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语言文化论文-广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧.doc

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语言文化论文-广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧.doc

语言文化论文广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧AbstractInmodernsociety,advertisementsinfluenceisuniversal.Punistoaddmoreattraction,beingappliedasakindoffiguresofspeechinadvertisementanddeeplylovedbypeople.Punhasmanyformsofexpressionsuchaspunonpolysemy,homophone,hononymy,parody,illustrationsandwords,grammar,etc.Theadvertisersusebrand,idiom,andphrase,etc,toformpunskillfully.Fromtheaspectofpragmatics,punviolatestheCooperativePrinciplebyGrice.Peopleusuallyviolatethemaximsinfourways.Thearticleanalysespunfromthefourthwaythatthespeakermayfloutamaximthatis,hemayblatantlyfailtofulfillitandtoachievesomepurpose.Theproperuseofpuninadvertisementresultsintheeffectsofhumor,wit,beauty,economy,warning,andevenmakestheproductmorecompetitiveandprofitable,andmakestheadvertisementsweettotheear,andpleaseboththeeyeandmind.Keywordsadvertisementpunpragmaticmaximspragmaticfunction【摘要】当今社会,广告作为一种竞争手段无处不在,而双关语是一种广泛运用于广告创作并深受人们喜爱的修辞格。双关语的表现形式多种多样,可分为一词多义双关,同音异义双关,谐音双关,仿拟双关,插图和文字双关,语法双关等。广告商巧妙地运用品牌、成语、习语等构成双关语以增加宣传效果。但从语用学的角度去分析双关语,它违背了Grice提出的合作原则。合作原则的违反通常有四种情况,而本文主要从第四种进行分析双关语,即说话人公然不执行某一条准则,也就是说话人知道自己违反了一条准则,他还想让听话人知道他违反了一条准则。运用恰当的双关语产生了幽默、风趣、经济和警告的作用,使人享受语言的美,同时帮助厂家在激烈的竞争中立于不拜之地,获得更大收益。【关键词】广告双关语语用原则语用功能1.IntroductionThedefinitionofadvertisementbyAMAAmericanMarketingAssociationAdvertisingisthenonpersonalcommunicationusuallypaidforandusuallypersuasiveinnatureaboutproducts,servicesofideasbyidentifiedsponsorsthroughthevariousmedia.1Itisadevicetoarouseconsumersattentiontoacommodityandinducethemtouseit.Inmodernage,peoplefindthemselvessurroundedbyvariousadvertisementseachday.AnAmericanwriterwriteswefindadvertisementofallkindseverywhere,forexample,glitteringneonsignsontopofhighbuildingsandalongmainstreets,colorfulpicturespaintedonbusespamphletssenttoveryhouse,advertisementjammedbetweenTVprogramsvariousadvertisementglutting,newspaperandradiobroadcastetc.2Facingsomanyadvertisement,howtomaketheadvertisementimpressiveisthemainpurposeoftheadvertisers.Inordertoenhancetheappealofanadvertisement,advertiserspaymuchattentionnotonlytosuchexpressivedevicesasplates,colorandthelayoutofaprintedpage,butalsotothechoiceofwordsorphrases,tomakeanadvertisementbeautifulandattractive.InthepracticeoftheadvertisingEnglish,peoplepaymoreattentiontopuntomaketheadvertisementsuccinct,accurateandvividandtoproviderichimaginationandplentifulassociationsforreaderssoastostimulatetheirdesire.ThefrequentandwideuseoffiguresofspeechisanimportantcharacteristicofadvertisingEnglish,whichisaneffectivewaytomaketheadvertisementattractive.Amongthefigures,punisloveddeeply.OxfordAdvancedDictionarydefinespunashumoroususeofawordthathastwomeaningsorofdifferentwordsthatsoundthesame.3Apunalsoknownasparonomasiacanbeunderstoodlikethatitisadeliberateconfusionofsimilarsoundingwordsofphrasesforrhetoricaleffect,whetherhumorousorserious.Itleavesadeepimpressiononreadersbyitsreadability,witandhumor.Itcansatisfytherequirementofadvertisementcharacteristicssellingpower,memoryvalue,attentionvalue,andreadability.Sopunisverypopularinadvertisement.Thearticlejustwantstopresentthepragmaticfunctionandapplicationofpuninadvertisement.2.TypesofpuninadvertisementApunisarhetoricaldeviceinwhichpeopleusethepolysemous,orhomonymousrelationofalanguagetocauseaword,asentenceofadiscoursetoinvolvetwothingsofmeanings.Ithasseveraltypes.2.1PunonPolysemyWhiledifferentwordsmayhavethesameofsimilarmeaning,thesameonewordmayhavemorethanonemeaning.Thisiswhatwecallpolysemy,andsuchawordiscalledpolysemicword.Historicallyspeaking,polysemycanbeunderstoodasthegrowthanddevelopmentoforchangeinthemeaningofwords.4Punonpolysemyisusedwidely,especiallywiththenameoftheproductsuchasthefollowingexamples1Fromsharpminds.Comesharpproducts.5TheexampleisanadvertisementfortheSharpcopier.Thewordsharppraisestheconsumersbrightness,butalsoreferstotheSharpproduct.Theadvertisementpraisestheconsumerswhoaresharptobuytheproductwhichissharp.Thevanityoftheaudiencesisarousedandtheywanttouseittoshowtheirwise,andalsotheybelievetheproductisreallysharp.2Moneydoesntgrowonthetrees.Butitblossomsatourbranches.LioydBank.6ItisthesloganofLioydBank.branchmeanspartofatreegrowingoutfromthetrunk,buthereitimpliesthedivisionofbank.ThesloganencouragespeopletostoretheirmoneyinLioydBank,andtheirmoneywillbelikethebloomingflowers,yieldingbetterfruits.Afterunderstandingitsmeaning,readerswillfigureitoutinmindthattheirmoneywillbecomemoreandmoredailyanddaily,justliketheleavesinspring.2.2PunonHomonymyHomonymyreferstothephenomenonthatwordswithdifferentmeaningshavethesameform,i.e,differentwordsareidenticalinsoundorspelling,orinboth.Whentwowordsareidenticalinsound,theyarehomophones.Whenthewordsareidenticalinspelling,theyarehomographs.Whentwowordsareidenticalinbothspellingandsound,theyarecompletehomonyms.7Thefollowinstanceswillexplainthat3VIPsanatomicalcomfort.VariableImpactPressureSole8TheadvertisementofsportshoesusesthehomophonicwordVIPs.Asweknow,VIPusuallystandsforveryimportantpersons,while,here,itstandsforVariableImpactPressureSole.ItimpliesifyouuseVIPs,youwillbeaVIP.ThewordVIPsmotivatestheaudiencesvanityandinducesthemtobuytheproduct.4Trustus.Over5000earsofexperience.9Itisanadvertisementforaudiphone.Theliteralmeaningisthattheproducthasexperiencedalotoftexts.Whileearsandyearsareapairofhomophone.Soitimpliesthattheproducthasalonghistoryandhashighquality.5GoodbuyWinter100cottonknitwear4010Itisanadvertisementforthesaleofwinterclothes.Theadvertisementseemstopeoplethatitsagoodandcheaptobuycottonknitwear.Butwhentheaudiencesreadgoodbuywintertogether,theywillunderstandthegooduseofpun.Goodbuywintersoundsthesameasgoodbyewinter.Theadvertisementusehomophonetoshowtwomeaningsitisagoodbusinesstobuythecottonknitwearnow,andwinterhaspassedaway.Naturally,peoplewillassociatethesituationhappeningeveryyearthatwhentheysaygoodbyetowinter,theclotheswillhaveagreatdiscountanditisgoodtimetobuythem.6Moresunandairforyoursunandheir.11Theadvertisementisforabathingbeach.Theadvertiseruseshomophoneskilfully,sunvs.son,andairvs.heir.Theadvertiserencouragespeopletobringtheirsonandheirtothebathingbeachtogetsunandairtokeepfit.Eachcouplehopestheirsonandheirwillbehealthyalltheirlife.Punmakestheadvertisinglanguagesoundsweet,fluentandpersuasive.2.3PunonParodyParodyisapieceofspeech,writingofmusicthatimitatesthestyleofanauthor,composer,etcinanamusingandoftenexaggerateway.12Punonparodyusestheoutfitofsaying,apothegm,proverboridiomtoformnewmeanings.Englishhasalotofwellknownphrases,idiomsandsayings.TheyareimportantpartofeverydaylanguagespokenbytheEnglishspeakers,andhavebecomeoneoftheaspectsoftheEnglishculture.Theadvertisementdesignersaresharpmindedandimaginative.Theychangeapartoftheexpressionsandputtheirideasintothemtoachievesensationaleffect.Andmostofthemachievearemarkablesuccess.Thetransformationsarenotonlyeyecatching,butalsoeasytobeacceptedbythecommon,whowilldoaccordingtothetradition.Asthesayingsofidiomshavebeenonepartofthetradition,thepeoplewillbeeasilypersuadedbytheadvertisementworksofthiskind.Sopunonparodyispopularinadvertisement.7AMarsadayhelpsyouwork,restandplay.13ItisthesloganofMarschocolatecompany.Lookingatthisadvertisement,peoplewillassociateitwithtwoidiomsAnappleadaykeepsthedoctorawayandAllworkandnoplaymakesJackadullboy.Fromthemeaningsofthetwoidioms,thewatchwordtellspeoplethataMarschocolateadaywillmakeyounotbeadullboymakeyouwiseandkeepthedoctorawaykeepfit.8Tryoursweetcorn,youllsmilefromeartoear.14Itistakenfromtheadvertisementforakindofsweetcorn.Thewordearhasdoublemeaningstheorganofhearingandtheseed–bearingpartofacereal.Teidiomfromeartoearalsoisapun.Onemeaningisthatpeoplearesatisfiedwiththeproduct.Theotheroneisthattheconsumerseatoneearbyanother.Sotheadvertisementimpliesthatthesweetcornisverydelicious,andyouwillenjoyitandeatingonebyone.Howcanpeoplerefusesuchdeliciousfood9Alliswellthatendswell.15Thisisanidiom,buthere,itistakenfromanadvertisementofacigarette.End,asaverb,meansfinish,while,asanoun,meanscigarettebutt.Thesentencemeansthatifthecigaretteendsaregoodthatthecigaretteisgood.2.4PunonGrammarManyadvertisersusepunproducedforgrammarproblemtoattracttheaudiences,suchasellipsisorwordwithdifferentgrammarfunctions.Ifthistypeofpuncanbeusedproperly,itwillachieveunexpectedeffect.10WhichlagercanclaimtobetrulyGermanThiscan.16ItisanadvertisementforLagerbeer.Canisamodalverb.Butintheadvertisement,acanofbeerbesideitremindspeoplecanhasanothermeaningtin.AlsoLagerreferstothenameofbeer.Withtheillustration,thewholeadvertisementbringsahumorouseffectandimpressestheaudiencesdeeply.TheCocacolacompanyalsousescantodotheiradvertisement.11Cokerefreshesyoulikenoothercan.17Justlikelastexample,canhasdoublemeanings,sothesentencecanbeunderstandlikethatCokerefreshesyoulikenoothercantin,drinkcanrefreshyou.Itimpliestheirproductisthebestone.Ofcourse,peopleliketobuythebestone.2.5PunonIllustrationandWordsAlotofadvertisementassociateswithillustrationsandwordstoachievebettereffect,especiallyonTV,becausepeoplearemoreeasilyattractedbypicturesthanwords.Theillustrationsandwordscanhelppeopletounderstandtheadvertisementfully.Punintheadvertisementmustbeconnectedwithillustrationsandwords,sopeoplecanunderstandtheimpliedmeanings.Forinstances1250OFF.18ItisashopwindowadvertisementofEspiritexclusiveshopinShanghaifrom2001andspringfestival.Theillustrationisapicturewithsixlights,threeonandthreeoff.Fromtheillustration,peopleknowitdoesnotonlymeanahalfofthelightsareoff,butalsomeansthewholesalediscounts50.Theillustrationandwordsarevivid,andattractthepassersbyattentionmoreeasily.13Stopattwo.19ItisthetitleofanpublicserviceadvertisingPSAwhichthePopulationandcommunityDevelopmentAssociationPCDAofThailandusestoadvocatethecoupletohavechildrennomorethantwo.TheillustrationisthephotoofWisternChurchillwhoformedaVletterwithhisforefingerandmiddlefinger.ThegestureVmeansvictory.Sopeoplealsocanunderstandthatitisavictorytohaveonlyonechild.Thispictureisfamous,sopeoplewillrememberiteasily.Toachievethesuccessoftheircountry,peoplemaymoreliketocontrolthepopulation.3.PragmaticanalysisofadvertisementpunFromanalysesabove,peoplecanunderstandthatapunusuallyusesonewordinasentencerelatingtodoublemeanings,surfacemeaningandimplicitmeanings,whichisthemainideathespeakerwantstoconvey.Theadvertisersliketousethedoublemeaningstoproduceambiguity.While,analyzingfrompragmaticmaxims,itbreachesCooperativePrinciple.Justlookatanotherexample14YoullgonutsforthenutsyougetinNux.20Intheadvertisement,gonutsmeansgotobuynuts,hereintheadvertisement,italsomeansgocrazyinthedailyEnglishexpression.AndNuxisthenameoftheproduct.SoitmeansthenutswillmakeyoucrazyifyoubuytheminNux.TheuseofpunviolatestheCooperativePrinciple,butwhatisCooperativePrinciple3.1CooperativePrincipleThetheoryofconversationalimplicaturewasoriginallysuggestedbyHerbertPaulGrice,anOxfordphilosopher,wholaterwenttoAmerica.21HisapproximationisWemightformulateatoughgeneralprinciplewhichparticipantswillbeexpectedtoobservenamelyMakeyourconversationalcontributionsuchasisrequired,atthestageatwhichitoccurs,bytheacceptedpurposeofdirectionofthetalkexchangeinwhichyouareengaged.OnemightlabelthistheCOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLE.22Inordertoexplainfurtherthecooperativeprinciple,abbreviatedasCP,GriceborrowsfromtheGermanphilosopherImmanuelKantfourcategoriesquantity,quality,relationandmanner.Thatis,theCPisspecifiedfromfouraspects.Andthecontentofeachcategoryisknownasmaxim.3.1.2Quantitya.Makeyourcontributionasinformativeasisrequiredforthecurrentpurposeoftheexchangeb.Donotmakeyourcontributionmoreinformativethanisrequired23Thatistosaythequantityoftheinformationyougivemustsuitfortherequirement,noless,nomore.Forinstance,ifyougotobuyonepen,buttheassistantgivesyoutwopens,hebreachestheQuantity.Becauseheshouldgiveonepentoyouthatyouwant.3.1.2Qualitya.Donotsaywhatyoubelievetobefalseb.Donotsaythatforwhichyoulackadequateevidence24Itmeansthatthespeakercanttellliesbutonlycansaythatwhichhasbeenprovedtoberightfact.However,ifthespeakerthinkswhathesaysisright,butinfactitisfalse,hestillobeystheprinciple.Giveyouanexample,ifsomeoneasksyoutogoshoppingwithhim,butyoudontliketo,soyoutellhimthatyouhaveameetingtonight.Atthistime,youviolateQuality,foryouhavetoldliestoyourfriend.3.1.3Relationberelevant25Thatmeanswhatyousaymustberelevant.Forexample,whenyouarehungry,youdontexpectyoupartnergivingyouabook,butacake,becausecakeisrelevanttoyourfeelingatthissituation.3.1.4Mannera.Avoidobscurityofexpressionb.Avoidambiguityc.Bebriefavoidunnecessaryprolixityc.Beorderly26Themaximrequiresthewordsspeakerusedmustbeconciseandwithoutambiguity.Forinstance15AWillyougotoXiamentomorrowBMaybe.Inthecase,BviolatesManner,becausehisanswerisambiguous.Astillcantgettheanswerhewants.AftertheexplanationofCP,abetterunderstandingwillbemadebyreadersonaboveexamples,whichhaveviolatedtheCP.ButwhydotheadvertisersliketousepuntoviolatetheMaximsdeliberatelyTheanswercanalsobegivenbyGrice.3.2ViolationofthemaximsGricethoughtonlybothspeakerandlistenerobeytheprinciple,couldtheirintercoursebeconcordantandharmonic.Whilehealsonoticedthatpeopledidntalwaysobeytheprincipleinsocialactivity,onthecontrary,theybreacheditintentionally.SoGricegivesfourwaystoexplainthefailuretofulfillamaxim.Firstly,hemayquietlyandunostentatiouslyVIOLATEamaximifso,insomecaseshewillbeliabletomislead.Itmeansyouareintentionaltoviolatethemaxim.27ForexampleIfsomeoneinvitesyoutojoininaparty,butyoudontliketo.Avoidingoffencetohim,youmaysay,sorry,IhavepromisedJimtogoshopping.Atthistime,youknow

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