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语言文化论文-广告英语中的模糊现象分析.doc

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语言文化论文-广告英语中的模糊现象分析.doc

语言文化论文广告英语中的模糊现象分析AbstractAdvertisingmaybedescribedasthescienceofarrestingthehumanintelligencelongenoughtogetmoneyfromit.Itisthusclearthatadvertisinghasplayedadecisiveroleintodaysbusinessworld.Theissueofwhetheradvertisinglanguagesareattractiveandpersuasiveornothasbecamethepointofattention.SothoroughandtheoreticalstudiesonlanguagefeaturesofEnglishadvertisinghelpsimproveboththeunderstandinganddesigningofsuccessfuladvertisements.Afterabriefintroductiontoadvertising,advertisinglanguage,fuzzinessandfuzzylinguistics,thethesisisfocusedonthelinguisticrealizationsoffuzzinessinadvertisingEnglishfromthefollowingtwoperspectivesthesemanticrealizationandrhetoricaldevices.Inthesemanticanalysis,fuzzyqualifiers,numericalfuzzyquantifiers,fuzzyverbs,descriptiveadjectivesandsymbolsandabbreviationsareanalyzedtorevealfuzzynaturethatareusedbyadvertiserstoachievetheirpersuasiveends.Whileintherhetoricaldevices,punning,metaphors,andeuphemismwhichmakelanguagemorevividandcreatemoreboundlessassociationandimaginationarediscussed.Thenthethesisconcludeswithabriefsummaryofthearticleandpointsoutthelimitationsofthestudy.KeyWordsadvertisingEnglishfuzzinesssemanticandrhetoricalanalysis【摘要】广告业被认为是一条通过耗尽人类智慧赚取钱财的科学之道。很明显,广告在今天的商业世界已发挥着举足轻重的作用。广告语言能否具有诱惑力和说服力已成为关注的焦点。因此对英语广告语言系统、全面地研究,可以提高对广告的理解,构想出成功的英语广告。论文在简短地对广告,广告语言,模糊性和模糊理论进行介绍之后,主要对以下两种模糊实现形式进行分析。一、语义模糊。这一类广告通过使用模糊限制词、模糊数量词、模糊动词、修饰性形容词以及符号和缩略语等具备模糊性的语言来突破日常行为的规范,使词语在表达字面意义的同时又暗示其多重含义,形成词语含义的未定性,激发了读者的联想和想象,吸引他们的注意并提起他们的兴趣,从而对广告本身的说服力起增强作用。二、修辞格(双关、暗喻、委婉语)的使用,使广告语言更具生动,引发读者无限的想象和联想。最后结论部分中,论文对主要概念和内容做出了总结,提出了全文的局限性。【关键字】广告英语模糊性语义和修辞分析1.IntroductionWiththerapiddevelopmentoftheworldeconomyandglobalization,advertisinghasplayedavitalroleinpromotingsales,providingservicesandbuildingimages.BasedonthefactthatChinaremainslaggingbehindthewestinbothphysicalattractionandpersuasivenessinadvertising,thoroughandtheoreticalstudiesonthelanguageofadvertisinghavebecomeanurgentneed.Inourdailylife,fuzzylanguagehasbeenemployedincommunicationonvariousoccasionsnegotiationandpublicspeaking.Thoughmanylinguistshavebeenexploringfuzzytheoryandfuzzylinguisticsheavily,theunderstandingoffuzzinesshasntbeensatisfactoryandperfect.Asanotwellestablishedregister,advertisingEnglishhasitsuniquefeaturescomparedwithEnglishforotherpurposes.FuzzinessfunctioninadvertisingEnglishplaysapositiveroleinhumancommunication.ThroughlinguisticrealizationsoffuzzinessinadvertisingEnglishfromsemanticangletorhetoricaldevicesinthetext,thepurposeofthepaperistomakepeopleequipwithabettermanipulationoffuzzyadvertising,soastopreparethemforproducingmoresuccessfuladvertisements,thenarousingpeoplesinterestinads,stimulatingpeoplesneedsofconsumption,andenticingpeopletomakepurchaseinproducts.2.GeneralideasofadvertisinganditslanguageWhatisadvertisingWhatdoesadvertisingoriginatefromWhydoesitcomeintobeingWhatisitslanguagelikeThefollowingisgoingtoexplainthem.2.1ThedefinitionanddevelopmentofadvertisingInetymologicalstudies,thewordadvertiseinMiddleEnglishisspeltasadvertisenmeaningtonotifyandinoldFrenchasadvertiroradvertises.Wefindtworecordshavethesameexplanationoftonotice.FurtherstudiesrootedoutitsorigininLatinasadvertere,meaningameansusedtodrawattentionfromthepublictosomethingandleadthemtosomedirection.1Nowadays,thescholarsfromdifferentcountriesholddifferentopinionsabouttheexplanationofadvertising,butremainingthesimilarmeaningbasically.AnexplanationiswidelyacceptedbyAmericanMarketingAssociationasfollowingAdvertisingisthenonpersonalcommunicationofinformationusuallypaidforandusuallypersuasiveinnature,aboutproducts,servicesorideasthroughthevariousmedia.2Itisnotdifficultforustofindoutfourcomponentsofadvertisingfromtheexplanationabove.First,advertisingisdirectedtothegeneralpublicratherthanindividuals.Second,theinformationconveyedbyadvertisingcanbecommercialornoncommercial.Commercialadvertisingseeksprofits,whilenoncommercialadvertisingsponsoredbygovernmentornonprofitorganizationsisusedtopublicizetheorganization,seekdonationsorcallforsomeactionsbeneficialtosociety.Third,advertisingreachesusthroughachannelofcommunicationreferredtoasamedium,suchasTV,radio,newspapers,magazinesandsoon.Fourth,anyadvertisingislaunchedbyidentifiedsponsorsororganizationswithagivenpurpose,eithercommercialadvertisingorpublicinterestsadvertising.Indeed,advertisingistheresultofhighdegreeofdevelopmentofcommodityeconomy.Inordertomaketheirgoodssellwell,tradesmanandmerchantstriedeverymeanstotriggertheconsumerstobuytheirproducts.HenrySampsondescribedthebeginningofadvertisinginhisworkHistoryofAdvertisingasbelowThereislittleaboutthatthedesireamongtradesmenandmerchantstomakegoodtheirwareshaveanexistencealmostaslongasthecustomsofbuyingandselling,anditisbutnaturedtosupposethatadvertisementsinsomeshapeorformhaveexistednotonlyfromtimeimmemorial,butalmostforalltime.3Untilnow,withtherapiddevelopmentoftheworldeconomyandtheaccelerationofglobalizationprocess,advertisinghasplayedaveryimportantroleintodaysbusinessworld.Advertising,withitspersuasivefunctionandtakingactionfunction,helpsabusinesstocreatetheproductsandcorporateidentities,notonlyrealizethedevelopmentofthebusiness,butalsoincreasethevalueofitsgoodwill,andwintheconfidenceoftheconsumers.2.2FeaturesofadvertisinglanguageSincetheadvertisingaimsatdrawingattentionfromthepublicandleadingthemtosomedirection,andthusthelanguageofadvertisingislanguagethatisusedineffortstopersuadeorotherwiseenticepeopletopurchaseproductsorservices.TofflerinhisFutureShockapproachesthelanguageofadvertisingasalanguageoffinelyengineered,ruthlessly,purposefulmessages,intendingtotriggeraspecialresponsefromtheconsumers.ThispointofviewisechoedbylinguistPeterTrudgill,whosaid,Thewordingofadvertisementsis,inmostcases,carefullycraftedtomeetparticularends.Sometimesitisintendedtoinform,butmoreoften,andmoreimportantly,topersuadeandinfluence.4DavidOgilvyalsosaid,Everywordinthecopymustcount,advertisewhatisunique.5Inotherwords,theultimategoalofadvertisingistosell.Thus,advertisementsmustbepresentedwithatypeoflanguagethatispersuasiveinnature