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语言文化论文-浅析中英语言禁忌.doc

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语言文化论文-浅析中英语言禁忌.doc

语言文化论文浅析中英语言禁忌ABSTRACTLANGUAGE,ASTHECARRIEROFCULTURE,ISCREATEDDURINGTHEPROCESSOFHUMANBEINGS’PRODUCTIVELABORANDSERVESASTHETOOLOFCOMMUNICATIONTOCONVEYTHEMESSAGEBETWEENPEOPLEHOWEVER,ITHASBEENENDOWEDWITHMAGICANDPOWERINPARTICULARLANGUAGEACTSASTHEOLDSAYINGGOES,TROUBLESCOMEOUTOFTHETONGUESUPERSTITIOUSPEOPLETHINKTHATTHELANGUAGEITSELFCANBRINGABOUTFORTUNEORMISFORTUNESOTHATTABOOSTORESTRICTTHEUSEOFLANGUAGEARECREATEDANYONEWHOVIOLATESTHEMWILLGETPUNISHMENT,WHEREASTHOSEWHOFAITHFULLYOBEYTHERESTRICTIONSOFLANGUAGETABOOWILLGETPROTECTIONFURTHERMORE,LINGUISTICTABOOSCHANGEWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSOCIETYTHEPAPERFIRSTLYANALYZESTHEEVOLUTIONOFLINGUISTICTABOOSECONDLY,ITISINDICATEDINTHEPAPERTHATLINGUISTICTABOOEXISTSINALMOSTEVERYASPECTOFPEOPLE’SLIFEANDISAUNIVERSALSOCIALPHENOMENONINCHINAANDBRITAINBOTHCHINESEANDENGLISHCULTURESAREINAGREEMENTABOUTLINGUISTICTABOOSSUCHASPRONUNCIATIONTABOO,ANDVOCABULARYTABOOHOWEVER,INFLUENCEDBYDIFFERENTCULTURALBACKGROUNDS,IDEOLOGIESANDTHECONCEPTSOFVALUE,CHINESEANDENGLISHLINGUISTICTABOOSALSOHAVEDIFFERENCES,ASISDISCUSSEDINTHEPAPERFROMTHEASPECTSOFTABOOSUBJECTS,TABOONUMBERSANDNAMESATLAST,THISPAPERPUTSFORWARDTWOEFFECTIVEWAYSOFAVOIDINGTABOO,THATIS,USINGEUPHEMISMANDHAVINGAGOODKNOWLEDGEOFTHETABOOCULTUREANDTHISDISCUSSIONWOULDHELPENGLISHLEARNERSIMPROVETHEIRABILITYOFCROSSCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONANDACHIEVEBETTERCOMMUNICATIONALEFFECTSKEYWORDSLINGUISTICTABOO;EVOLUTION;SIMILARITIES;DIFFERENCES【摘要】语言是人们在活动过程中产生和发展起来的一种社交工具,其功能就是沟通信息,但在特定的语言行为中,却被赋予了它自身所没有的超人的感觉和超人的力量。社会成员竟认为语言本身能给人类带来某种吉祥或不幸,人为地设置了种种语言禁区。他们相信谁要是违背这些语言禁忌,谁就会受到应有的惩罚。反之,谁要是忠实遵循了语言禁忌的约束,谁就会得到相应的庇护和保佑。语言禁忌会随着社会的发展而变化。本论文首先论述了语言禁忌的演变,接着提出语言禁忌存在于人们生活的各个方面,是一种普遍存在的社会现象。在汉英两种语言中,有些忌讳是一致的。文中分析了中英语言禁忌在语音层面、词汇方面的相似性。但是由于汉英民族文化背景、意识形态、价值观念等的不同,中英语言禁忌的内容和形式也有一些差异,因此本论文还探讨了中英语言禁忌在私人话题、数字和命名称谓方面的互异性。这些异同和发展演进往往会给跨文化交际带来一些障碍,为此,有效避免使用禁忌语的方法主要是使用委婉语代替禁忌词,并充分了解异国的文化背景。希望本论文的研究能帮助英语学习者加深英汉两种语言和文化的理解,提高跨文化交际能力,避免交际失败,达到理想的交际效果。