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语言文化论文-从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用.doc

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语言文化论文-从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用.doc

语言文化论文从合作原则看英语委婉语的使用AbstractThewordeuphemismcomesfromtheGreek,eumeansgood,and–pheme,speechorsaying,andtogetheritmeansliterallytospeakwithgoodwordsorinapleasantmanner.Euphemism,asaculturalphenomenonaswellasalinguisticconcept,hasattractedpeoplesattentionforalongtime.Ithaslongbeenatopicofmuchinterest.Generallyspeaking,peoplewouldusemoreeuphemismsincommunicatingwiththeoppositesexwomenwouldusemorethanmenwouldolderpeoplewouldusemorethanyoungergenerations.Peoplewouldmoreuseeuphemismsinpowerrelationsthanincloserelations.Peoplewithhighereducationwouldusemoreeuphemisms.Theabovefactorsage,sex,socialstatus,education,etc.donotworkseparately.Incommunicating,theyareinterlacedwitheachotherandguideourchoiceofeuphemisms.Whethertouseeuphemismsortaboowordsalsodepends,toalargeextent,ontheattitudesofparticipantsparticularlyspeakersandthepurposeofconversations.Thearticleconsistsofsixparts.Partoneexplainswhatthemeaningofeuphemismis.ParttwoissayingtheCooperativePrincipleinbriefly.CooperativePrinciple,thecornerstonetheoryofpragmatics,isoneofthemainprinciplesthatguidepeoplescommunication.TheCooperativePrincipleanditsmaximscanexplainwhattheliteralmeaningisanditsrealintentionincommunicationandensurethatinanexchangeofconversation.Partthreepresents,theformationeuphemism,namely,formalinnovation,semanticinnovation,rhetoricaldevices,andgrammaticalways.Partfourdiscussesthecommunicativefunctionofeuphemismissubstitution,politeness,disguise,defense,etc.Partfiveservesasthemainbodyofthisarticle.Generallyspeaking,euphemismsviolatetheQuality,QuantityandMannerMaximoftheCPduetodifferentreasonslikesubstitution,disguiseetc.AndbasicallyeuphemismsobservetheRelationMaxim.Fromtheanalysis,itcanbealsofoundthatsometimesaneuphemismcanberegardedasviolationoftwomaximsoftheCPatthesametime.Partsixconcludesthewholearticle.KeyWordsCooperativePrincipleEuphemismCommunicativefunction【摘要】委婉语euphemism一词起源于希腊语。Eu意思是好的,pheme意思是话语,因此字面上的意思是说好听的话或用礼貌的方式说话。委婉语是一个语言学概念,同时也是一种文化现象,长久以来一直受到人们的关注。总体上讲人们在与异性进行言语交际时,要比在同性面前更多地使用委婉语,女性要比男性更多地使用委婉语,年长的人要比年青的人更多地使用委婉语。人们在权势关系的语境中往往要比在亲密关系的语境中更多地使用委婉语。受教育程度越高的人,越注意自己的言谈,因而更多地使用委婉语。上述因素年龄、性别、社会地位、教育等并不孤立存在,在交际中,他们交织在一起决定着委婉语的使用。是否使用委婉语还要考虑说话者的态度和交谈的目的。文章由六个部分组成。第一部分解释了什么是委婉语。第二部分简单列出合作原则的各项原则。它作为语用学的理论基石之一,是指导人们语言交际的原则之一。它可以很好地解释话语的字面意义和实际意义的关系,这对于交际委婉语显得尤为重要。第三部分说明委婉语的构成可以有很多种方式形式变化,语义变化,修辞手段和语法手段。第四部分阐述了交际委婉语出于替代、掩饰、和礼貌等功能。第五部分是文章的主体,并说明委婉语出于替代、掩饰、和礼貌等原因主要违反了合作原则中的质、量和方式三个次则,基本上是遵循了合作原则中的相关原则。第六部分总结全文。【关键字】合作原则委婉语交际功能1.IntroductionIntheOxfordAdvancedLearnersEnglish–ChineseDictionarytheexplanationofEuphemismisexampleoftheuseofpleasant,mildorindirectwordsorphrasesinplaceofmoreaccurateordirectones1.AndintheLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglishtheexplanationofEuphemismisanexampleoftheuseofapleasanter,lessdirectnameforsomethingthoughttobeunpleasant2.Forexample,themanwhowantstoustocallhimasanitationengineerinsteadofagarbagemanishopingwewilltreathimwithmorerespectthanwepresentlydo.ThewordeuphemismcomesfromtheGreekeumeaninggoodandphememeaningspeechorsaying,andthusmeansliterallytospeakwithgoodwordsorinapleasantmanner3.Euphemismshavevariousreasonsforexistence.Theyconcealthethingspeoplefearthemostdeath,thedead,thesupernatural.Theycoverupthefactsoflifeofsexandreproductionandexcretionwhichinevitablyremindeventhemostrefinedpeoplethattheyaremadeofclay,orworse.Theyarebelovedbyindividualsandinstitutionsgovernments,especiallythatareanxioustopresentonlythehandsomestpossibleimagesofthemselvestotheworld.Andtheyareimbeddedsodeeplyinourlanguagethatfewofus,eventhosewhopridethemselvesonbeingplainspoken,evergetthroughadaywithoutusingthem.ButsomepeoplestillmistaketheeuphemismsintheconversationbytheCooperativeprinciple.ViolatingtheCP,peoplealsocancontinuetheconversationwitheuphemisms,whichmaketheauthorinterestinattitudesofparticipantsandthepurposeofconversation.Thatisourbodytoday.2.Formationofeuphemisms2.1FormalinnovationToavoidtheemergenceofcertainletterorsoundmayachievetheeffectofeuphemizing.Theformalinnovationcanhideaudiovisuallythosewordswedontwanttosayorweshouldntsaysoastoachievebetteroutcomeincommunication.2.1.1AbbreviationAbbreviationistheshorteningofawordandmaybeseenintheuseoftheBritishexpressionLADIESforladiesroom.TherealsoisGENTSforgentlemensroom.2.1.2ApocopationApocopationisanotherformofabbreviationapparentintheuseofvampforvampireheremeaningaseductivewoman.Andlavisforlavatoryhomoisforhomosexualcocaisforcocainebraisforbrassiere.2.1.3InitialingInitialingistheuseofacronymsinsteadoftheircomponentpartsasinJCforJesusChrist,BMforbowelmovement4,W.Cforwatercloset,B.Oforbodyodor,V.Dforvenerealdisease,AIDSforacquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome,SARSforsevereacuterespiratorysyndrome5.2.1.4BackformingBackformingisthesubstitutionforonepartofspeechusedinshortenedformforanother,asinburglerobwhichisderivedfromburglar6.2.1.5ReduplicationReduplicationistherepetitionofasyllableorletterofaword.Particularlycommoninchildrensbathroomvocabulary,itsubstitutespeepeeforpiss,poopooforbowelmovement7.2.1.6BlendwordAblendwordisaformofphoneticdistortioninwhichtwoormorewordsaresqueezedtogetherbothorthographicallyandphonetically.Anexampleofthisisgezundaforachamberpot,atermderivedfromthefactthatthisobjectgoesunderthebed8.2.1.7DiminutiveAdiminutiveistheformationofanewtermbynickingorshorteninganameandaddingasuffixindicatingaffectionorsmallness.Heinie,forexample,isthediminutiveofhindendandreferstothebuttocks9.2.2Semanticinnovation2.2.1BorrowingMostobviously,euphemismsmaybeformedbyborrowingwordsfromotherlanguagestermsthatarelessfreightedwithnegativeassociations.Thus,weuseGreekandLatinexpressionsformanybodilypartsandfunctions.WehavecoinedhalitosisbadbreathfromtheLatinhalitusforbreathandwehavesubstitutedmicturitionforthemorevulgarIndoEuropeanPiss.Inaddition,Englisheuphemismsalsoborrowedalotofscientificoracademicterms,whicharebelievedtobemoreeuphemisticandobjectivethantheusualterms,suchasmagneticforsexyandperspireforsweatandsoon.2.2.2WideningEuphemismsmaybemadebyasemanticprocesscalledwidening.Whenaspecifictermbecomestoopainfulorvivid,wemoveupintheladderofabstraction.Inthisway,cancerbecomesgrowthandagirdlebecomesafoundation.Sometimes,inadditiontowideningwedividethenegativeconnotationsofasingledirecttermbetweentwoormorewords.Insteadofsayingsyphilisopenly,wespeakofasocialdisease.2.2.3SemanticshiftAlliedtothephenomenonofwideningisthatofsemanticshift.Thisisthesubstitutionofthewhole,orasimilargenerality,forthespecificpartwedonotchoosetodiscuss.Wemaycreatesuchmetonymiessubstitutionsofthewholeforthepartasrearendforbuttocks.Sometimes,asintheexpressionstosleepwith/gotobedwithsomeone10,weusewordsnamingthelargereventinplaceofmoreprecisereferencestothesexualrelationsthatarepartoftheprocess.2.3Rhetoricaldevices2.3.1MetaphorEuphemismsmaybemadebyaprocesscalledmetaphoricaltransfer,thecomparisonofthingsofonekindtothingsofanother.Theeuphemismschosenareoftenromanticizing,poeticizingandsofteningoftheoriginalwordslikegotosleepgotohislonghomebehomeandfreerestinpeacebeatrestgotoHeaven/Paradisejoinonesancestorsbegatheredtoonesfathersjointheimmoralsfordie11,shockforrandombombing,constructivedestructionforseveredamage,havearoadtotravelforhavealongtimetoreachanagreementandetc..2.3.2AposiopesisInEnglish,thereisakindofrhetoriccalledaposiopesisthatcanalsoactasthewayofeuphemizing.Whenwethinkweshouldnotsaysomethingundercertainconditions,wesuddenlystopaswhenwesaysomeoneisoutofworksheisexpectingababytotakeprecautionsagainstpregnancytodepartfromthisworld122.3.3AnalogyAnalogycanoftenbeseeninthevocabulariesofwork.Atendencytoelevatemenialorunskilledjobssometimessubstitutingagrandtitleforalargesalarycanmakeoffalsmelllikearosebypromotinggarbagementosanitationengineersoreventowastereductionmanagers.Byimplication,theybecomehighlytrainedtechniciansandexecutives.Healthclubstaffsbecomefitnesscoordinators,andsenatorsnowhavetheirshoesshinedbythefootwearmaintenanceengineer,formerlytheSenatebootblack.Evenifyouarenotagovernmentofficial,yourjanitorisnowyourbuidingmaintenanceengineer.2.3.4UnderstatementUnderstatementdisplayspeoplesdesiretomaketheirlanguagelesspainfulanddirect.Sothereisneveranuglywomaninthisworld,sheisatleastplain.Teachersonlytellparentsthattheirchildisabitslowforhisage,notretarded.Andcallseniorcitizenforoldperson.Takeothersthingswithoutpermissioncanbeinsteadofsteal.2.3.5PeriphrasisPeriphrasisisjustbeatingaroundthebush.Peopleoftensayeuphemismsareweaselwords,becausepeoplenevercallaspadeaspadewhenusingeuphemisms.Fartisnotpleasanttoear,sopeoplecallitwindfromthebehind.Someonewantsyoutogoaway,butheonlysayshewillcallyourcarriageforyou.Someonelivingatthegovernmentexpensemaymakeyouenvyhim,butactuallyheisinprison.ManysayingsaboutgoingtoWCmakeagooduseofperiphrasislikewashoneshands,powderonesnose,spendapenny.Sodothedropforadjustmentdownward132.4.GrammaticalwaysAccordingtoBolinger,Euphemismisnotrestrictedtothelexicon.Therearegrammaticalwaysoftoningsomethingdown.Therefore,euphemizingshouldnotbelimitedtolexicalwaysitcanalsobeachievedbygrammaticalways.2.4.1TenseInEnglish,tensecanlendalittleeuphemisticcolortotheexpressionsforsomethingundesired.Especiallywhenpeopleusewant,hope,thinkandwonderorwordslikethattheymayalsomakeuseofthetensetosoundmoreeuphemistically.Forexample,IwonderedifyouwouldmindhelpingmeorIwonderedifyoucouldhelpme14.Askinghelpthisway,peoplewontfeelsoembarrassediftheywererefused.2.4.2SyntacticalnegationThismethodcanlessonthepainfulimpactofthelanguagethatisnotwelcomed.WesaysheisnotprettyActuallysheisveryugly,butthatisacceptable,becausenotprettydoesnotequaltougly,itcouldbeplaintoo.Notprettyhasawiderrangeofmeaningthanugly.SimilarusagesareasthefollowingIdontthink,Iamafraid,Iamnotsure,Idontlike,etc.2.4.3FirstpersonalpronounsTheuseoffirstpersonalpronounslikewe,ours,us,etc,canalsomakeourspeechessoundmoreeuphemistic.Youwouldfeelmorewelcomedifyouusedweorourquiteoften.Ifadoctorsaidtoyouhowdowefeeltoday,youwouldfeelverywarmandcomfortable,becauseitmakesyouthinkthatthiskinddoctortakesyourillnessasmutualconcern.3CommunicativefunctionsofeuphemismsLanguageisforcommunication,whereaseuphemismsmayleadtobettercommunication.Usingeuphemismscanavoidbeingpresumptuousinlanguagecommunication.Whenwehavetotouchsometopicsthatareunpleasant,wetendtochoosemoreeuphemisticexpressionstorefertothosepainfultopicssoasnottohurtthehearersfeeling.WecanfindthetheoreticalfoundationforthismotivationinLeechsPolitenessPrinciple.Euphemismsjustminimizetheimpolitenessandmaximizethepolitenessincommunication.ThefunctionsofeuphemismsareinagreementwiththoseofPolitenessPrincipletoo,astheybothoffermorebenefittothehearerandleavemorecosttothespeaker,withthepurposethatbothofthetwosideswillfeelrespectedandhavefavorableimpressionofeachother.Aspolitenessisusuallyregardedasthemanifestationofhumancivilization,euphemismisoneofthemosteffectivestrategiestodisplaypolitenesswhilemodulatinginterpersonalrelationshipinhumancommunication.3.1SubstitutionAccordingtothedefinitionsofeuphemismandweknowthatagreatnumberofEnglisheuphemismsserveasthesubstitutionsforverbaltaboos.Thetermtabootameaningmark,boomeaningexceedinglyofPolynesianorigindenotesanythinglinguisticandnonlinguistic,whichisprohibitedorforbidden.Tabooreferstothesituationinwhichawordornamecanbeusedinacommunityonlyunderspecialconditions,whetheronlybycertainpersonsoronlyincertaincircumstances.Justasviolatingaculturaltaboocanbequiteoffensive,soisitwithaverbaltabooinpressconferences.Thewordhasbeenandcontinuestobeinmostsocietiesperceivedasapowerfulinstrumentthatmayevokeevilspirits,makebadthingshappenandinstigatetoviolenceandrevolutionandnumerousotheractivities.Whiletabooofwordsoccurswhenaparticulartopicisconsideredvalidfordiscussion,euphemisticexpressionortermsarerequired.Sodiplomaticeuphemismshaveaveryseriousreasonforbeing.Theycanconcealthethingspeoplefearmostdeath,thedeadorthesupernatural.Euphemismscanalsoeliminateunhappiness,embarrassmentandfearetc.soastorelievepeoplepsychologically.3.2PolitenessPolitenessisanotherveryimportantfunctionthateuphemismsserveinsociallife.Someoftheeuphemismsareusedtoavoidcrudenessandindecencyforthesakeofapoliteconversation.15GriceformulatedCooperativePrincipleofutteranceinwhichtheMaximofMannerwasdefinedasBeperspicuousandspecificToavoidobscurityToavoidambiguityTobebriefandtobeorderly.TheroundaboutnatureofeuphemismsgoesagainsttheMaximofManner,whichcanonlybefairlyexplainedwellbyLeechsPolitenessPrincipleApprobationMaximminimizedispraiseofother,maximizepraiseofother.Inotherwords,euphemismsaretominimizeimpoliteexpressionsandmaximizepoliteexpressions.3.3DisguiseBesidesthetwofunctionsofeuphemismsmentionedabove,thereisstillanotheronemoreimportantfunctionatworkineuphemisticcommunication,namely,theDisguiseFunction.Herewemeanthatbecauseofthevaguenessofeuphemisms,ithasbecomeaveryimportanttoolforpoliticalleadersorthediplomatsorstatesmentodistortthefactsorandpresentafalsepictureofpeaceandprosperityandtobeautifywhatevertheauthorityhavedone.Forexample,intheIraqWar,theyuseOperationIraqiFreedomforbeautifyingtheirmilitaryinvasion,possiblemovementreferstomilitaryattack,airoperationorairstrikesforairattack,enterthewartoshowtheirreluctancetofightthewaretc.andwemayfindmanysuchkindoftheseeuphemismsinpressconferences.Themostimportantandultimatefunctionorpurposeoftheuseofdiplomaticeuphemismsinpressconferencesistodisguiseorbeautifytheirinvasiveessenceorotherevilactionsortheseparationofwordsfromtruth.InAmericanandBritishsocietiesnowadays,diplomaticeuphemismsarealwayspurposelydevisedtodisguisescandalsinwarsandpolitics,deliberatelyinventedtobeautifylowlyoccupationsandexcessivelyinflatedtopromotesalesinadvertisement.4.TheCooperativePrincipleBeforegoingon,welookattwoexamples,asfollows1ACanyoutellmethetimeBWell,themailhasalreadycome.2AAreyougoingtoJohnsbirthdaypartyBIveheardMaryisgoing.16Itseemstherearesomemistakeintheconversations.Butinfact,itiscorrect.TheCooperativePrinciplewillhelpusunderstandmore.TheCooperativePrincipleisasfollowsMakeyourconversationalcontributionsuchasisrequired,atthestageatwhichitoccurs,bytheacceptedpurposeordirectionofthetalkexchangeinwhichyouareengaged.17AccordingGrice,Cooperativeprincipleisclassifiedintofourcategoriesquantity,quality,relationandmanner.Thecategoryofquantityrelatestothequantityofinformationtobeprovided,andunderitfallthefollowingmaxims4.1ThemaximofQualityTrytomakeyourcontributiononethatistrue,.specificallyidonotsaywhatyoubelievetobefalse.iidonotsaythatforwhichyoulackadequateevidence184.2ThemaximofQuantityiMakeyourcontributionasinformativeasisrequiredforthecurrentpurposesoftheexchangeiiDonotmakeyourcontributionmoreinformativethanisrequired194.3ThemaximofRelationMakeyourcontributionrelevant.204.4ThemaximofMannerBeperspicuousandspecificallyiavoidobscurityofexpression.iiavoidambiguity.iiibebriefivbeorderly.21

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