会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:38.17KB   全文页数:19页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc

语言文化论文从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语【Abstract】Euphemism,cosmeticwords,isnotonlyalingualphenomenon,butalsoaculturalandsocialphenomenon.Itislikeamirror,reflectingthevalues,aestheticconceptionsandmoralconceptsinsomeextent.Euphemismplaysanimportantpartinsocialcommunication.Itislikelubethatavoidshurtingtheotherpartysfeeling.Itoilsthehumanrelationshipincommunicationandhelpstosavefaceofcommunicators.Ifpeoplemakefulluseofeuphemism,itcanaccelerateandfacilitatehumancommunication.Thispaperelaboratesonthefeaturesandsocialfunctionsofeuphemism.AnditfocusesontherelationshipsbetweenitspolitefunctionsandPolitenessPrinciple.ThisthesisiscomposedofsixpartswithChapterFourandFiveasitscoreThefirstchapterfocusesontheoriginanddefinitionsofeuphemism.Thesecondchapterdiscussesthefeaturesofeuphemisminmanyways.Thethirdchaptertalksaboutthesocialfunctionsofeuphemismfromtheangleofpragmatics.Thefourthchapterformsthebasisofthewholeresearchbyconnectingeuphemismwithpolitenessandfacesavingtheory.ThefifthchaptercentersoneuphemismandPolitenessPrinciple.Thelastchapterconcludesthewholethesis.AppropriateuseofEnglisheuphemismcancontributealottosuccessfulmessageexchange.【KeyWords】euphemismsocialfunctionsPolitenessPrinciplefacewant【摘要】委婉语是一种语言现象,一种文化现象,更是一种社会现象,在一定程度上,它反映了社会的价值观,审美观和美德观。委婉语在社会交际中发挥着重要作用。日常的约定俗成的委婉语能起润滑剂的作用,通过委婉语,可以避免语言过于直露而给对方造成伤害。它是语言使用中人们用来协调人际关系的有效润滑剂,是保全交际各方面子的重要手段。很多中外学者曾从不同的角度对英语委婉语进行了长期的研究并取得了可喜的成果。本文主要研讨了委婉语的特点,社会功用,并从语用学的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用,礼貌原则及面子问题。本文分为六个部分。第四和第五章是文章的重点。第一章主要探讨了委婉语的定义及起源。第二章从很多方面概括了委婉语的特点。第三章从语用的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用。第四章把委婉语与礼貌,面子保全论联系在一起,是本文的核心。第五章侧重于委婉语貌与礼貌原则的关系。本文的实践意义在于其分析结论有助于保证信息传递的顺利进行并促进人们的日常交流。【关键词】委婉语社会功用礼貌原则面子1.IntroductionThereisahumorOnceaParistouristresidedinUK.Alandladytoldhimsadlythat,Myhusbandhasjustpassedtotheotherside.Theguestlookedfromthefenceofthegardenbutsawnoone,feelingconfused.ThelandladyexplainedImeanheskickedthebucket.TheguestcomfortedherthatIhopehisfootwillbebettersoon.ThelandladyfeltunintelligiblyandsaidNo,hewasnthere,hesnuffedityouknow.TheguestwonderedandsaidButyouvegotelectricityhere.Thereasonswhytheguestdidntanswerproperlyarethathedidntrealizethatthelandladyusedeuphemism,nordidheunderstandtheconversationalimplicatureofeuphemism.Whatthelandladywantedtosayisthatherhusbanddied.ThewordeuphemismcomesfromtheGreekwordeuphemos,meaningauspicious/good/fortunatespeechwhichinturnisderivedfromtheGreekrootwordseu,good/wellpheme,speech/speaking.TheeuphemewasoriginallyawordorphraseusedinplaceofareligiouswordorphrasethatshouldnotbespokenaloudSuchastaboo.Theprimaryexamplesoftaboowordsrequiringtheuseofaeuphemismaretheunspeakablenamesforadeity,suchasPersephone,Hecate,NemesisorYahweh.Byspeakingonlywordsfavorabletothegodsorspirits,thespeakerattemptedtoproducegoodfortunebyremainingingoodfavorwiththem.EuphemismisdefinedintheNewEditionoftheOxfordConciseDictionary1976asSubstitutionofmildorvagueorroundaboutexpressionforharshordirectoneexpressionthussubstituted.INWebstersNewCollegiateDictionary1973thedefinitionreads,Substitutionofanagreeableorinoffensiveexpressionforonethatmayoffendorsuggestsomethingunpleasant.1EuphemismisanimportantrhetoricalmeansinEnglish.Itplaysanimportantroleinpeoplesdailycommunication.Itisnotonlyaculturalphenomenon,butalsoasocialphenomenon.Itjustlikesamirror,whichreflectssomesocialandpsychologicalphenomena.2.Featuresofeuphemism2.1IndirectandimplicitThemostimportantcharacterofeuphemismisindirectandimplicit.Euphemismalwaysgivespeoplehintsinaroundaboutway.Wecaninferthedeepermeaningandintentionfromthecontext.Forexample,whensomeoneisill,wealwayssayheisundertheweather.Ifsomeoneismad,wesayheissoftinmind.2.2UniversalityUniversalityissomethingthatiswellknownandacceptedbyallofthepeople.Thougheuphemismisindirectanditdoesntcomestraighttothepoint,peoplecaneasilyinferitsdeeperimplication.Sometaboosconnectedwithsex,death,orbodyfunctionsarereplacedbyeuphemisms.Andthepublichasacceptedthiskindofuse.Forexample,whenwerefertodeath,weseldomsaydie.Weusetheexpressionpassaway.2.3ThefeatureoftimesThechangesoflanguagedependontheneedandchangesofthesociety.Andeuphemismundergoesaprocessofmetabolism.Itbearsamarkedbrandoftimes.Forexample,Sheispregnanthasmanydifferenteuphemisticexpressionsindifferenteras.1Shehascanceledallhersocialengagements.18562Sheisinaninterestingcondition.18803Sheisinadelicatecondition.18954Sheisknittinglittlebootees.19105Sheisinafamilyway.19206Sheisexpecting.19357Sheispregnant.19562Butafter1960s,euphemismsofpregnantdevelopslowlybecauseinmoderntimes,peoplearenotsoimplicit.Theyalwaysmentionthingsdirectly.Andnow,thephenomenonofpregnantisacheerfulthing.Peoplewillnotbeshywhenmentioningit.Thewordgay,atfirst,itmeanshappyandhomosexuality.Butaseuphemismdevelops,thewordgayonlyremindsusthemeaningofhomosexuality.Thus,peopledontusetheexpressionWeareyoungandgay.32.4RegionalfeatureIneuphemism,therearesomeregionaldifferences.AnAustralianwomanmarriedtoanAmericanman.TheyspenttheirhoneymooninAmerica.Andoneday,thecoupleintendedtogotoapartytogether.Butthebridegroomcouldntfindasuitablefulldress.ThebridetookoutabirthdaysuitthatshegavehimasapresentfewdaysagoandsaidWhynotwearyourbirthdaysuitHowever,thewholefamilyallastonishedbecauseinAmericanEnglish,inonesbirthdaysuit4istheeuphemisticexpressionofnaked.Sothisembarrassingsituationresultedfromtheregionaldifferencesineuphemism.Therearetwocausesofregionaldifferences.Firstisaregionalculturaldifference.Indifferentregions,theculturetherewilleffectthedevelopmentofeuphemism.Forexample,gotow.c..IntheBalliolcollegeofOxfordUniversity,studentscallgototoiletastovisitLadyPeriam5becausethetoiletsofthatcollegewerebuiltonthelanddonatedbyLadyPeriam.Ofcourse,Americanswillnotagreewiththisexpression.Secondisthedifferenceofgeographicenvironment.Forexample,inseaside,deathwouldbeconnectedwithseaandtide.Theymayusegowiththetidetoexpressdie.Onthecontrary,inAmericanwestmountainareas,theeuphemismfordieisgoneovertherangeortocrosstheGreatDivide.Thesearethetypicalregionaleuphemisms.62.5DiversityoflingualregionSomeonethinksthatonlyupperandmiddleclassuseeuphemism.Butthisconclusionistooabsolute.Wecananalyzethisinthreeaspects.2.5.1DifferencesofgenderorageAstudyshowsthatfemaleusemoreeuphemismsthanmaledo.ThereisasayinginEnglishhorsesweatmenperspireyoungladiesglow.Brock,197373Womenuseobscurewordtoexpresstheactionofsweat.Andthedifferenceofgenderandageusuallyinfluencethechoiceofthesynonymsofeuphemism.Forinstance,thereareavarietyofexpressionsaboutgototoilet.Menusetheexpressiontoshootalion.Adultsmaysaytogotow.c..Andchildrensaytogotothepot.72.5.2DifferenceofprofessionoridentityEuphemismchangeswhiletheprofessionandidentitychange.Thisisasynchronyvariation.Theworddiecanbeusedinmanydifferentways.Inmilitary,peopleusetheexpressiontolosenumberofonesmess.ThisexpressionorientsfromthemesssystemofUKnavy.However,inthepress,peopleoftenusethewordthirtybecausetheyusuallymark30intheendofanewsarticle,whichmeansending.82.5.3DifferenceofstyleorcontextStylistically,theworddiehashundredsofeuphemisms.Butindailycommunication,peoplemayusetobegoneortobenomore.Inobituary,peopleusetopassawayortodepart.Italsohassomewittyexpressions,forinstance,topopoffortokickthebucket.Euphemismisrestrictedbythecontext.Forexample,Onthe14thofMarch,ataquartertothreeintheafternoon,thegreatestlivingthinkerceasedtothink.F.Engels,SpeechattheGravesideofKarlMarx9Thisexampleinvolvesthepassingawayofagreatman.Andthephraseceasedtothinkechoesthinker.Thiseuphemismproducesagoodeffect.3.Pragmaticfunctionsofeuphemism3.1TaboofunctionTabooisthemainpsychologicalbasisoftheemergenceofeuphemism.Euphemismistheavoidanceoftheunpleasant,inelegantthings.AfamoussociolinguistMr.ChenYuanoncesaidGenerallyspeaking,thecomingintobeingofeuphemismallbeginsfromtaboo.Fromtheoriginofeuphemism,wecanseethattabooisthefirstfunctionofeuphemism.Euphemismhasbeenusingforalongtime,anditiscloselyrelatedtotaboo.Infact,euphemismdatesbacktothelanguagetaboointheearlyperiodofhumancivilization.Whenpeopletrytoavoidandgiveuptaboowords,theyhavetofindanotherwordtoreplacethisvacancyatthesametime.Hence,peoplecreatedeuphemism.10Therearesometaboothings,suchasbirth,death,funeral,sex,nakedness,defecation,andurinate.Iftheyareexpresseddirectly,theyarecalledtaboowordsandthefeelingstheygiveusarevulgar,crudeandharsh,whereasiftheyareexpressedindirectly,theyarecalledeuphemism,andtheimpressionstheymadeonusareelegant,implicitandpolite.Theevadingfunctionofeuphemismalsoworkstoday.Sometaboonotionscannotbeeasilyremovedfrompeoplesmind.Thoughscienceandtechnologyarehighlydevelopedtoday,theworddeathisthetaboowordstoallnations.Thustherearealotofeuphemismsrelatedwithit.Suchaspassaway,answerthefinalcall,beasleepinJesus,besafeinthearmsofJesus,beatrest,becalledtoGod,behomeandfree,beinAbrahamsbosom,crosstheRiverJordan,finalsleep,gohome,gotomeetonesmaker,gotoonesownplace,joinonesancestors,jointhegreatmajority,returntodust,withGod,benolongerwithus,paythedebtofnature,tickthebucket,etc.11Amongthose,onewayticketisthesynonymofdie.Itreflectsthespeakersexperienceoflife.Lifeisjustliketravel.Peoplesetouttotravel,butwhentheyarrivetothetermination,theycannotgoback.Inthepast,peopleoftenusedgraveyardtoexpresstheplacewherethedeadsleeppeacefully.Buttheassociationsitgivesusarehorrifiedandgloomy.Sonow,peopleusefuneralhomeandmemorialparktoreplacethem.Insuchaway,itcomfortspeople.123.2PolitefunctionPolitefunctionofeuphemismistoavoidinelegantthingsandmakepeoplefeelpleasant.AsJoannaChannellputinherbookVagueLanguageVaguenessisusedasonewayofadheringtothepolitenessrulesforaparticularculture,andofnotthreateningface.13Itmeansthatinreallife,whenpeoplemeetwithsomeunpleasantthingsorbehaviors,theyusuallychoosesomevagueexpressionstoavoidmakingboldorhurtingothersfeelingtouseeuphemism.Itisharshtosaysomeoneisdeaf,sopeopleuseauditoryimpairedtoreplaceit.Theysoundmoregracefully.WhenEnglishspeakersrefertotheappearance,theydontusetheworduglyorawful,whichhasstrongderogatorysense.Instead,theyusethewordplainlookingornotpretty.14Westernersaresensitivetoage.Intheiropinion,oldequalstouselessinsomeextent.Inordernottohurtthefeelingandselfesteemoftheold,oldmenarereplacedbyseniorcitizensorseasonedmen.Forthewordseniorhasmanymeanings.Exceptolder,italsomeanshigherinrankorauthority.Andthewordseasonedmeansexperienced.Followingaresomeeuphemismsaboutprofession.15HarshexpressioneuphemismbutcherMeattechnologistChimneyworkerChimneyconsultantfiremanFirefighterGarbagemanSanitationengineerhairdresserHairstylisthousekeeperHouseholdexecutivePressagentPublicrelationcounselorPrisonguardCorrectionalofficer3.3CoveringupfunctionInVaguenessLanguage,Channellstatedcoveringupfunctionasdeliberatelywithholdinginformation.Whatissocalledcoverupmeansnotgivinginformationwhichthespeakerpossessesandwhichcouldbeappropriateinthesituation.16Westernpoliticallifegivesbirthtoeuphemism.Somepoliticiansandnewsmediashavemadegooduseofthevaguenessofeuphemismtocoverupthefactsofsomeeventsforthepurposeofmakingthepolitics,economy,andmilitarymoresteady.Concealingthedarksideofsocietyistoalleviatethesocialcontradictionscausedbysex,violence,poverty,unemployment,andcrime.Therearesomeeuphemismsaboutsocialphenomena.Venerealdiseasehasbeenbeautifiedassocialdisease.Rape,akindofcrime,ismentionedcasuallyasinterferewithprostitutionbecameahighsoundingprofessiontheoldestprofessionintheworld.17Inpoliticiansview,violenceisakindofactionanddismissalisalsolayoff.Peopledontneedtobesurprisedatthesephenomena.Inwesterncountries,politicianscreatesomepoliticaleuphemismstoservetheirpoliticalgoals.Theytrytoconcealthefactsastoeasethetenserelationsbetweenothercountriesandreassureandpacifypublicsantiwaremotions.Forexample,InVietnamWar,Gulfwar,orIraqiwar,anumberofeuphemismsemergedtoglossoverthehorrorandcrueltyofwarandcontemptiblediplomaticmeans.Followingisachartaboutmilitaryeuphemisms.18HorrificexpressionEuphemismairstrikeairoptionbombingandblastingsofteninguptheresistanceciviliancasualtiescollateraldamagedefensecrusheddefenseneutralizedgroundwargroundoperationinvasionpreemptiveactionmissileVehiclenuclearbombnucleardeviceretreatstrategicwithdrawalsuicidalattackonewaymissionwarheadpayloadTherearealsosomeeuphemismsabouteconomy.Peopleusedepressioninsteadofeconomiccrises.ThewordStrikinghasbeenbeautifiedasindustrialaction.19andwhenpeoplementionedslum,theyoftenusesubstandardhousingtoreplaceit.Theeuphemismshereareinthetruesenseofthewordfalse.Theyareusedtocoverupthetruenatureofevents,deceivingthepublicwithnicesoundingandpseudotechnicalwords.203.4InducingfunctionSometimes,peopleuseeuphemismtomaketheirstatementmorepersuasive.Thusthecosmeticwordshaveaspecialcommunicativefunction,whichiscalledinducingfunction.AsChannellhasanalyzedinthediscussionofthecommunicativefunctionsofvaguelanguage

注意事项

本文(语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc)为本站会员(docin)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5