,concise,vivid,visual,andwithemotionandappeal,thatis,thelanguageofadvertisingconveysthemostcomplicatedmeaningwiththesimplestlanguageandisloadedwithpersuasiveintentionsforsalespromotionorotherpurposes.LookatanexampleRomantic,Mysterious,Italian.Threeadjectivesareputtogether,conciseandsprightly,givingexpressiontodeepconnotation.AnotherexampleBigthrills,Smallbills.Thisisanadvertisementsponsoredbythetaxicenter.Anyoneenjoystheexcitementtothelargestextentaslongaspayingthelessmoney.Thewordbigstandsintotalcontrasttothewordsmall,theendsyllableofthewordthrillsandbillsremainssame,whichcreatesasenseofrhythm.Thecasesbelowalsoexplaintheideasabovewell.1Lookagain.Alifetimeofperfectcoordination.CUSTOMEYESfromRevlon2LettheNewYorkTimesfindyou.3Thebenefitofforesight,theworldin1993.4Somuchflavorthatyoullnevermissyourhightarcigarette.63.FuzzinessFromtheadvertisementsinsection2.2,wecaneasilyfindthatsomeunclearandvagueexpressionsexistinthelanguageofadvertising.Andthefollowingisgoingtomakeabriefintroductionaboutfuzziness.Inourdailylife,howmanyhairsmustamanlosebeforeheisdeterminedtobebaldHowmanysecondsmakeupamomentHowmuchmoneydoyouhavetoearntoberichWhenisapileofsandaheapWeallagreethatonegrainofsandisnotaheapbutthatamilliongrainsisaheap.Somewhereinbetweenthepilemustchangefromnonheaptoheap.Theseindeterminateconceptsarehardtologicallydefine,andusuallyarechanged,asthevariationoftime,placeandpeoplegroups.Forexample,Sheisaprettygirl.Maybeweneednottoknowhowbeautifulsheis,justinordertoconveyusefulinformationSheispretty.Thus,vaguestatementsareprovidedwhereamoreprecisestatementiscalledforsometimes.Mostimportantly,humansseemtobeabletocommunicatequitewellusingvagueterms.PaulTherousevertrenchantlysaid,Languageisdeceptive,andthoughEnglishissubtle,italsoallowsacleverpersonwithonealerttotheambiguitiesofEnglishtoplaytrickswithmockprecisionandtocombinevaguenesswithpoliteness.Englishisperfectfordiplomatsandlovers.Lakoffinhisworkalsosaid,Someofthemostinterestingjobistomakethingsfuzzierorlessfuzzy.7Indeed,accuracyanddeterminacyoflanguageoccursintheextreme,whileuncertainandinaccuratelanguageisoftenfoundhereandthere.Justbasedontheexistenceofuncertainobjectsandvagueideas,fuzzylanguagecameintobeing.Inspiteoftheunclearness,weseldomchallengethespeakertoanexactexplanationofthesubjectinquestionsincetheseexpressionsareunderstandableandcommunicativeenoughinmostcases.Thus,wecansay,thisintrinsicuncertaintyinnaturallanguageiscalledfuzzinessorvagueness.Thefollowingtwodefinitionswillhelpushaveaclearmindoffuzziness.MaxBlackwroteinhisLanguageandPhilosophythatVaguenessconsistsintheexistenceofobjectsconcerning,whichitisintrinsicallyimpossibletosayeitherthesymbolinquestiondoes,ordoesnot,apply.8WhileCrystaldefinesfuzzinessasatermderivedfrommathematicsandusedbysomelinguiststorefertotheindeterminacyinvolvedintheanalysisofalinguisticunitorpattern.Forexample,severallexicalitems,itisargued,arebestregardedasrepresentingasemanticcategorythathasaninvariantcorewithavariableorfuzzyboundary,thisallowingforflexibilityofapplicationtoawiderangeofentities,giventheappropriatecontext.9Forinstance,theboundariesofcupandglassaredifficulttobedefined.Invariantcorewithavariableboundaryhadbecometheessenceoffuzzinessrecognizedbymostinvestigatorsinthisregard.Tosumup,fuzzinesscanbedefinedasanindeterminacyoruncertaintyoftheborderlineofthesubjectinquestionwhilefuzzylinguisticsisabranchoflinguisticsthatstudiestheintrinsicuncertaintyorvaguenessoftheborderlineofthelinguisticunitsinalanguage.4.LinguisticrealizationsoffuzzinessinadvertisingEnglishHowdoesthelanguagefuzzinessfunctionintheadvertisingafterallPerhapslinguisticrealizationsoffuzzinessinadvertisingEnglishcanbeanalyzedfromsemanticaswellassyntacticalperspective,torhetoricaldevicesorotherareas.AndthistextisfocusedonsemanticandrhetoricalrealizationsoffuzzinessinadvertisingEnglish.Thepurposeofthisstudyoflanguagefuzzinessistoraisethelevelofawarenessaboutthepersuasivetechniquesexpressedintheapplicationoffuzzylanguageinads.4.1SemanticRealizationsofFuzzinessSincefuzzinessisembodiedinmanyaspectsofadvertising,thearticlewillfocusontheverbalespeciallysemanticrealizationoffuzziness,includingfuzzyqualifier,numericalfuzzyquantifiers,fuzzyverbs,descriptiveadjectiveandsymbolsandabbreviations.Thediffusedapplicationoffuzzylanguageinadvertisementisduetoitsconformitywiththesemanticfeaturesofadvertisinglanguage.Advertisementswithfuzzylanguagecaneasilyarouseconsumersinterestandstimulateimaginationandassociationofideas.Hence,fuzzylanguageshortensthedistancebetweenconsumersandadvertisements,andenticespeopletomakepurchase.4.1.1FuzzyqualifiersAmericanLinguistGeorgeLakoffintheearly1970sfirstproposedfuzzyqualifiers,whichreferstosomeindeterminatewords.Itqualifierstheexactdegreeoftheutteranceandrestrictsthepropositioninquestiontoacertainscopemeanwhile,italsoshowsthespeakersdirectandsubjectiveestimationuponthesubjectorindirectandobjectiveattitudesbythethirdparty.10Suchfuzzyqualifiersarefoundinadvertisementshereandthere.Examplesofthiskindarealittle,almost,some,really,moreorless,tosomeextent,about,looselyspeaking,roughly,Isuppose,Ithink,itissaidthat,asiswellknown,etc.Forexample1ThenewNokia8850,averypersonalpleasure.2Chiqueonlysomewomenhaveit.Chique化妆品3Littlewondertheydontbuildcarsliketheyusedto,Buildingapenisdifficultenough.Pike4Extrataste,notextracalories.食品Inexample1,thedegreeadverbialveryisalmostimpossibletomeasuretheexactdegreeofpersonalpleasure.Wecantdrawtheconclusionfromthesurfacemeaning.Example2thewordsomemeansthecosmeticisthepatentofthecreamofthewomen,whichcaterstothepsychologyofthosefashionablewomenwhoupholdnovelty.However,somereferstohowmanypeopleparticipateinpurchase,whichdependsonpeoplesdifferentunderstanding.Andinexample3twowordslittleandenoughrepresentthefinecraftsandunusualthinkingwhichthemanufacturerspentonproducingpens,leavingthereaderssomeroomforimagination.Example4,doubleuseofthewordextra,thedeliciousfoodwithmodestcaloriescantspoilyourfigure.Theinformationconveyedthroughfuzzylanguageaccordswiththeconsumptionconceptofmodernpeople.4.1.2NumericalfuzzyquantifiersAsweknow,thereareanumberofwaysbeingfuzzyaboutquantitiesinEnglish.Inparticular,speakershavetheoptionofeitheraddingsomethingtoaprecisenumberornumbers,orusingaroundnumber,orusingafuzzyquantifier.Whateverwaysthespeakersuse,itallexpressesanuncertainandindeterminatenotion.Whenanumberdoesntrefertoarealnumber,thenitisjustanimaginarynumber.Thisisonephenomenaofsemanticfuzzinessinnumber.Ifnumbersareusedtorefertofuzzymeaning,thenitwillloseitsnumericalmeaning,butrepresentimagerymeaning.11Examplesarepresentedasfollowing1InTaipei11111one.2ThisChristmassurpriseshimwithadozenpresentsayearofGQ.3Thisyearistwenty,andnextyeariseighteen.ThisisthemysteryofBelie.Belie化妆品Example1istheadvertisementinTaipeiWorldTradeCenter.Whyfour1equalsone,butnotfourOriginallytheadvertisementintendstoenticethereadertoreadthebodyquicklyandarousetheirimagination.Theequation11111onerealizestheshiftfromnumbertoimage,makingthereadersconnectfour1withtheCenterofConference,theWorldOffice,theCenterofExhibition,andLuxuryHotelinTaipei.Inexample2,thephraseadozenpresentsdoesntrefertoarealnumber,butanimagerynumber.Andinexample3,thenumberindicatesthefunctionoftheproductsmakespeoplelookyounger.Nowletslookatnonnumericalfuzzyquantifiers.CrystalandDavyinitiatedthisnewconcept.Theiranalysisoflargestretchesofnaturalconversationdatarevealedtheuseofmanynonnumericalfuzzyquantifiers.Englishhasagreatmanywaysofquantifyingwithoutusingnumberofanykind.Forinstanceseveral,lotsof,massesof,bagsof,heapsof,etc.LetstakeanexampleWevehiddenagardenfullofvegetablewhereyoudneverexpect,inapie.食品Thewordfullofattractsthereaderstothelargestextent.Anyonewantstoacquirenutritivefoodfullofkindsofvegetablefromapie.Here,theuseoftheexpressionfullofimpliesboundlessfuzzymeaning.4.1.3FuzzyverbsThereisakindofverbsinadvertisementthatcreatesasenseofintimacy,andmakestheadvertisementsstrikerootintheheartsofthepeople.Especiallyformonosyllabicverbsmake,get,have,come,love,know,etc.Inadditiontoeasilyacceptedbythereader,thesefuzzyverbsareofclearnessanddefinitenessinmeaningexpression.E.g.TakeTOSHIBA,taketheworld.东芝电子12Meanwhile,suchthewordslook,feel,taste,smell,etc.asexpresspeoplessubjectivenotionsandfeelings.Uncertaintyandindeterminacyinnatureleavesthereadersmuchroomforimagination.Forexamples1YoucanfeelthefeatureinPhilipsdesign.家电2GoforitLook,good,feelgood.Beyoubest健康杂志3Icouldntbelieveit,untilItrieditImimpressedYouvegottatryitIloveit微波炉Inexample3,itssimplewordingandcolloquialdesignlettheconsumersfeeltherealityaconsumerwhohasusedtheproductsistalkingabouttheexcellenceofproductsinquality.Aseriesofverbsbelieve,try,impresseasilyinducepeopleproduceastrongurgetomakepurchase.Carl.P.Wright,afamouscopywriter,holdsthatthesewordsnotonlyavoiddirectandbluntexpressionbutalsoinducepeopletofiguretheimplicationsunderlyingthewordsspokenandtoholdthemastrue.Hepointsoutthreetypicalfuzzywordsinads,namely,help,like,virtually.Helpisapopularcatchwordinads,whichmeans,beconducivetobutwhosedefiniteeffectsarenotindicated.ForexampleCheck.UpGUMCheck.up口香糖Carrythisplaguefighteralongtohelpfightplagueafterlunchandbetweenbrushings.Clinicaldatashowsithelpsremoveplague.Whenyou

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