【关键词】语言禁忌;演变;相似点;不同点1INTRODUCTION“ITISMANIFESTEDINLANGUAGEPERSONS,THINGSANDACTIVITIESTHATARETABOOSHOULDNOTBETALKEDABOUTORSHOULDBEMENTIONEDINAROUNDABOUTWAYINLANGUAGEWORDSANDEXPRESSIONSRELATEDTOTHESESOCIALTABOOSARELINGUISTICTABOOS”1THEABOVEDEFINITIONSHOWSTHATLINGUISTICTABOO,ASANINTEGRALPARTOFLANGUAGE,ISNOTONLYALINGUISTICPHENOMENONBUTALSOASOCIALPHENOMENONLIKEOTHERPARTSOFLANGUAGE,THEORIGINOFLINGUISTICTABOOISDEEPLYROOTEDINTHEPRIMITIVESOCIALANDCULTURALBACKGROUNDANDITSCHANGEISGREATLYINFLUENCEDBYTHEDEVELOPMENTOFHUMANSOCIETYINORDERTOSATISFYHUMANBEINGS’NEEDSFORSMOOTHCOMMUNICATIONSWITHTHEADVANCEMENTOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,MANYPUZZLESABOUTTHEUNIVERSEARESOLVED,ANDWITHTHEINCREASEOFMATERIALWEALTH,HUMANDEMANDSFORSPIRITUALCIVILIZATIONAREALSOBECOMINGHIGHEREVIDENTLY,LINGUISTICTABOOSAREAREFLECTIONOFTHESESOCIALDEVELOPMENTANDTHEVALUECONCEPTSANDBELIEFSOFTHECULTUREINWHICHTHEYAREBORNITEXISTSINEVERYASPECTOFPEOPLE’SLIFETHEREARESOMESIMILARITIESINENGLISHANDCHINESELINGUISTICTABOO,BUTDIFFERENTCULTURESMAYNOTALLAGREEONWHATISORISNOTATABOOINASPECIFICCONTEXTSOTHEDIFFERENCESALSOEXISTBETWEENENGLISHANDCHINESELINGUISTICTABOOALACKOFKNOWLEDGEINTHISFIELDORIMPROPERUSEOFLINGUISTICTABOOSMAYLEADTOMISUNDERSTANDINGS,CONFLICTSANDOTHERUNKNOWNSERIOUSCONSEQUENCESINTHECROSS–CULTURECOMMUNICATIONSWHICHISINCREASINGLYFREQUENTANDWIDERNOWTHISPAPERINTENDSTOSTUDYTHEEVOLUTIONOFLINGUISTICTABOO,TOANALYZETHESIMILARITIESBETWEENCHINESEANDENGLISHLINGUISTICTABOOINPRONUNCIATIONANDVOCABULARY,ANDPRESENTTHEDIFFERENCESFROMTHEASPECTSOFNAMES,NUMBERSASWELLASTABOOSUBJECTSINBOTHCULTURESLASTBUTNOTLEAST,TWOEFFECTIVEWAYSAREPROPOSEDTOAVOIDLINGUISTICTABOOS2THEEVOLUTIONOFLINGUISTICTABOOTHEWORDTABOOALSOSPELLEDAS“TABU”,“TAPU”AND“KAPU”WASBORROWEDFROMTONGA,ANISLANDGROUPINPOLYNESIA,ANDITSFIRSTRECORDEDUSEINENGLISHWASBYCAPTAINJAMESCOOK17291779,ABRITISHNAVIGATORHECAMETOTHEARCHIPELAGOOFTONGADURINGHISEXPLORATIONSINTHESOUTHERNPARTOFTHEPACIFICOCEANTHEREHEHEARDTHEWORDFROMTHELOCALPEOPLE,WHICHORIGINALLYREFERREDTOPERSONS,ACTIVITIESINCLUDINGSPEECH,ORTHINGSUNDERPROHIBITIONBECAUSETHEYWERECONSIDERED,ONTHEONEHAND,”SACRED”AND“CONSECRATED”,ANDONTHEOTHER,“UNCANNY”,“DANGEROUS”AND“UNCLEAN”HEINTRODUCEDITINTOENGLISHINHISDESCRIPTIONOFHISTHIRDVOYAGEAROUNDTHEWORLDIN1777BUTTABOOPHENOMENAARENOTUNIQUEINTONGAINSTEAD,ITHASLONGEXISTEDINALLCULTURESANDLANGUAGETHROUGHOUTTHEWORLD2ASWEHAVEMENTIONEDABOVE,LINGUISTICTABOOISNOTONLYALINGUISTICPHENOMENONBUTALSOAKINDOFSOCIALPHENOMENONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSOCIETYHASINFLUENCEDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFLINGUISTICTABOOSOIFWEWANTTOREVEALTHEWHOLEPICTUREOFLINGUISTICTABOO,WEMUSTHAVEAREVIEWOFTHEHISTORYOFLINGUISTICTABOO“THEEVOLUTIONOFLINGUISTICTABOOHASGENERALLYEXPERIENCEDTHREESTAGESACCORDINGTOTHEHISTORYOFHUMANSOCIETYTHEPRIMITIVESUPERSTITIONSSTAGE,THEFEUDALPATRIARCHALSTAGE,ANDMODERNDEMOCRATICSTAGEBUTTHEREISNOEXPLICITDEMARCATIONLINEBETWEENTHREESTAGES”321THEPRIMITIVESUPERSTITIOUSSTAGESASWEALLKNOW,INTHEPRIMITIVESOCIETY,PEOPLEDIDN’TGETTOKNOWWELLABOUTNATURE,MOSTNATURALPHENOMENASUCHASLIGHTNING,THUNDER,STORM,EARTHQUAKE,WEREBEYONDTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFHUMANBEINGSWHENTHESEPHENOMENAHAPPENED,THEYTHOUGHTTHATCERTAINSUPERNATURALCREATURESPOSSESSEDGREATPOWERTHEYTHOUGHTTHATIFTHEYWERELOYALTOTHESESUPERNATURALCREATURES,THEYWOULDBESAFEORREWARDEDIFTHEYACTEDAGAINSTTHEM,THEYWOULDBEPUNISHEDSEVERELYASARESULT,THEPRIMITIVEPEOPLECREATEDDIFFERENTKINDSOFGODSTHEYHELDASTRONGRELIGIOUSCONVICTIONTHATTHESEGODSCONTROLLEDTHEWORLDTHATTHEYWERELIVINGINSOTHEFIRSTTHINGTHEYDIDWASTORESPECTTHESEGODSTHROUGHLANGUAGETHEREISANEXAMPLEFROMTHESEVENTHCOMMANDMENTOFTHETENCOMMANDMENTINBIBLE“YOUSHALLNOTMAKEWRONGFULUSEOFTHENAMEOFTHELORDYOURGOD,FORTHELORDWILLNOTACQUITANYONEWHOMISUSESHISNAME”4INAWORD,THEEARLIESTLINGUISTICTABOOEMERGEDASARESULTOFTHEIGNORANCEANDSUPERSTITIONOFTHEPRIMITIVEPEOPLEINANCIENTTIMES22THEFEUDALPATRIARCHALSTAGEFEUDALSOCIETYISRIGIDLYSTRATIFIEDACOUNTRYOFFEUDALISMISUSUALLYCONTROLLEDBYTHEROYALSANDSOMETIMESTOGETHERWITHTHOSECONSIDEREDWITHGREATPOWERGIVENBYGODDURINGTHEFEUDALTIMES,PEOPLEWERENOTEQUALTOTHERULERSANDWERESUPPRESSEDBYTHEIRSUPERIORSTHEDISTINCTIONBETWEENTHEUPPERANDTHELOWERCLASSESWASALSOREFLECTEDINTHEEVALUATIONOFTHELANGUAGEUSEDBYTHEMRESPECTIVELYTHEWORDSOFUPPERCLASSUSEDWERECONSIDEREDGOODANDELEGANTWHILETHOSEUSEDBYTHELOWERCLASSWEREREGARDEDASVULGARANDINDECENTANDSHOULDBEAVOIDEDINTHESPEECHOFLADIESANDGENTLEMENFOREXAMPLE,WHENREFERRINGTO‘出汗’,DUCHESSESUSEDTHEWORD‘PERSPIRE’,BUTTHEFEMALESERVANTSUSED‘SWEAT’;WHENREFERRINGTO‘吐痰’,THEFORMERPEOPLEUSED‘EXPECTORATE’,BUTTHELATTERUSED‘SPIT’;ASFOR‘月经’,THEFORMERUSED‘MENSTRUATE’,BUTTHELATTERUSED‘BLEED’THEMAXIM“HORSESSWEAT;MENPERSPIRE;YOUNGLADIESGLOW”MOREORLESSCANREFLECTTHESTRATIFIEDUSAGEOFWORDSWHICHHAVETHESAMEMEANINGINTHISPERIOD5INCHINA,DURINGTHEFEUDALTIMES,MENUSUALLYPLAYADOMINANTROLEINFAMILYWECANSEEITFROMTHECHINESEEXPRESSIONS“三从四德”,“三纲五常”ETCINORDERTOSTRENGTHENTHEIRPOSITIONANDTOPREVENTTHEIRSUBJECTSFROMVIOLATINGTHEM,THEROYALSANDKINGSPUTFORWARDDIFFERENTKINDSOFPROHIBITIONSANDBANSFORINSTANCE,TOSHOWTHEIRAUTHORITYANDMAJESTY,THENAMEOFTHEEMPERORANDHISANCESTORSSHOULDNOTBEMENTIONEDATTHESAMETIME,PEOPLEALWAYSAVOIDEDSPEAKINGOUTTHEIRPARENTS’NAMESOREVENTHECHARACTERSINTHEIRPARENTS’NAMESTHEOLDSAYING“古人闻父名而泣”CANPROVETHISPOINTMOSTLINGUISTICTABOOSDURINGTHISPERIODWEREPUTINTOEFFECTBYRULERSINORDERTOMAINTAINTHEIRSUPERIORSOCIALPOSITIONANDKEEPTHESOCIETYUNDERTHEIRCONTROLHOWEVER,SOMEOFTHEM,BECAUSEOFTHEIRDEEPROOTEDINFLUENCEONPEOPLE’SMIND,STILLREMAININLANGUAGEEVENAFTERTHECOLLAPSEOFTHESOCIALSYSTEM23THEMODERNDEMOCRATICSTAGEINMODERNSOCIETY,ASARESULTOFTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,MANYNATURALPHENOMENAARENOLONGERMYSTERIOUSHUMANBEINGSNOTONLYCONSTANTLYIMPROVETHEIRABILITIESTOEXPLOITTHEWORLDWHERETHEYARELIVINGTHROUGHTHEIRGREATWISDOMANDKNOWLEDGE,BUTALSOMAKEEFFORTSTOEXPLORETHEEXTRATERRESTRIALWORLDSCIENCEHASMUCHMORESAYINTODAY’SSOCIETYTHEREBY,THESUPERSTITIOUSELEMENTSINLINGUISTICTABOOSDECREASEWHILETHOSEREFLECTINGSPIRITUALCIVILIZATIONINCREASEDURINGSUCHANOPENMINDEDPERIOD,PEOPLEVALUEFREEDOM,EQUALITYANDDEMOCRACYVERYMUCHMANYMINORITIESSTRUGGLEFOREQUALRIGHTSWITHTHEMAJORITIESASARESULT,LINGUISTICTABOOSCONCERNINGRACIALDISCRIMINATIONARISEFOREXAMPLE,INTHEUNITEDSTATES,“NIGGER”WASWIDELYUSEDTOCALLBLACKPEOPLEINTHE1960SBUTNOWITISFORBIDDENINNORMALINTERACTIONBECAUSESUCHFORMOFADDRESSINGSHOWSCONTEMPTFORTHEBLACKANDGOESAGAINSTTHESPIRITOFHUMANRIGHTSINADDITION,MOREANDMOREWOMENSTEPOUTSIDETHEIRHOUSESTOWORKTOGETHERWITHMENTHEYDON’TWANTTODEPENDONMENANYLONGERHOWEVER,THETRADITIONALIDEASABOUTWOMENSTIFLETHEFULFILLMENTOFTHEIRABILITIESANDTHEYAREOFTENTREATEDUNFAIRLYINWORKTHISFORCESWOMENTORISEANDFIGHTFOREQUALITIESWITHMENANDMOREANDMOREMENBEGINTOLEARNTORESPECTWOMEN,WHICHWILLHAVEANINFLUENTIALEFFECTONTHELANGUAGEASARESULT,TABOOSONSEXISTLANGUAGEINCREASEBESIDES,INANERAOFPEACE,THERELATIVESTABILITYOFSOCIETYANDTHEFASTPACEOFLIFE,PEOPLEDON’TBOTHERMUCHTOAVOIDTHINGSINTHEOBJECTIVEWORLDINSTEAD,THEYPREFERLIVINGAPLEASANTANDHARMONIOUSLIFETHEYENJOYSPIRITUALENTERTAINMENTVERYMUCH,SOTHEYTRYTOAVOIDTHOSEWORDSANDBEHAVIORSTHATMAYMAKEOTHERSFEELUNPLEASANTTOKEEPTHEHARMONIOUSRELATIONSHIPTHOSEPROFESSIONSTHATWERELOOKEDDOWNUPONINTHEPASTAREBEAUTIFIEDNOWTHESUBSTITUTIONOF“SANITATIONENGINEER”FOR“GARBAGECOLLECTOR”ISAGOODEXAMPLEFORTHISASAWHOLE,SINCETHETHIRDSTAGE,PEOPLETODAYSHOWMORERESPECTFORSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYANDHUMANRIGHTSOTHATTHESUPERSTITIOUSANDFEUDALELEMENTSINLINGUISTICTABOOSTENDTOREDUCEWHILETHOSEREFLECTINGTHEADVANCEMENTOFHUMANSOCIETYANDSPIRITUALCIVILIZATIONTENDTOINCREASE3THESIMILARITIESBETWEENCHINESEANDENGLISHLINGUISTICTABOOTHEREARETABOOSFORRELIGION,SEX,DEATH,DISEASE,SOCIALBIAS,ETCINBOTHCHINESEANDENGLISHCULTURESANDTHEYAREREFLECTEDINTHEIRRESPECTIVELANGUAGEANDBECOMEAKINDOFLINGUISTICPHENOMENONTHESIMILARITIESOFCHINESEANDENGLISHLINGUISTICTABOOMAINLYEMBODYINTHEFOLLOWINGASPECTS31INPRONUNCIATIONBOTHCHINESEPEOPLEANDENGLISHPEOPLEBELIEVETHATSAYINGWORDSTHATIMPLYMISFORTUNESORDISASTERSMAYBRINGTHEMTROUBLE,ANDTHEYTHOUGHTMISFORTUNESCANBEPREVENTEDBYREPLACINGTHEWORDSWITHHOMOPHONESTHATHAVEBETTERMEANINGSINCHINA,MANYTABOOSHAVEBEENCAUSEDBYSUPERSTITIONSINSHANXIPROVINCEOFCHINA,THEREISACUSTOMTHATMULBERRIESCANNOTBEPLANTEDINFRONTOFTHEHOUSEANDWILLOWSCANNOTBEPLANTEDBEHINDTHEHOUSE,BECAUSETHECHINESECHARACTER“桑MULBERRY”SOUNDSTHESAMEAS“丧(MOURNING)AND“柳(WILLOW)”SOUNDSTHESAMEAS“绺”THEYMAYINDICATETHATTHEREWILLBEAFUNERALANDSOMETHINGWILLBESTOLE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