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语言文化论文-广告英语中的模糊现象分析.doc

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语言文化论文-广告英语中的模糊现象分析.doc

语言文化论文广告英语中的模糊现象分析ABSTRACTADVERTISINGMAYBEDESCRIBEDASTHESCIENCEOFARRESTINGTHEHUMANINTELLIGENCELONGENOUGHTOGETMONEYFROMITITISTHUSCLEARTHATADVERTISINGHASPLAYEDADECISIVEROLEINTODAY’SBUSINESSWORLDTHEISSUEOFWHETHERADVERTISINGLANGUAGESAREATTRACTIVEANDPERSUASIVEORNOTHASBECAMETHEPOINTOFATTENTIONSOTHOROUGHANDTHEORETICALSTUDIESONLANGUAGEFEATURESOFENGLISHADVERTISINGHELPSIMPROVEBOTHTHEUNDERSTANDINGANDDESIGNINGOFSUCCESSFULADVERTISEMENTSAFTERABRIEFINTRODUCTIONTOADVERTISING,ADVERTISINGLANGUAGE,FUZZINESSANDFUZZYLINGUISTICS,THETHESISISFOCUSEDONTHELINGUISTICREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSINADVERTISINGENGLISHFROMTHEFOLLOWINGTWOPERSPECTIVESTHESEMANTICREALIZATIONANDRHETORICALDEVICESINTHESEMANTICANALYSIS,FUZZYQUALIFIERS,NUMERICALFUZZYQUANTIFIERS,FUZZYVERBS,DESCRIPTIVEADJECTIVESANDSYMBOLSANDABBREVIATIONSAREANALYZEDTOREVEALFUZZYNATURETHATAREUSEDBYADVERTISERSTOACHIEVETHEIRPERSUASIVEENDSWHILEINTHERHETORICALDEVICES,PUNNING,METAPHORS,ANDEUPHEMISMWHICHMAKELANGUAGEMOREVIVIDANDCREATEMOREBOUNDLESSASSOCIATIONANDIMAGINATIONAREDISCUSSEDTHENTHETHESISCONCLUDESWITHABRIEFSUMMARYOFTHEARTICLEANDPOINTSOUTTHELIMITATIONSOFTHESTUDYKEYWORDSADVERTISINGENGLISH;FUZZINESS;SEMANTICANDRHETORICALANALYSIS【摘要】广告业被认为是一条通过耗尽人类智慧赚取钱财的科学之道。很明显,广告在今天的商业世界已发挥着举足轻重的作用。广告语言能否具有诱惑力和说服力已成为关注的焦点。因此对英语广告语言系统、全面地研究,可以提高对广告的理解,构想出成功的英语广告。论文在简短地对广告,广告语言,模糊性和模糊理论进行介绍之后,主要对以下两种模糊实现形式进行分析。一、语义模糊。这一类广告通过使用模糊限制词、模糊数量词、模糊动词、修饰性形容词以及符号和缩略语等具备模糊性的语言来突破日常行为的规范,使词语在表达字面意义的同时又暗示其多重含义,形成词语含义的未定性,激发了读者的联想和想象,吸引他们的注意并提起他们的兴趣,从而对广告本身的说服力起增强作用。二、修辞格(双关、暗喻、委婉语)的使用,使广告语言更具生动,引发读者无限的想象和联想。最后结论部分中,论文对主要概念和内容做出了总结,提出了全文的局限性。【关键字】广告英语;模糊性;语义和修辞分析1INTRODUCTIONWITHTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEWORLDECONOMYANDGLOBALIZATION,ADVERTISINGHASPLAYEDAVITALROLEINPROMOTINGSALES,PROVIDINGSERVICESANDBUILDINGIMAGESBASEDONTHEFACTTHATCHINAREMAINSLAGGINGBEHINDTHEWESTINBOTHPHYSICALATTRACTIONANDPERSUASIVENESSINADVERTISING,THOROUGHANDTHEORETICALSTUDIESONTHELANGUAGEOFADVERTISINGHAVEBECOMEANURGENTNEEDINOURDAILYLIFE,FUZZYLANGUAGEHASBEENEMPLOYEDINCOMMUNICATIONONVARIOUSOCCASIONS’NEGOTIATIONANDPUBLICSPEAKINGTHOUGHMANYLINGUISTSHAVEBEENEXPLORINGFUZZYTHEORYANDFUZZYLINGUISTICSHEAVILY,THEUNDERSTANDINGOFFUZZINESSHASN’TBEENSATISFACTORYANDPERFECTASANOTWELLESTABLISHEDREGISTER,ADVERTISINGENGLISHHASITSUNIQUEFEATURESCOMPAREDWITHENGLISHFOROTHERPURPOSESFUZZINESSFUNCTIONINADVERTISINGENGLISHPLAYSAPOSITIVEROLEINHUMANCOMMUNICATIONTHROUGHLINGUISTICREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSINADVERTISINGENGLISHFROMSEMANTICANGLETORHETORICALDEVICESINTHETEXT,THEPURPOSEOFTHEPAPERISTOMAKEPEOPLEEQUIPWITHABETTERMANIPULATIONOFFUZZYADVERTISING,SOASTOPREPARETHEMFORPRODUCINGMORESUCCESSFULADVERTISEMENTS,THENAROUSINGPEOPLE’SINTERESTINADS,STIMULATINGPEOPLE’SNEEDSOFCONSUMPTION,ANDENTICINGPEOPLETOMAKEPURCHASEINPRODUCTS2GENERALIDEASOFADVERTISINGANDITSLANGUAGEWHATISADVERTISINGWHATDOESADVERTISINGORIGINATEFROMWHYDOESITCOMEINTOBEINGWHATISITSLANGUAGELIKETHEFOLLOWINGISGOINGTOEXPLAINTHEM21THEDEFINITIONANDDEVELOPMENTOFADVERTISINGINETYMOLOGICALSTUDIES,THEWORD“ADVERTISE”INMIDDLEENGLISHISSPELTAS“ADVERTISEN”MEANING“TONOTIFY”ANDINOLDFRENCHAS“ADVERTIR”OR“ADVERTISES”WEFINDTWORECORDSHAVETHESAMEEXPLANATIONOF“TONOTICE”FURTHERSTUDIESROOTEDOUTITSORIGININLATINAS“ADVERTERE”,MEANING“AMEANSUSEDTODRAWATTENTIONFROMTHEPUBLICTOSOMETHINGANDLEADTHEMTOSOMEDIRECTION”1NOWADAYS,THESCHOLARSFROMDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESHOLDDIFFERENTOPINIONSABOUTTHEEXPLANATIONOFADVERTISING,BUTREMAININGTHESIMILARMEANINGBASICALLYANEXPLANATIONISWIDELYACCEPTEDBYAMERICANMARKETINGASSOCIATIONASFOLLOWINGADVERTISINGISTHENONPERSONALCOMMUNICATIONOFINFORMATIONUSUALLYPAIDFORANDUSUALLYPERSUASIVEINNATURE,ABOUTPRODUCTS,SERVICESORIDEASTHROUGHTHEVARIOUSMEDIA2ITISNOTDIFFICULTFORUSTOFINDOUTFOURCOMPONENTSOFADVERTISINGFROMTHEEXPLANATIONABOVEFIRST,ADVERTISINGISDIRECTEDTOTHEGENERALPUBLICRATHERTHANINDIVIDUALSSECOND,THEINFORMATIONCONVEYEDBYADVERTISINGCANBECOMMERCIALORNONCOMMERCIALCOMMERCIALADVERTISINGSEEKSPROFITS,WHILENONCOMMERCIALADVERTISINGSPONSOREDBYGOVERNMENTORNONPROFITORGANIZATIONSISUSEDTOPUBLICIZETHEORGANIZATION,SEEKDONATIONSORCALLFORSOMEACTIONSBENEFICIALTOSOCIETYTHIRD,ADVERTISINGREACHESUSTHROUGHACHANNELOFCOMMUNICATIONREFERREDTOASAMEDIUM,SUCHASTV,RADIO,NEWSPAPERS,MAGAZINESANDSOONFOURTH,ANYADVERTISINGISLAUNCHEDBYIDENTIFIEDSPONSORSORORGANIZATIONSWITHAGIVENPURPOSE,EITHERCOMMERCIALADVERTISINGORPUBLICINTERESTSADVERTISINGINDEED,ADVERTISINGISTHERESULTOFHIGHDEGREEOFDEVELOPMENTOFCOMMODITYECONOMYINORDERTOMAKETHEIRGOODSSELLWELL,TRADESMANANDMERCHANTSTRIEDEVERYMEANSTOTRIGGERTHECONSUMERSTOBUYTHEIRPRODUCTSHENRYSAMPSONDESCRIBEDTHEBEGINNINGOFADVERTISINGINHISWORKHISTORYOFADVERTISINGASBELOWTHEREISLITTLEABOUTTHATTHEDESIREAMONGTRADESMENANDMERCHANTSTOMAKEGOODTHEIRWARESHAVEANEXISTENCEALMOSTASLONGASTHECUSTOMSOFBUYINGANDSELLING,ANDITISBUTNATUREDTOSUPPOSETHATADVERTISEMENTSINSOMESHAPEORFORMHAVEEXISTEDNOTONLYFROMTIMEIMMEMORIAL,BUTALMOSTFORALLTIME3UNTILNOW,WITHTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEWORLDECONOMYANDTHEACCELERATIONOFGLOBALIZATIONPROCESS,ADVERTISINGHASPLAYEDAVERYIMPORTANTROLEINTODAY’SBUSINESSWORLDADVERTISING,WITHITSPERSUASIVEFUNCTIONANDTAKINGACTIONFUNCTION,HELPSABUSINESSTOCREATETHEPRODUCTSANDCORPORATEIDENTITIES,NOTONLYREALIZETHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEBUSINESS,BUTALSOINCREASETHEVALUEOFITSGOODWILL,ANDWINTHECONFIDENCEOFTHECONSUMERS22FEATURESOFADVERTISINGLANGUAGESINCETHEADVERTISINGAIMSATDRAWINGATTENTIONFROMTHEPUBLICANDLEADINGTHEMTOSOMEDIRECTION,ANDTHUSTHELANGUAGEOFADVERTISINGISLANGUAGETHATISUSEDINEFFORTSTOPERSUADEOROTHERWISEENTICEPEOPLETOPURCHASEPRODUCTSORSERVICESTOFFLERINHISFUTURESHOCKAPPROACHESTHELANGUAGEOFADVERTISINGASALANGUAGEOFFINELYENGINEERED,RUTHLESSLY,PURPOSEFULMESSAGES,INTENDINGTOTRIGGERASPECIALRESPONSEFROMTHECONSUMERSTHISPOINTOFVIEWISECHOEDBYLINGUISTPETERTRUDGILL,WHOSAID,“THEWORDINGOFADVERTISEMENTSIS,INMOSTCASES,CAREFULLYCRAFTEDTOMEETPARTICULARENDSSOMETIMESITISINTENDEDTOINFORM,BUTMOREOFTEN,ANDMOREIMPORTANTLY,TOPERSUADEANDINFLUENCE”4DAVIDOGILVYALSOSAID,“EVERYWORDINTHECOPYMUSTCOUNT,ADVERTISEWHATISUNIQUE”5INOTHERWORDS,THEULTIMATEGOALOFADVERTISINGISTOSELLTHUS,ADVERTISEMENTSMUSTBEPRESENTEDWITHATYPEOFLANGUAGETHATISPERSUASIVEINNATURE,CONCISE,VIVID,VISUAL,ANDWITHEMOTIONANDAPPEAL,THATIS,THELANGUAGEOFADVERTISINGCONVEYSTHEMOSTCOMPLICATEDMEANINGWITHTHESIMPLESTLANGUAGEANDISLOADEDWITHPERSUASIVEINTENTIONSFORSALESPROMOTIONOROTHERPURPOSESLOOKATANEXAMPLE“ROMANTIC,MYSTERIOUS,ITALIAN”THREEADJECTIVESAREPUTTOGETHER,CONCISEANDSPRIGHTLY,GIVINGEXPRESSIONTODEEPCONNOTATIONANOTHEREXAMPLE“BIGTHRILLS,SMALLBILLS”THISISANADVERTISEMENTSPONSOREDBYTHETAXICENTERANYONEENJOYSTHEEXCITEMENTTOTHELARGESTEXTENTASLONGASPAYINGTHELESSMONEYTHEWORD“BIG”STANDSINTOTALCONTRASTTOTHEWORD“SMALL”,THEENDSYLLABLEOFTHEWORD“THRILLS’AND“BILLS”REMAINSSAME,WHICHCREATESASENSEOFRHYTHMTHECASESBELOWALSOEXPLAINTHEIDEASABOVEWELL1LOOKAGAINALIFETIMEOFPERFECTCOORDINATIONCUSTOMEYESFROMREVLON2LETTHENEWYORKTIMESFINDYOU3THEBENEFITOFFORESIGHT,THEWORLDIN19934SOMUCHFLAVORTHATYOU’LLNEVERMISSYOURHIGH“TARCIGARETTE”63FUZZINESSFROMTHEADVERTISEMENTSINSECTION22,WECANEASILYFINDTHATSOMEUNCLEARANDVAGUEEXPRESSIONSEXISTINTHELANGUAGEOFADVERTISINGANDTHEFOLLOWINGISGOINGTOMAKEABRIEFINTRODUCTIONABOUTFUZZINESSINOURDAILYLIFE,HOWMANYHAIRSMUSTAMANLOSEBEFOREHEISDETERMINEDTOBEBALDHOWMANYSECONDSMAKEUPA“MOMENT”HOWMUCHMONEYDOYOUHAVETOEARNTOBE“RICH”WHENISAPILEOFSANDAHEAPWEALLAGREETHATONEGRAINOFSANDISNOTAHEAPBUTTHATAMILLIONGRAINSISAHEAPSOMEWHEREINBETWEENTHEPILEMUSTCHANGEFROM“NONHEAP”TO“HEAP”THESEINDETERMINATECONCEPTSAREHARDTOLOGICALLYDEFINE,ANDUSUALLYARECHANGED,ASTHEVARIATIONOFTIME,PLACEANDPEOPLEGROUPSFOREXAMPLE,“SHEISAPRETTYGIRL”MAYBEWENEEDNOTTOKNOWHOWBEAUTIFULSHEIS,JUSTINORDERTOCONVEYUSEFULINFORMATION“SHEISPRETTY”THUS,VAGUESTATEMENTSAREPROVIDEDWHEREAMOREPRECISESTATEMENTISCALLEDFORSOMETIMESMOSTIMPORTANTLY,HUMANSSEEMTOBEABLETOCOMMUNICATEQUITEWELLUSINGVAGUETERMSPAULTHEROUSEVERTRENCHANTLYSAID,“LANGUAGEISDECEPTIVE,ANDTHOUGHENGLISHISSUBTLE,ITALSOALLOWSACLEVERPERSONWITHONEALERTTOTHEAMBIGUITIESOFENGLISHTOPLAYTRICKSWITHMOCKPRECISIONANDTOCOMBINEVAGUENESSWITHPOLITENESSENGLISHISPERFECTFORDIPLOMATSANDLOVERS”LAKOFFINHISWORKALSOSAID,“SOMEOFTHEMOSTINTERESTINGJOBISTOMAKETHINGSFUZZIERORLESSFUZZY”7INDEED,ACCURACYANDDETERMINACYOFLANGUAGEOCCURSINTHEEXTREME,WHILEUNCERTAINANDINACCURATELANGUAGEISOFTENFOUNDHEREANDTHEREJUSTBASEDONTHEEXISTENCEOFUNCERTAINOBJECTSANDVAGUEIDEAS,FUZZYLANGUAGECAMEINTOBEINGINSPITEOFTHEUNCLEARNESS,WESELDOMCHALLENGETHESPEAKERTOANEXACTEXPLANATIONOFTHESUBJECTINQUESTIONSINCETHESEEXPRESSIONSAREUNDERSTANDABLEANDCOMMUNICATIVEENOUGHINMOSTCASESTHUS,WECANSAY,THISINTRINSICUNCERTAINTYINNATURALLANGUAGEISCALLEDFUZZINESSORVAGUENESSTHEFOLLOWINGTWODEFINITIONSWILLHELPUSHAVEACLEARMINDOFFUZZINESSMAXBLACKWROTEINHISLANGUAGEANDPHILOSOPHYTHAT“VAGUENESSCONSISTSINTHEEXISTENCEOFOBJECTSCONCERNING,WHICHITISINTRINSICALLYIMPOSSIBLETOSAYEITHERTHESYMBOLINQUESTIONDOES,ORDOESNOT,APPLY”8WHILECRYSTALDEFINESFUZZINESSASATERMDERIVEDFROMMATHEMATICSANDUSEDBYSOMELINGUISTSTOREFERTOTHEINDETERMINACYINVOLVEDINTHEANALYSISOFALINGUISTICUNITORPATTERNFOREXAMPLE,SEVERALLEXICALITEMS,ITISARGUED,AREBESTREGARDEDASREPRESENTINGASEMANTICCATEGORYTHATHASANINVARIANTCOREWITHAVARIABLEOR“FUZZY”BOUNDARY,THISALLOWINGFORFLEXIBILITYOFAPPLICATIONTOAWIDERANGEOFENTITIES,GIVENTHEAPPROPRIATECONTEXT9FORINSTANCE,THEBOUNDARIESOFCUPANDGLASSAREDIFFICULTTOBEDEFINEDINVARIANTCOREWITHAVARIABLEBOUNDARYHADBECOMETHEESSENCEOFFUZZINESSRECOGNIZEDBYMOSTINVESTIGATORSINTHISREGARDTOSUMUP,FUZZINESSCANBEDEFINEDASANINDETERMINACYORUNCERTAINTYOFTHEBORDERLINEOFTHESUBJECTINQUESTIONWHILEFUZZYLINGUISTICSISABRANCHOFLINGUISTICSTHATSTUDIESTHEINTRINSICUNCERTAINTYORVAGUENESSOFTHEBORDERLINEOFTHELINGUISTICUNITSINALANGUAGE4LINGUISTICREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSINADVERTISINGENGLISHHOWDOESTHELANGUAGEFUZZINESSFUNCTIONINTHEADVERTISINGAFTERALLPERHAPSLINGUISTICREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSINADVERTISINGENGLISHCANBEANALYZEDFROMSEMANTICASWELLASSYNTACTICALPERSPECTIVE,TORHETORICALDEVICESOROTHERAREASANDTHISTEXTISFOCUSEDONSEMANTICANDRHETORICALREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSINADVERTISINGENGLISHTHEPURPOSEOFTHISSTUDYOFLANGUAGEFUZZINESSISTORAISETHELEVELOFAWARENESSABOUTTHEPERSUASIVETECHNIQUESEXPRESSEDINTHEAPPLICATIONOFFUZZYLANGUAGEINADS41SEMANTICREALIZATIONSOFFUZZINESSSINCEFUZZINESSISEMBODIEDINMANYASPECTSOFADVERTISING,THEARTICLEWILLFOCUSONTHEVERBALESPECI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