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语言文化论文-广告英语的语言特色.doc

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语言文化论文-广告英语的语言特色.doc

语言文化论文广告英语的语言特色摘要广告,顾名思义就是广而告之。作为一种宣传和传播信息模式,广告的作用不容忽视,因为它不仅只是一种说服顾客进行消费的技巧,更重要的是,它已逐渐成为社会交流的必须手段之一。本文通过对大量英语广告实例进行分析,并参照国外著名广告人GuyCook等的理论,详细剖析了广告英语的语言特点。广告在我们今天的社会几乎是无孔不入,它的传播介质多种多样,包括报纸、杂志、电视、广播、网络等。广告具有鲜明的目的性,即说服顾客进行购买,这种目的性决定了其语言的特色性风格,使其独立于其它文体,在语言学范畴内值得研究。本文选定英语这一全球普遍使用的语言,就其应用于广告领域而产生的一些语言学特点和广告本身的社会性特点进行深入分析,希望能对相关领域的研究有一定的借鉴作用和参考价值。本文共分为五章,第一章追溯了广告的起源,对广告的分类、作用及定义做了简单概要第二章介绍了广告和文体学的基本定义,广告中,文字和图像的完美结合取决于创意和所用媒体,但它们共同组成了广告语言第三章从句法学、修辞学、词汇学等理论切入,用大量例子分析了广告英语的语言特点,并从语篇分析的角度对其语言特点进行了剖析在语篇分析的章节中,引用了GuyCook的语篇分析模型,并引入了广告问题研究领域新近提出的文章关联性等概念第四章结合了第三章的观点,通过具体英语广告实例对标题中的用词、句子结构、称谓模式、修辞格进行了阐述,分析了广告语言对广告效果的影响最后一章指出了广告英语发展的口语化和简单化趋势及其目前存在的模糊性语言特点,揭开了广告华丽词藻下所掩盖的非真实的广告氛围,批判了其模糊性误导消费者的消极一面。关键词广告广告英语语言特点AbstractAsawayofpropagatingandtransmittinginformation,advertisingsroleconnotbeunderestimatedbecauseitisnotonlyanartfultechniqueinpersuadingpeopletobuy,butalsograduallyhasbecomeamustforsocialcommunicationwhichinturninfluencesthedevelopmentofsocietyandeconomy.ThepurposeofthispaperistostudythelinguisticfeaturesandsociologicalfeaturesofadvertisingEnglish,inthehopetohelpcopywritersathomemarketsintheircreatingprocess.Nowadaysadvertisinghaspenetratedintoeverycornerofourlifeasitstransmittingmediainmanyformsnewspaper,magazine,TV,radioaswellasnetwork.Thegoalofadvertisingdecidesitslanguagetobesimpleanddirect,distinctfromthecharacteristicsofotherdiscourses.ThusananalysisonthelinguisticfeaturesofadvertisingEnglishinthelinguisticfieldisworthwhile.Undersuchcircumstances,astudyonthelinguisticfeaturesofadvertisingEnglishwillhavepracticaleffectsonthecomposingandtranslatingworkofthecopywriters.Thewholepaperisdividedintofivechapters.Thefirstchaptertracesbacktheoriginofadvertisingandabriefintroductionontheclassifications,rolesanddefinitionsofadvertisingispresentedforthelaterdiscussion.Thesecondchapterintroducesthetheoryofadvertisementsandstylistics,theprecisebalanceofwordseitherspokenorwrittenandpicturesisdeterminedbythecreativeconceptandthemediumused,butthecombinationofimagesandwordsmakesupthelanguageofadvertising.Thethirdchapterstartsfromthetheoriesinsyntax,lexicology,rhetoricandendswiththelinguisticfeaturesanalyzedinthefieldofdiscourseanalysis.ThefourthchaptercombinestheviewpointsfromthepreviouschapterthirdandexplorestheeffectoftheadvertisingEnglishasawholeadvertisingprocess.Thelastchapter,alsotheconclusionpart,showsthatthoughadvertisinglanguageappearstobefloweryandrefined,itscontentisnobetterthancommonestlanguagecouldconvey.Byexposingthevarioustechniquesadvertisershaveemployedintheirwriting,thisparthopestoremindconsumersthatadvertisingEnglishisgraduallyattainingthenegativeandambiguousroleinguidingpeopletobuy.KeywordsAdvertising,AdvertisingEnglish,LinguisticFeaturesChapter1IntroductionNootherstatementcouldhavesummedupthecharmofadvertisementthanwhatAldousHuxleyhascommented.Ashehassaidadvertisementasaliteraryformisthemostexciting,themostarduousliteraryformofall,andthemostpregnantincuriouspossibilities.Inhiscommentheassertedadvertisementisaliteraryformandthecopywritingprocessisthedelightfulandsalubriousexerciseforthemind.Butallinall,whatisadvertising,andwhatmakesitunique1.1HistoryofAdvertisementAdvertisementemergedfromthewombofcommodityproductionandexchange.Theconditionfortheexistenceofadvertisingisatleastasegmentofthepopulationmustliveabovethesubsistencelevel.Whenthissituationoccursitalsobecomesnecessaryfortheproducersofmateriallyunnecessarygoodstodosomethingtomakepeoplewanttoacquiretheircommodities.VestergaardandSchroder4Theembryonicformofadvertisingintheworldisstreetcries,whichexisteventoday.AdvertisingwasnotunknowninancientGreeceandRome,butadvertisingaswerecognizeitdidnotstartuntiltheseventeenthcenturyintheWest.Itwasataboutthistimethatnewspaperbegantocirculate.Beforethat,itisprintingwhichwasfirstinventedinChinaandthenintroducedtotheWestthatplayedavitalroleintheproductionofprintadvertising.Classifiedsmalladstypesofadvertisingweredominantbeforethenineteenthcenturyandstyleandlanguageusedinadsatthattimetendedtobedirectandinformative.TheindustrialRevolution,whichbeganinEnglandinthemid1700sandreachedtheUnitedStatesbytheearly1800s,facilitatedmassproductionofgoods.Meanwhileadvertisingbecamemoreandmoreimportantintheindustrialmarket.Thegreatbreakthroughforadvertisingcameonlyinthelatenineteenthcentury.Technologyandmassproductiontechniqueswerethensufficientlydevelopedformorefirmstobeabletoturnoutproductsofroughlythesamequalityandatroughlythesameprice.Thisbroughtonacrisisofoverproductionandunderconsumptionwhichmeantthatthemarketneededtobestimulatedbyadvertising.Atthistimeadvertisingchangeditsfunctionfromproclamationtopersuasion.Inthetwentiethcentury,advertisingdevelopedrapidlyalongsidetheadventofnewmediaradioandtelevisioninsuccession.AccordingtoRichardPollayscontentanalysisoftwothousandprintadsfromtenleadingmagazinesintheUSA,adshaveprogressivelyturnedtowardstheemotionalratherthantheinformativeapproachandthereisashiftseeinghumannatureasrationaltoseemingitasemotional.TodayinChina,whileoureconomicstructureisshiftingfromtheentirelyplannedeconomytothesocialistmarketeconomysystem,advertisingisbecomingmoreandmoreactiveandsophisticated.In1992,Chinasadvertisingexpenditurereached862million,amongthefastestgrowingcountriesinAsia.ThisyearwiththeentryofChinaintoWTO,thisexpenditurefigurewillundoubtedlyriseup,whichwillsupporttheviewthatadvertisingisanindispensablemeansforprovidingtheinformationthatallmarketorientedindustrializedsocietiesneedfortheireconomiestofunctionefficiently.1.2ClassificationsofAdvertisingAdvertisingmaybeclassifiedbymediumnewspaper,magazine,radio,television.Bytargetaudienceconsumer,industrial,business,bygeographyinternational,national,regional,local,orbyitsfunctionorpurposeproductornonproduct,commercialornoncommercial,primarydemandorselectivedemand,directactionorindirectaction.BecauseitisdifficulttogainaccesstoenoughdateforEnglishcommercialsandadsonradioorTV,thus,thesubjectofthisresearchpaperwillmainlyconcentrateontheprintadvertising.1.3RolesofAdvertisingAnadvertisersmainpurposeistopresentandexhibitproductorservice,andtospreadtheinfluenceandcoverageofwhichtotheextentthatthepotentialpurchasingpopulationbecomesrealandactual.Simplyput,advertiserstrybythevariousmeansattheirdisposaltogetpeopletobuytheproductorserviceadvertised.Moreover,advertiserswantpotentialpurchaserstoconsiderwhatisadvertisedtotheexclusionofallothersimilarproductsorservices.Theythereforeattempttoconstructanadvertisementthatwillfullyinvolvetheattentionofthepotentialpurchaserandwhichwillhaveapersuasiveeffect.Advertisersthuscreateasemioticworldinordertopersuadetheiraudienceofessentialrightnessofpurchasingtheproductorserviceadvertised.1.4DefinitionsofAdvertisingAfterabriefintroductionoftheclassificationsandrolesofadvertising,wenowcometothedefinitionsofadvertising.Fromdifferentperspectivesorpurposes,thedefinitionsmightalsovary.InEnglish,thewordadvertisehasitsorigininadvertereinLatin,meaningtoinformsomebodyofsomething,tobringintonoticeortodrawattentiontosomething,etc.InChinese,theequivalenttermguanggaomeanswidelyannounce.Thefatherofmodernadvertising,AlbertLaskersaidthatadvertisingwassalesmanshipinprint.Althoughthedefinitionwasgivenlongbeforetheadventofradioandtelevision,andthenatureandscopeofadvertisingatthattimewereconsiderablydifferentthantheyaretoday,thisoftenrepeatedsayingindicatesthattheultimateobjectiveofadvertisingistosell.Obviouslyitisnotaworkingdefinitionbecausewecannotuseittocoveralladvertisements.Today,awidelyquotedworkingdefinitionofadvertisingwasputforwardbyCourtlandL.BoveeandWilliamF.ArensAdvertisingisthenonpersonalcommunicationofinformation,usuallypaidforandusuallypersuasiveinnature,aboutproductsgoodsorservicesorideasbyidentifiedsponsorsthroughvariousmedia.(Cook,Guy.TheDiscourseofAdvertising.LondonRoutledge,1992)AnotherlinguistBolendefinesadvertisingasaPaid,nonpersonalcommunicationthroughvariousmassmediabybusinessfirms,nonprofitorganizations,andindividualswhoareinsomewayidentifiedinthemessageandwhohopetoinformorpersuademembersofaparticularaudience.Carter,RonaldandGoddard,Angela,ReahDanutaetal.WorkingwithTexts.LondonRoutledge,1997Ifthedefinitionsofadvertisingweretoovagueandabstracttocomprehend,afewwordsofitsfunctionwouldhelptoclarifythiscrucialterm.Broadlyspeaking,advertisementshaveatleastoneoftwofunctionsinformingorpersuading,althoughoverlapmayoftentakeplaceinonesinglepiece.Thetrickhereisthataninformativeadvertisementinformsthecustomeraboutgoods,services,orideasandthentellshowtogetthemmeansofanidentifiedsponsorBolen6.Examplesofinformativeadvertisementsarenotafew,rangingfromflyerstoinsertionsinmagazineandnewspapers,allofthataimtoadvertisenewproducts/servicesorspecialpricesoncertainproducts/services.Thistypeofadvertisementgivesbasic,factualinformationandsometimesshowsaphotosoranillustrationoftheproduct/servicetogivethetargetaudienceabetterviewabouttheadvertisedproduct.PersuasiveadvertisementsarethustheinstrumentsusedbyadvertiserswhohavedefinedtheirtargetaudiencesanddeterminedtheeffecttheyhopetoachievethroughpersuasiveadvertisementsinthemediaBolen9.Andapersuasiveadvertisementshouldtrytopersuadethepotentialcustomerstobuythenewproduct.Bolen6Thepersuasivefunctionisnotonlylimitedtoattractingthepotentialcustomerintobuyingacertainobject,butalsoincludingthesellingofservices,ideas,normsandvalues.Tosummarize,wewouldgettheideathatfirstlyadvertisingisacommunicationprocess.Secondly,atleastamediumisused.Thirdly,thiscommunicationprocesshasadefinitepurposetoconvincethetargetaudience.Theabovethreecharacteristicssuggestadvertisingiscloselyconnectedwiththesociety,employingitsmedia,interconnectingwithitspeopleandguidingtheirbuyinghabit.Alsoinachievingtheadvertisingeffect,theadvertisinglanguageshouldbevividandattractive,whoselinguisticcharacteristicswouldbecoveredintheChapter3.Chapter2TheoreticalBackground2.1Advertisement2.1.1DefinitionandGoalAdvertisingisthepaid,impersonalcommunicationofinformationaboutproductsorideasbyanidentifiedsponsorthroughmassmediainanefforttopersuadeorinfluencebehavior.Notalladvertisingisalike.Advertisementsdifferdependingonwhothemessageisintendedfor,wheretheadvertisementisshown,whichmediaareused,andwhattheadvertiserwantstoaccomplish.seeTable2.1Table2.1Advertisingcanbeclassifiedinfourwaysbytarget,geographicarea,mediaused,andpurpose.ByTargetByGeographicAreaByMediaUsedByPurposeAudienceConsumerBusinessIndustrialTradeProfessionalAgricultureInternationalNationalRegionalLocalPrintNewspaperMagazineElectronicRadioTelevisionInternetOutofhomeOutdoorTransitDirectmailDirectoriesOthermediaProductiveornonproductiveCommercialornoncommercialPrimarydemandorselectivedemandDirectactionorindirectactionThepurposeofcopywritingistopersuadeorremindpeopletotakesomeactiontosatisfyaneedorwant.Butfirstpeopleneedtobemadeawareoftheproblemor,iftheproblemisobvious,ofasolution.Tocreateawareness,thecopywritermustfirstgetpeoplesattentionforexample,byusinglargetypeandprovocativevisuals.Next,thecopywritermuststimulatetheprospectsinterestintheproductandbuildcredibilityfortheproductclaims.Thenthecopywriterfocusesongeneratingdesireandfinallyonstimulatingaction.Thesefiveaspectsshouldbepresentineveryadvertisementorcommercial.Hereistheadvertisingpyramid.2.1.2ElementsofanAdvertisementAsonewillsee,anyadvertisementismadeupofseveralelements.Mostadvertisementsusedallofthem.Theyincludetheheadlineordisplaylinetheillustrationthebodycopyortextthethemelineorslogan,tradecharacter,seal,andothermarksandthelogotypeorsignature.Eachwillbeconsideredinsomedetailbelow.1HeadlinesTheheadlineordisplaylineappearsinmostadvertisementsforseveralreasons.First,itisanattentiongettingdevicesecondly,italsoselectsanaudiencebyappealingtoaspecificgroup,asthislinedoseArthriticsreducepainfulinflammationandgetstomachupsetprotection.AnadformedicineFinally,itisthekeyfactoringettingpeopletoreadthebodycopy.2IllustrationInadditiontoheadlines,mostadvertisementscontainillustrations.Theillustrationliketheheadline,attractsattention,selectstheaudience,andstimulatesinterestinbodycopy.Whatismore,theillustrationcanbeinvaluableinshowingtheproductorproductuseandexplaininggraphicallycertainideasorsituationsthatarecumbersometoputintowords.Theoldsayingthatonepictureisworthathousandwordshasmuchmeritinit.3BodyCopyTobeginwith,someexplanationofthewordcopyisnecessary.Thejobofbodycopyistostimulateinterestintheproductorserviceorideabeingadvertised,createsdesireforit,andurgeaction.Thisisabigtaskandcallsforrightwords.Althoughheadlinesandillustrationscleartheway,itisbodycopythatmustcarrytheburdenofthesellingjob.4Themelines,slogan,tradecharacters,sealandothermarksAnumberofdifferentmarksanddevicesmayappearinanadvertisement,includingthemelines,tradecharacters,andsealsForexample,GeneralFoodsusesthecorporateidentitysymbolinallitsadvertisements.Theautomaticuseoftheseelementsintheadvertisement,however,doesnotdiminishtheirimportance.2.2Stylistics2.2.1TheNeedforStylisticsWhentalkingabouttheEnglishlanguage,oneshouldnotbemisledintothinkingthatthelabelshouldinsomewayrefertoareadilyidentifiableobjectinreality,whichhecanisolateandexamineinaclassroomasatesttubemixture,apieceofrockorapoem.ThelabeloftheEnglishlanguageisinfactacomplexofmanydifferentvarietiesoflanguageinuseinallkindsofsituationsinmanypartsoftheworld.Naturally,allthesevarietieshavemuchmoreincommonthandifferentiatesthem-theyareallclearlyvarietiesofonelanguage,English.Butatthesametime,eachvarietyisdefinablydistinctfromalltheothers.AsaneducatedspeakerofEnglish,astudentofEnglishis,inasense,multilingualforinthecourseofdevelopinghiscommandoflanguage,hehasencounteredalargenumberofvarieties,andtocertainextent,haslearnednowtousethem.Aparticularsocialsituationmakeshimrespondwithanappropriatevarietyoflanguage,thelanguageofconversation,thelanguageofnewspaperreporting,thelanguageofadvertisingandsoon.Butwhatisstylistics2.2.2DefinitionInthepast,menhavebeenintriguedwithstyleandmanystudentsofhumancommunicationhaveofferedtheirideasaboutit.Someareconcernedwithclarity-orlucidity,asAristotlecalledit.ForthisancientGreekcritic,itwasimportantthatthespeakerorwriternotonlyhasideasbutthathesaysthemintherightway,awayanaudiencecanunderstandclearly.Healsosaidthatstyleshouldbeneitherabovenorbelowthedignityofthesubjectbutmustbeappropriate.Anotherstudentoflanguageandhumanuseofit,theScottishwriterGeorgeCampbell,alsobelievedwordstheauthorsdictionorwordchoicewerethefoundationofstyle.HebelievedthebeststylecomesfromdictionthatthelistenernoticessolittlethatheisbarelyconsciousthatitisthroughthismediumdictionheseesintothespeakersthoughtsThesenseofstylebyGeoffreyN.Leech.Butunfortunately,theydonotclarifymattersgreatly,atleastfourcommonlyoccurringsensesofthetermstyleneedtobedistinguished.StylemayrefertosomeorallofthelanguagehabitsofonepersonaswhenpeopletalkofShakespearesstyleorstyles,orthestyleofJamesJoyce.Moreoften,itreferstoaselectionoflanguagehabits,sharedbyagroupofpeopleatonetime,oroveraperiodoftime,aswhenwetalkaboutthestyleoftheAugustanpoets,thestyleofOldEnglishheroicpoetry,thestyleinwhichcivilservicesformsarewritten,orstylesofpublicspeaking.Styleisgivenamorerestrictedmeaningwhenitisusedinanevaluativesense,referringtotheeffectivenessofamodeofexpression.Thisisimpliedbysuchpopulardefinitionsofstyleassayingtherightthinginthemosteffectivewayorasgood

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