINGATTHEGOVERNMENTEXPENSEMAYMAKEYOUENVYHIM,BUTACTUALLYHEISINPRISONMANYSAYINGSABOUTGOINGTOWCMAKEAGOODUSEOFPERIPHRASISLIKEWASHONE’SHANDS,POWDERONE’SNOSE,SPENDAPENNYSODOTHEDROPFORADJUSTMENTDOWNWARD1324GRAMMATICALWAYSACCORDINGTOBOLINGER,EUPHEMISMISNOTRESTRICTEDTOTHELEXICONTHEREAREGRAMMATICALWAYSOFTONINGSOMETHINGDOWN”THEREFORE,EUPHEMIZINGSHOULDNOTBELIMITEDTOLEXICALWAYS;ITCANALSOBEACHIEVEDBYGRAMMATICALWAYS241TENSEINENGLISH,TENSECANLENDALITTLEEUPHEMISTICCOLORTOTHEEXPRESSIONSFORSOMETHINGUNDESIREDESPECIALLYWHENPEOPLEUSEWANT,HOPE,THINKANDWONDERORWORDSLIKETHATTHEYMAYALSOMAKEUSEOFTHETENSETOSOUNDMOREEUPHEMISTICALLYFOREXAMPLE,IWONDEREDIFYOUWOULDMINDHELPINGMEORIWONDEREDIFYOUCOULDHELPME14ASKINGHELPTHISWAY,PEOPLEWON’TFEELSOEMBARRASSEDIFTHEYWEREREFUSED242SYNTACTICALNEGATIONTHISMETHODCANLESSONTHEPAINFULIMPACTOFTHELANGUAGETHATISNOTWELCOMEDWESAYSHEISNOTPRETTYACTUALLYSHEISVERYUGLY,BUTTHATISACCEPTABLE,BECAUSENOTPRETTYDOESNOTEQUALTO“UGLY”,ITCOULDBE“PLAIN”TOONOTPRETTYHASAWIDERRANGEOFMEANINGTHANUGLYSIMILARUSAGESAREASTHEFOLLOWINGIDON’TTHINK,IAMAFRAID,IAMNOTSURE,IDONTLIKE,ETC243FIRSTPERSONALPRONOUNSTHEUSEOFFIRSTPERSONALPRONOUNSLIKEWE,OURS,US,ETC,CANALSOMAKEOURSPEECHESSOUNDMOREEUPHEMISTICYOUWOULDFEELMOREWELCOMEDIFYOUUSEDWEOROURQUITEOFTENIFADOCTORSAIDTOYOUHOWDOWEFEELTODAY,YOUWOULDFEELVERYWARMANDCOMFORTABLE,BECAUSEITMAKESYOUTHINKTHATTHISKINDDOCTORTAKESYOURILLNESSASMUTUALCONCERN3COMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMSLANGUAGEISFORCOMMUNICATION,WHEREASEUPHEMISMSMAYLEADTOBETTERCOMMUNICATIONUSINGEUPHEMISMSCANAVOIDBEINGPRESUMPTUOUSINLANGUAGECOMMUNICATIONWHENWEHAVETOTOUCHSOMETOPICSTHATAREUNPL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