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语言文化论文-广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧.doc

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语言文化论文-广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧.doc

语言文化论文广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧ABSTRACTINMODERNSOCIETY,ADVERTISEMENT’SINFLUENCEISUNIVERSALPUNISTOADDMOREATTRACTION,BEINGAPPLIEDASAKINDOFFIGURESOFSPEECHINADVERTISEMENTANDDEEPLYLOVEDBYPEOPLEPUNHASMANYFORMSOFEXPRESSIONSUCHASPUNONPOLYSEMY,HOMOPHONE,HONONYMY,PARODY,ILLUSTRATIONSANDWORDS,GRAMMAR,ETCTHEADVERTISERSUSEBRAND,IDIOM,ANDPHRASE,ETC,TOFORMPUNSKILLFULLYFROMTHEASPECTOFPRAGMATICS,PUNVIOLATESTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLEBYGRICEPEOPLEUSUALLYVIOLATETHEMAXIMSINFOURWAYSTHEARTICLEANALYSESPUNFROMTHEFOURTHWAYTHATTHESPEAKERMAYFLOUTAMAXIM;THATIS,HEMAYBLATANTLYFAILTOFULFILLITANDTOACHIEVESOMEPURPOSETHEPROPERUSEOFPUNINADVERTISEMENTRESULTSINTHEEFFECTSOFHUMOR,WIT,BEAUTY,ECONOMY,WARNING,ANDEVENMAKESTHEPRODUCTMORECOMPETITIVEANDPROFITABLE,ANDMAKESTHEADVERTISEMENTSWEETTOTHEEAR,ANDPLEASEBOTHTHEEYEANDMINDKEYWORDSADVERTISEMENT;PUN;PRAGMATICMAXIMS;PRAGMATICFUNCTION【摘要】当今社会,广告作为一种竞争手段无处不在,而双关语是一种广泛运用于广告创作并深受人们喜爱的修辞格。双关语的表现形式多种多样,可分为一词多义双关,同音异义双关,谐音双关,仿拟双关,插图和文字双关,语法双关等。广告商巧妙地运用品牌、成语、习语等构成双关语以增加宣传效果。但从语用学的角度去分析双关语,它违背了GRICE提出的合作原则。合作原则的违反通常有四种情况,而本文主要从第四种进行分析双关语,即说话人公然不执行某一条准则,也就是说话人知道自己违反了一条准则,他还想让听话人知道他违反了一条准则。运用恰当的双关语产生了幽默、风趣、经济和警告的作用,使人享受语言的美,同时帮助厂家在激烈的竞争中立于不拜之地,获得更大收益。【关键词】广告;双关语;语用原则;语用功能1INTRODUCTION“THEDEFINITIONOFADVERTISEMENTBYAMAAMERICANMARKETINGASSOCIATIONADVERTISINGISTHENONPERSONALCOMMUNICATIONUSUALLYPAIDFORANDUSUALLYPERSUASIVEINNATUREABOUTPRODUCTS,SERVICESOFIDEASBYIDENTIFIEDSPONSORSTHROUGHTHEVARIOUSMEDIA1ITISADEVICETOAROUSECONSUMERS’ATTENTIONTOACOMMODITYANDINDUCETHEMTOUSEITINMODERNAGE,PEOPLEFINDTHEMSELVESSURROUNDEDBYVARIOUSADVERTISEMENTSEACHDAYANAMERICANWRITERWRITES“WEFINDADVERTISEMENTOFALLKINDSEVERYWHERE,FOREXAMPLE,GLITTERINGNEONSIGNSONTOPOFHIGHBUILDINGSANDALONGMAINSTREETS,COLORFULPICTURESPAINTEDONBUSESPAMPHLETSSENTTOVERYHOUSE,ADVERTISEMENTJAMMEDBETWEENTVPROGRAMSVARIOUSADVERTISEMENTGLUTTING,NEWSPAPERANDRADIOBROADCAST;ETC”2FACINGSOMANYADVERTISEMENT,HOWTOMAKETHEADVERTISEMENTIMPRESSIVEISTHEMAINPURPOSEOFTHEADVERTISERSINORDERTOENHANCETHEAPPEALOFANADVERTISEMENT,ADVERTISERSPAYMUCHATTENTIONNOTONLYTOSUCHEXPRESSIVEDEVICESASPLATES,COLORANDTHELAYOUTOFAPRINTEDPAGE,BUTALSOTOTHECHOICEOFWORDSORPHRASES,TOMAKEANADVERTISEMENTBEAUTIFULANDATTRACTIVEINTHEPRACTICEOFTHEADVERTISINGENGLISH,PEOPLEPAYMOREATTENTIONTOPUNTOMAKETHEADVERTISEMENTSUCCINCT,ACCURATEANDVIVIDANDTOPROVIDERICHIMAGINATIONANDPLENTIFULASSOCIATIONSFORREADERSSOASTOSTIMULATETHEIRDESIRETHEFREQUENTANDWIDEUSEOFFIGURESOFSPEECHISANIMPORTANTCHARACTERISTICOFADVERTISINGENGLISH,WHICHISANEFFECTIVEWAYTOMAKETHEADVERTISEMENTATTRACTIVEAMONGTHEFIGURES,PUNISLOVEDDEEPLYOXFORDADVANCEDDICTIONARYDEFINESPUNAS“HUMOROUSUSEOFAWORDTHATHASTWOMEANINGSOROFDIFFERENTWORDSTHATSOUNDTHESAME”3APUNALSOKNOWNASPARONOMASIACANBEUNDERSTOODLIKETHATITISADELIBERATECONFUSIONOFSIMILARSOUNDINGWORDSOFPHRASESFORRHETORICALEFFECT,WHETHERHUMOROUSORSERIOUSITLEAVESADEEPIMPRESSIONONREADERSBYITSREADABILITY,WITANDHUMORITCANSATISFYTHEREQUIREMENTOFADVERTISEMENTCHARACTERISTICSSELLINGPOWER,MEMORYVALUE,ATTENTIONVALUE,ANDREADABILITYSOPUNISVERYPOPULARINADVERTISEMENTTHEARTICLEJUSTWANTSTOPRESENTTHEPRAGMATICFUNCTIONANDAPPLICATIONOFPUNINADVERTISEMENT2TYPESOFPUNINADVERTISEMENTAPUNISARHETORICALDEVICEINWHICHPEOPLEUSETHEPOLYSEMOUS,ORHOMONYMOUSRELATIONOFALANGUAGETOCAUSEAWORD,ASENTENCEOFADISCOURSETOINVOLVETWOTHINGSOFMEANINGSITHASSEVERALTYPES21PUNONPOLYSEMY“WHILEDIFFERENTWORDSMAYHAVETHESAMEOFSIMILARMEANING,THESAMEONEWORDMAYHAVEMORETHANONEMEANINGTHISISWHATWECALLPOLYSEMY,ANDSUCHAWORDISCALLEDPOLYSEMICWORDHISTORICALLYSPEAKING,POLYSEMYCANBEUNDERSTOODASTHEGROWTHANDDEVELOPMENTOFORCHANGEINTHEMEANINGOFWORDS”4PUNONPOLYSEMYISUSEDWIDELY,ESPECIALLYWITHTHENAMEOFTHEPRODUCTSUCHASTHEFOLLOWINGEXAMPLES1“FROMSHARPMINDSCOMESHARPPRODUCTS”5THEEXAMPLEISANADVERTISEMENTFORTHESHARPCOPIERTHEWORD“SHARP”PRAISESTHECONSUMERS’BRIGHTNESS,BUTALSOREFERSTOTHESHARPPRODUCTTHEADVERTISEMENTPRAISESTHECONSUMERSWHOARESHARPTOBUYTHEPRODUCTWHICHISSHARPTHEVANITYOFTHEAUDIENCESISAROUSEDANDTHEYWANTTOUSEITTOSHOWTHEIRWISE,ANDALSOTHEYBELIEVETHEPRODUCTISREALLYSHARP2“MONEYDOESN’TGROWONTHETREESBUTITBLOSSOMSATOURBRANCHESLIOYDBANK”6ITISTHESLOGANOFLIOYDBANK“BRANCH”MEANS“PARTOFATREEGROWINGOUTFROMTHETRUNK”,BUTHEREITIMPLIESTHEDIVISIONOFBANK”THESLOGANENCOURAGESPEOPLETOSTORETHEIRMONEYINLIOYDBANK,ANDTHEIRMONEYWILLBELIKETHEBLOOMINGFLOWERS,YIELDINGBETTERFRUITSAFTERUNDERSTANDINGITSMEANING,READERSWILLFIGUREITOUTINMINDTHATTHEIRMONEYWILLBECOMEMOREANDMOREDAILYANDDAILY,JUSTLIKETHELEAVESINSPRING22PUNONHOMONYMY“HOMONYMYREFERSTOTHEPHENOMENONTHATWORDSWITHDIFFERENTMEANINGSHAVETHESAMEFORM,IE,DIFFERENTWORDSAREIDENTICALINSOUNDORSPELLING,ORINBOTHWHENTWOWORDSAREIDENTICALINSOUND,THEYAREHOMOPHONESWHENTHEWORDSAREIDENTICALINSPELLING,THEYAREHOMOGRAPHSWHENTWOWORDSAREIDENTICALINBOTHSPELLINGANDSOUND,THEYARECOMPLETEHOMONYMS”7THEFOLLOWINSTANCESWILLEXPLAINTHAT3“‘VIPS’ANATOMICALCOMFORTVARIABLEIMPACTPRESSURESOLE”8THEADVERTISEMENTOFSPORTSHOESUSESTHEHOMOPHONICWORD“VIPS”ASWEKNOW,VIPUSUALLYSTANDSFOR“VERYIMPORTANTPERSONS”,WHILE,HERE,ITSTANDSFOR“VARIABLEIMPACTPRESSURESOLE”ITIMPLIESIFYOUUSEVIPS,YOUWILLBEAVIPTHEWORD“VIPS’MOTIVATESTHEAUDIENCES’VANITYANDINDUCESTHEMTOBUYTHEPRODUCT4“TRUSTUSOVER5000EARSOFEXPERIENCE”9ITISANADVERTISEMENTFORAUDIPHONETHELITERALMEANINGISTHATTHEPRODUCTHASEXPERIENCEDALOTOFTEXTSWHILE“EARS”AND“YEARS”AREAPAIROFHOMOPHONESOITIMPLIESTHATTHEPRODUCTHASALONGHISTORYANDHASHIGHQUALITY5“GOODBUYWINTER100COTTONKNITWEAR40”10ITISANADVERTISEMENTFORTHESALEOFWINTERCLOTHESTHEADVERTISEMENTSEEMSTOPEOPLETHATITSAGOODANDCHEAPTOBUYCOTTONKNITWEARBUTWHENTHEAUDIENCESREAD“GOODBUYWINTER”TOGETHER,THEYWILLUNDERSTANDTHEGOODUSEOFPUN“GOODBUYWINTER”SOUNDSTHESAMEAS“GOODBYEWINTER”THEADVERTISEMENTUSEHOMOPHONETOSHOWTWOMEANINGSITISAGOODBUSINESSTOBUYTHECOTTONKNITWEARNOW,ANDWINTERHASPASSEDAWAYNATURALLY,PEOPLEWILLASSOCIATETHESITUATIONHAPPENINGEVERYYEARTHATWHENTHEYSAYGOODBYETOWINTER,THECLOTHESWILLHAVEAGREATDISCOUNTANDITISGOODTIMETOBUYTHEM6“MORESUNANDAIRFORYOURSUNANDHEIR”11THEADVERTISEMENTISFORABATHINGBEACHTHEADVERTISERUSESHOMOPHONESKILFULLY,SUNVSSON,ANDAIRVSHEIRTHEADVERTISERENCOURAGESPEOPLETOBRINGTHEIRSONANDHEIRTOTHEBATHINGBEACHTOGETSUNANDAIRTOKEEPFITEACHCOUPLEHOPESTHEIRSONANDHEIRWILLBEHEALTHYALLTHEIRLIFEPUNMAKESTHEADVERTISINGLANGUAGESOUNDSWEET,FLUENTANDPERSUASIVE23PUNONPARODY“PARODYISAPIECEOFSPEECH,WRITINGOFMUSICTHATIMITATESTHESTYLEOFANAUTHOR,COMPOSER,ETCINANAMUSINGANDOFTENEXAGGERATEWAY”12PUNONPARODYUSESTHEOUTFITOFSAYING,APOTHEGM,PROVERBORIDIOMTOFORMNEWMEANINGSENGLISHHASALOTOFWELLKNOWNPHRASES,IDIOMSANDSAYINGSTHEYAREIMPORTANTPARTOFEVERYDAYLANGUAGESPOKENBYTHEENGLISHSPEAKERS,ANDHAVEBECOMEONEOFTHEASPECTSOFTHEENGLISHCULTURETHEADVERTISEMENTDESIGNERSARESHARPMINDEDANDIMAGINATIVETHEYCHANGEAPARTOFTHEEXPRESSIONSANDPUTTHEIRIDEASINTOTHEMTOACHIEVESENSATIONALEFFECTANDMOSTOFTHEMACHIEVEAREMARKABLESUCCESSTHETRANSFORMATIONSARENOTONLYEYECATCHING,BUTALSOEASYTOBEACCEPTEDBYTHECOMMON,WHOWILLDOACCORDINGTOTHETRADITIONASTHESAYINGSOFIDIOMSHAVEBEENONEPARTOFTHETRADITION,THEPEOPLEWILLBEEASILYPERSUADEDBYTHEADVERTISEMENTWORKSOFTHISKINDSOPUNONPARODYISPOPULARINADVERTISEMENT7“AMARSADAYHELPSYOUWORK,RESTANDPLAY”13ITISTHESLOGANOFMARSCHOCOLATECOMPANYLOOKINGATTHISADVERTISEMENT,PEOPLEWILLASSOCIATEITWITHTWOIDIOMS“ANAPPLEADAYKEEPSTHEDOCTORAWAY”AND“ALLWORKANDNOPLAYMAKESJACKADULLBOY”FROMTHEMEANINGSOFTHETWOIDIOMS,THEWATCHWORDTELLSPEOPLETHATAMARS’CHOCOLATEADAYWILLMAKEYOUNOTBEADULLBOYMAKEYOUWISEANDKEEPTHEDOCTORAWAYKEEPFIT8“TRYOURSWEETCORN,YOU’LLSMILEFROMEARTOEAR”14ITISTAKENFROMTHEADVERTISEMENTFORAKINDOFSWEETCORNTHEWORD“EAR”HASDOUBLEMEANINGSTHEORGANOFHEARINGANDTHESEED–BEARINGPARTOFACEREALTEIDIOM“FROMEARTOEAR”ALSOISAPUNONEMEANINGISTHATPEOPLEARESATISFIEDWITHTHEPRODUCTTHEOTHERONEISTHATTHECONSUMERSEATONEEARBYANOTHERSOTHEADVERTISEMENTIMPLIESTHATTHESWEETCORNISVERYDELICIOUS,ANDYOUWILLENJOYITANDEATINGONEBYONEHOWCANPEOPLEREFUSESUCHDELICIOUSFOOD9“ALLISWELLTHATENDSWELL”15THISISANIDIOM,BUTHERE,ITISTAKENFROMANADVERTISEMENTOFACIGARETTE“END”,ASAVERB,MEANS“FINISH”,WHILE,ASANOUN,MEANS“CIGARETTEBUTT”THESENTENCEMEANSTHATIFTHECIGARETTEENDSAREGOODTHATTHECIGARETTEISGOOD24PUNONGRAMMARMANYADVERTISERSUSEPUNPRODUCEDFORGRAMMARPROBLEMTOATTRACTTHEAUDIENCES,SUCHASELLIPSISORWORDWITHDIFFERENTGRAMMARFUNCTIONSIFTHISTYPEOFPUNCANBEUSEDPROPERLY,ITWILLACHIEVEUNEXPECTEDEFFECT10“WHICHLAGERCANCLAIMTOBETRULYGERMANTHISCAN”16ITISANADVERTISEMENTFORLAGERBEER“CAN”ISAMODALVERBBUTINTHEADVERTISEMENT,ACANOFBEERBESIDEITREMINDSPEOPLE“CAN”HASANOTHERMEANINGTINALSO“LAGER”REFERSTOTHENAMEOFBEERWITHTHEILLUSTRATION,THEWHOLEADVERTISEMENTBRINGSAHUMOROUSEFFECTANDIMPRESSESTHEAUDIENCESDEEPLYTHECOCACOLACOMPANYALSOUSES“CAN”TODOTHEIRADVERTISEMENT11“COKEREFRESHESYOULIKENOOTHERCAN”17JUSTLIKELASTEXAMPLE,“CAN”HASDOUBLEMEANINGS,SOTHESENTENCECANBEUNDERSTANDLIKETHATCOKEREFRESHESYOULIKENOOTHERCAN;TIN,DRINKCANREFRESHYOUITIMPLIESTHEIRPRODUCTISTHEBESTONEOFCOURSE,PEOPLELIKETOBUYTHEBESTONE25PUNONILLUSTRATIONANDWORDSALOTOFADVERTISEMENTASSOCIATESWITHILLUSTRATIONSANDWORDSTOACHIEVEBETTEREFFECT,ESPECIALLYONTV,BECAUSEPEOPLEAREMOREEASILYATTRACTEDBYPICTURESTHANWORDSTHEILLUSTRATIONSANDWORDSCANHELPPEOPLETOUNDERSTANDTHEADVERTISEMENTFULLYPUNINTHEADVERTISEMENTMUSTBECONNECTEDWITHILLUSTRATIONSANDWORDS,SOPEOPLECANUNDERSTANDTHEIMPLIEDMEANINGSFORINSTANCES12“50OFF”18ITISASHOPWINDOWADVERTISEMENTOFESPIRITEXCLUSIVESHOPINSHANGHAIFROM2001ANDSPRINGFESTIVALTHEILLUSTRATIONISAPICTUREWITHSIXLIGHTS,THREEONANDTHREEOFFFROMTHEILLUSTRATION,PEOPLEKNOWITDOESNOTONLYMEANAHALFOFTHELIGHTSAREOFF,BUTALSOMEANSTHEWHOLESALEDISCOUNTS50THEILLUSTRATIONANDWORDSAREVIVID,ANDATTRACTTHEPASSERSBY’ATTENTIONMOREEASILY13“STOPATTWO”19ITISTHETITLEOFANPUBLICSERVICEADVERTISINGPSAWHICHTHEPOPULATIONANDCOMMUNITYDEVELOPMENTASSOCIATIONPCDAOFTHAILANDUSESTOADVOCATETHECOUPLETOHAVECHILDRENNOMORETHANTWOTHEILLUSTRATIONISTHEPHOTOOFWISTERNCHURCHILLWHOFORMEDA“V”LETTERWITHHISFOREFINGERANDMIDDLEFINGERTHEGESTURE“V”MEANSVICTORYSOPEOPLEALSOCANUNDERSTANDTHATITISAVICTORYTOHAVEONLYONECHILDTHISPICTUREISFAMOUS,SOPEOPLEWILLREMEMBERITEASILYTOACHIEVETHESUCCESSOFTHEIRCOUNTRY,PEOPLEMAYMORELIKETOCONTROLTHEPOPULATION3PRAGMATICANALYSISOFADVERTISEMENTPUNFROMANALYSESABOVE,PEOPLECANUNDERSTANDTHATAPUNUSUALLYUSESONEWORDINASENTENCERELATINGTODOUBLEMEANINGS,SURFACEMEANINGANDIMPLICITMEANINGS,WHICHISTHEMAINIDEATHESPEAKERWANTS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