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语言文化论文-政治委婉语及其修辞应用.doc

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语言文化论文-政治委婉语及其修辞应用.doc

语言文化论文政治委婉语及其修辞应用ABSTRACTEUPHEMISMISDERIVEDFROMTABOO,WHICHISUSEDTODESCRIBESOMETHINGINAPPROPRIATETOTALKABOUTDIRECTLYINCOMMUNICATIONITISACULTURALPHENOMENONASWELLASARHETORICALDEVICEITISALSOAPROPERLANGUAGEPATTERNPEOPLECREATEDINSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONINORDERTOMAKETHECOMMUNICATIONEFFECTIVEITPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINOURDAILYLIFETHEMOSTIMPORTANTSOCIALFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMAREEVASIVEFUNCTION,POLITEFUNCTIONANDCOSMETICFUNCTIONPOLITICALEUPHEMISMISATYPEOFEUPHEMISM,SOITHASTHEFEATUREOFEUPHEMISMPOLITICALEUPHEMISMISUSEDWIDELYBYPOLITICIANS,THROUGHWHICHTHEYCANDELIVERTHEIRREALINFORMATIONINAMILDWAYWITHOUTANYHARSHNESSTHISARTICLEWILLMAKEANINTRODUCTIONOFTHEORIGIN,SOCIALFUNCTIONSANDTHEAPPLICATIONOFEUPHEMISMS,ANDTHENDISCUSSRESPECTIVELYTHEPOLITICALEUPHEMISMSUSEDININTERNALANDINTERNATIONALASPECTANDTHERHETORICALAPPLICATIONOFPOLITICALEUPHEMISMSKEYWORDSSOCIALFUNCTION;POLITICALEUPHEMISM;RHETORICALAPPLICATION【摘要】委婉语起源于民俗禁忌,人们在交际中用来描述不宜直言的人或事物,既是一种修辞手法,又是一种文化现象。委婉语又是人们在社会交际中为谋求理想的交际效果而创造的一种适当的语言形式。它在生活中发挥着十分重要的交际功能。最主要的有避讳功能,礼貌功能,掩饰、美化功能。政治委婉语是委婉语的一个范畴,沿袭了普通委婉语的特征,广为政治家们所用。它使政治家们得以一种温和、不带任何刺激性的表达方式传递其真正的信息。本文将从委婉语的起源、社会功能、修辞入手,分别阐述政治委婉语的国际国内使用情况和政治委婉语修辞应用。【关键词】社会功能;政治委婉语;修辞应用1INTRODUCTION11THEDEFINITIONOFEUPHEMISMTHEENGLISHWORD“EUPHEMISM”DERIVEDFROMTHEGREEKWORD“EUPHEMISMOS”,WHICHMEANS“FAIRSPEECH”THEPREFIX“EU”MEANS“GOOD,SOUNDINGWELL”,AND“PHEME”MEANS“SAYING”OR“SPEECH”SOTHELITERALMEANINGOF“EUPHEMISM”IS“TOSPEAKWITHGOODWORDSORINAPLEASANTMANNER”INTHEBOOKOFMODERNLINGUISTICS,ITISDEFINEDAS“AMILD,INDIRECTORLESSOFFENSIVEWORDOREXPRESSIONSUBSTITUTEDWHENTHESPEAKERORWRITERFEARSMOREDIRECTWORDINGMIGHTBEHARSH,UNPLEASANTLYDIRECTOROFFENSIVE”112THEORIGINOFEUPHEMISMTOTRACETHEBEGINNINGOFEUPHEMISMS,WECAN’TNEGLECT“TABOO”INPRIMITIVESOCIETY,PEOPLECOULDN’TEXPLAINSUCHTHINGSASDEATH,AILMENTSANDSOMESUPERNATURALPHENOMENATHEYALSOHADCONFUSIONBETWEENTHENAMESOFTHINGSANDTHETHINGSTHEMSELVESTHENAMEISVIEWEDASANEXTENSIONOFTHETHINGSJUSTASTHEIDIOMSAYS“SPEAKOFTHEDEVILANDHEAPPEARS”NATURALLYTHEWORDSORTHEPHRASESRELATEDTOTHESEUNEXPLAINABLETHINGSBECAMETABOOSFORORDINARYPEOPLE,THESAFESTWAYTOAVOIDMENTIONINGTHESETHINGSTHATTHEYHAVETOMENTIONINMANYCIRCUMSTANCESISTOUSEANOTHERNAMEEUPHEMISMSTOREPLACETHETRUENAMEOFSUCHATHINGINMANYCULTURES,THENAMESOFGODSANDDEVILSARETABOOSINORDERTOAVOIDMENTIONINGTHEMDIRECTLY,PEOPLEUSE“GOSHORGOLLY”INSTEADOFGODAND“DICKENOROLDNICK”INSTEADOFTHEDEVILTHEREFORE,WECANSAFELYSTATETHAT“THEEXISTENCEOFTABOOWORDSORTABOOIDEASSTIMULATESTHECREATIONOFEUPHEMISMS”INOURMODERNSOCIETY,HOWEVER,THERELIGIOUSANDSUPERSTITIOUSRELICSSTILLEXISTBUTTOALARGEREXTENT,EUPHEMISMISMOSTLYMOTIVATEDBYPEOPLE’SFEAROFDEATHTHUSITISNOWONDERTHATSUCHALARGENUMBEROFEUPHEMISMSABOUT“DEATH”EXISTDEPART,DECEASE,PASSAWAY,ETCINSHORT,EUPHEMISMORIGINATESFROMTABOOBECAUSEOFTHEPSYCHOLOGYOFFEAR,PEOPLEDARENOTORWOULDRATHERNOTCALLSOMETHINGBYNAMEDIRECTLYIFSUCHUNPLEASANTTHINGSHAVETOBEMENTIONED,PEOPLEWORKOUTINDIRECTTERMSTOREPLACETHEMTHUSEUPHEMISMSCOMEINTOBEINGUSINGEUPHEMISMSGIVESPEOPLEAFEELINGTHATTHEYARESOMEWHATDISTANTFROMWHATTHEYFEAR,ANDRESORTINGTOEUPHEMISMSSEEMSTOBEAGUARANTEEOFTHEIRSAFETY,HAPPINESS,HEALTHANDGOODLUCK13THESOCIALFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMFROMTHEORIGINOFEUPHEMISM,WECANSEETHATTHEORIGINALFUNCTIONOFEUPHEMISMISTOBEUSEDINTALKINGABOUTTABOOSINOURDAILYLIFE,THEREARESOMETABOOEDTHINGSTHATAREBELIEVEDTOBEDANGEROUSTOCERTAININDIVIDUALS,ORTOTHESOCIETYASAWHOLE,ORTOBEDISGUSTINGANDUNPLEASANTANDCAUSEFEARSUCHTABOOTHINGSINCLUDEDISEASE,DISABILITIES,DEATH,SEX,BODYEXCRETIONANDBODYELIMINATIONPROCESS,ETCPEOPLECANUSEEUPHEMISMSTOTALKABOUTWHATCANNOTBETALKEDABOUTWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFOURSOCIETY,SOMENEWFUNCTIONSCAMEINTOBEINGDURINGTHECOMMUNICATIONINTHECIVILIZEDSOCIETYINOURDAILYCOMMUNICATION,BESIDES,TABOOTOPICS,THEREAREOTHERSENSITIVEANDUNPLEASANTTOPICSWHICHWEDONOTFEELLIKETALKINGABOUTDIRECTLY,SUCHASOCCUPATION,APPEARANCE,FORMOFADDRESS,SOCIALSTATUS,POVERTY,MURDER,ANDSOONIFWETALKABOUTSUCHTHINGSDIRECTLY,WEMAYFEELORMAKEOTHERSFEELEMBARRASSEDORUNHAPPYSUCHPSYCHOLOGYINCOMMUNICATIONRESULTSINANOTHERFUNCTIONOFEUPHEMISM,THATISTOSHOWPOLITENESSANDCONCEALFEELINGSFORINSTANCE,UNEMPLOYMENTANDPOVERTYAREVERYDREADFULTHINGSNOWADAYSINTHEMODERNWAYOFTHINKING,TOMENTIONSOMEBODY’SUNEMPLOYMENTANDPOVERTYISTOSPEAKPEJORATIVELYOFHISCONDITIONSOTHEREPLACEMENTSFORTHEMKEEPAPPEARINGTHEMISERABLEFACTOFUNEMPLOYMENTISSAIDTOBE“INVOLUNTARILYLEISURED”,“BETWEENJOBS”,ETCTHEPOORBECOMES“THEUNDERPRIVILEGED”,AND“THEDISADVANTAGED”INCHINESE,WEREFERTO失业AS下岗,炒鱿鱼;被裁掉AS给优化掉,ETCANDTHEPOORAREDESCRIEDAS拮据,手头紧,手头不便,囊中羞涩,ETCFROMTHEABOVEEXAMPLESWECANSEETHATEUPHEMISMSCANHELPTOKEEPUSMOREDISTANTFROMTHEUNPLEASANTREALITY,ORINOTHERWORDS,THEHARSHTRUTHHASBEENCONCEALEDTOACERTAINEXTENT,THATISTOSAY,INREALITY,EUPHEMISMSAREALSOOFTENUSEDTOCOVERTHETRUTHTHEEUPHEMISMSRELATEDTOPOLITICSGIVENEXCELLENTEXPLANATIONFORTHISFOREXAMPLE,THEWATERGATESCANDALMADEPEOPLEMORESENSITIVETOPOLITICALLANGUAGEITBECAMENECESSARYTOUSEEUPHEMISMSTOMAKETHESENSITIVEPOLITICALCONCEPTSSOFTENEDANDVAGUEHENCE,THE“CAPERINCIDENT”SUBSTITUTED“PHONESTAPS”,“GOTHEHANGOUTROAD”FOR“TELLTHETRUTH”,AND“STONEWALL”FOR“FLATLYREFUSETOCOOPERATE”2GEORGEORWELLONCEILLUSTRATEDTHEBITTERIRONYOFSUCHLINGUISTICPHENOMENON,“POLITICALLANGUAGEISDESIGNEDTOMAKELIESSOUNDTRUTHFULANDMURDERRESPECTABLE,ANDTOGIVEANAPPEARANCEOFSOLIDITYTOPUREWIND”BASEDONTHEABOVEDESCRIPTIONSABOUTTHESOCIALFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMS,WECANMAKETHEGENERALIZATIONSASFOLLOWS1EUPHEMISMSNOTONLYHELPTHESPEAKERAVOIDTALKINGABOUTTHEDREADFULOREMBARRASSEDTHINGSDIRECTLY,BUTALSOHELPTHESPEAKERORTHELISTENERFEELRELAXEDTALKINGABOUTTHETHINGSTHATMIGHTPROBABLYMAKEHIM/HERAPPEARDISGRACEDOREMBARRASSEDIFSPOKENDIRECTLY2EUPHEMISMSAREUSEDTOCOVERUPTHETRUENATUREOFEVENTS,DECEIVINGTHEPUBLICWITHNICESOUNDINGANDPSEUDOTECHNICALWORK,ANDINTHEMEANWHILEITALSOCANHELPSOMEPEOPLEAVOIDTALKINGABOUTSENSITIVETHINGSDIRECTLYSOTHATTHEYCANESCAPETHEIRDUERESPONSIBILITY,EVENPUNISHMENT14RHETORICALAPPLICATIONOFEUPHEMISM141THEDEFINITIONOFRHETORICBEFOREWESTUDYTHERHETORICALAPPLICATIONOFEUPHEMISM,ITISNECESSARYTOMAKECLEARWHATISRHETORICRHETORICIS“THEARTOFUSINGLANGUAGEIMPRESSIVELYANDPERSUASIVELY,ESPINPUBLICSPEAKING”OXFORDADVANCEDLEARNER’SENGLISHCHINESEDICTIONARY,4THEDITIONWHETHERSPEAKINGORWRITING,ONEHASTOGETONESELFACROSSEFFECTIVELY,IE,TOBEELOQUENT,ACCURATE,IMPRESSIVE,PERSUASIVEANDEXPRESSIVETHESTUDYOFHOWTOEXPRESSONESELFEFFECTIVELY,GENERALLYSPEAKING,ISTHEMAINCONCERNOFRHETORIC142RHETORICALAPPLICATIONOFEUPHEMISMWHENWEUSEEUPHEMISMS,WEALSOHAVETOTHINKABOUTHOWTOEXPRESSOURIDEASEFFECTIVELYSOWESHOULDMAKEUSEOFTHERHETORICALDEVICE3THERHETORICALDEVICESFREQUENTLYUSEDAREASFOLLOWINGIMETAPHORWITHTHISFIGUREOFSPEECH,THEEUPHEMISMALWAYSSEEMSTOBEROMANTICSOTHATTHESTYLEOFTHELANGUAGEMAYCHANGEALOTTHEREARENUMEROUSEUPHEMISTICWORDSFOR“DIE”INENGLISHACTUALLYSOMEOFTHEMAREVIVIDANDINFORMALMETAPHORFORINSTANCE,“GOTOHISLONGHOME”,“GOTOSLEEPFOREVER”AND“CEASETOTHINK”,ETCIIMETONYMYMETONYMYISAFIGUREOFSPEECHINWHICHTHENAMEOFONETHINGISUSEDTOSTANDFORANOTHERTHINGTHETWOTHINGSINVOLVEDINAMETONYMYARENOTOFTHESAMEKINDBUTARECLOSELYRELATEDEUPHEMISMMAKESAGOODUSEOFITFORINSTANCE,SOMEPARTOFHUMANBODYAREOFTENEUPHEMIZEDWITHAWHOLEPARTFORAVERYSPECIALONE,WHICHISNOTSUITABLETOMENTIONDIRECTLY,SUCHAS“LOWERPARTS”,OR“PARTBELOW”FOR“SECRETPARTS”,“UPPERPARTS”FOR“BREASTS”,ETCIIISYNECDOCHESOMEEUPHEMISMSAREINVENTEDBYSYNECDOCHE,ATROPEWHICHIS“AFIGUREBYWHICHAMORECOMPREHENSIVETERMISUSEDFORLESSCOMPREHENSIVEORVICEVERSA;ASWHOLEFORPARTORPARTFORWHOLE,AGENUSFORSPECIESORSPECIESFORGENUS,ETC”OXFORDDICTIONARYFORINSTANCE,“HEHASASMOOTHTONGUE,”INFACT,MEANS,“HEISTALKATIVE”IVPERSONIFICATIONSOMEUNPLEASANTTHINGSAREGIVENHUMANCHARACTERISTICSORHUMANNAMESTOACHIEVEAVIVIDEFFECTEXAMPLES1PERSONIFIEDEUPHEMISMSFORDRUGSBIGHARRYFORHEROIN,MISSEMMAFORMORPHINE,MARYJANEFORMARIJUANA,ETC2PERSONIFIEDEUPHEMISMSFORBATHROOMJOHNAME,JAKES,SIRJOHN;MRSTONES,AUNTEGTOGOTOONE’SAUNTUSEDBYFEMALEONLY,ETCVPERIPHRASISPERIPHRASIS,ASCIRCUMLOCUTION,REFERSTOATHINGNAMEDINAROUNDABOUTWAYRAWSONSUGGESTS“THELONGERTHEEUPHEMISMS,THEBETTER”THEYHAVEMORESYLLABLES,ANDFREQUENTLY,TWOORMOREWORDSWILLBEDEPLOYEDINPLACEOFASINGLEONEFORINSTANCE,“TROUSERS”DOESNOTSOUNDWELL,SO“NETHERGARMENTS”REPLACESIT“FART”ISTOOUNPLEASANTTOTHEEAR,SOPEOPLESAYITAS“WINDFROMBEHIND”VIUNDERSTATEMENTUNDERSTATEMENTISAFIGUREOFSPEECHINWHICHANIDEAISDELIBERATELYEXPRESSEDTOOWEAKLYITISUSEDTOPLAYDOWNORTOMINIMIZETHEIMPORTANCEOFSOMETHINGITISUSUALLYEMPLOYEDINTHREEWAYSLITOTES,MEIOSISANDOVERTONESLITOTESISUNDERSTATEMENTBYDENYINGTHECONTRARYOFTHETHINGBEINGAFFIRMEDITISTHEUSEOFNEGATIVEFORMFORPOSITIVEIDEASWHENTHESPEAKERWISHESTOWEAKENHISTONEOFCOMMENTONSOMETHINGFOREXAMPLE,WEOFTENUSE“UNWISE”INSTEADOF“STUPID”;“IMPOLITE”INSTEADOF“RUDE”VIIIRONYIRONYISAFIGUREOFSPEECHINWHICHTHEINTENDEDMEANINGOFTHEWORDSUSEDISTHEDIRECTOPPOSITEOFTHEIRUSUALSENSEFOREXAMPLE,WHENSOMEONEHATESTHEWEATHER,WHICHSPOILSHISTRIPANDSAYS,“WHATAFINEDAY”HEISIRONICALSOMEINTIMATEFEELINGSORBADTHINGSAREEXPRESSEDRESORTINGTOIRONY,AFIGUREOFSPEECHINWHICHTHEMEANINGLITERALLYEXPRESSEDISTHEOPPOSITEOFTHEMEANINGINDICATEDANDAIMSATHUMORORSARCASMANDAVOIDHURTINGOTHERSBYDIRECTEXPRESSIONSINCERTAINCONTEXT,ITCANHOLDTHEREADER’SATTENTIONANDDEEPENITSIMPRESSION,THEREFORE,APLEASANTEFFECTCOULDBEACHIEVEDEXAMPLESMINISTRYOFDEFENSEISINFACTREFERREDTO“MINISTRYOFWAR”,THEREALMEANINGOF“LIFEINSURANCE”IS“INSURANCEWHENYOUAREDEAD”,AND“FREEDOMFIGHTER”ISSUBSTITUTEDFOR“TERRORISTS”2POLITICALEUPHEMISM21INTRODUCTIONPOLITICSISAFERTILEAREAFORTHEGROWTHOFEUPHEMISMS,WHICHARECOSMETICINEXPRESSIONBUTDECEPTIVEINNATUREEUPHEMISMSOFTHISKINDAREALWAYSUSEDCONSCIOUSLYANDDELIBERATELYEUPHEMISMSUSEDINPOLITICALISSUESAREMAINLYSEENINTHEINTERNALANDINTERNATIONALASPECTS211INTERNALASPECTININTERNALASPECT,POLITICALEUPHEMISMSAREUSEDFORSOMESOCIALPROBLEMSSUCHASPOVERTY,UNEMPLOYMENT,CRIMEANDRACISM,ANDTHEACTIVITIESOFTHEPOLITICALORGANIZATIONANDSOON,WHICHARECOSMETICINORDERTOCOVERTHEPROBLEMSOFPOVERTYANDUNEMPLOYMENT,ETC,THEGOVERNMENTCONTINUOUSLYCREATEDEUPHEMISMSSERVINGFORHISPOLITICALPURPOSEFOREXAMPLE,INAMERICA,“THEPOOR”ISCALLEDAS“THEDEPRIVED,MANOFMODESTMEANS,THELESSWELLOFF”,ANDTHEPOORAREAAS“THEINNERCITY”,ETCAND“LOSEJOBS”BECOME“BETWEENJOBS”,“FIREEMPLOYEES”BECOME“DOWNSIZING”OR“RIFREDUCTIONINFORCE,”LACKOFJOBSECURITY”ISREFERREDTOAS“JOBFLEXIBILITY”INBRITAIN,THEUNEMPLOYEDCANENJOYTHEHALFPRICEFILMTICKETORTHEATRETICKET,ONLYBECAUSETHEYARE“THELESSFORTUNATE”WHENT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