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语言文化论文-浅谈英语语法及其分类.doc

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语言文化论文-浅谈英语语法及其分类.doc

语言文化论文浅谈英语语法及其分类【摘要】当代英语语法流派可以粗略地分为三大类规定性语法、描述性语法和解释性语法。本文简单介绍了各类语法的起源、基本概念及其主要特点,并提出了作者对怎样正确对待传统语法的观点。【关键词】英语语法分类规定性语法描述性语法解释性语法IntroductionFromthelinguisticpointofview,Englishlanguage,likeanyotherlivinglanguageintheworld,consistsofthreeessentialelementspronunciation,vocabularyandgrammar.Pronunciationisthematerialoutershellofalanguage,orthematerialforminwhichalanguageexists.Vocabularyreferstoalltheconstructionsofalanguage.Grammardealswiththesystematiclawsandrulesofalanguage,includingitsforms,inflexionsandwaystomakesentences.Grammarisoftencomparedtotheplasterandskeletondesignsofbuildingofalanguage.Letusdrawananalogysoastomakeclearertherelationbetweenthethreebasicelements.Supposingalanguageisabuilding,thenpronunciationisitsoutershape,vocabularyisthematerialofconstructionsuchasbrick,tile,reinforcebars,cement,etc.andgrammarisjustlikethedesignsandtechniquesofconstruction.Amongthethreeessentialelements,pronunciation,asthematerialbasisoftheexistenceofalanguage,isprimaryvocabularyliesonthecentralpositionastheothertwoareexpressedbymeansofit,whilegrammaristheusefulandnecessarytoolforustostudyandusealanguage.Withoutit,wewouldfeelitquitedifficulttousealanguagecorrectly,especiallyaforeignlanguage.ForastudentorateacherofEnglish,itisstillmorenecessarytostudygrammar.Accordingtothedevelopmentofgrammar,theprincipalschoolsofcontemporaryEnglishgrammarmayroughlybedividedintothreemajorclassesPrescriptiveGrammar,DescriptiveGrammarandExplanatoryGrammar.HereisasketchyintroductiontosomeofthemA.PrescriptiveGrammarPrescriptivegrammaroriginatedinancientGreektimesofPlatoandAristotle.Atthattime,grammarwasonlytreatedasthetoolofenjoyingliterature,andthechangesoflanguagewerelookeduponasdecayanddegeneration.Theancientformsofalanguagewereheldinesteemandthegrammarianstriedtokeepthemfixedandunchanged.PrescriptivegrammarmainlyconsistsoftwopartsMorphologyandSyntax.TherewereeightpartsofspeechandaseriesofgrammaticalrulesbasedonLatingrammarwithagreatnumberofillustrationsfromtheworksofsomefamouswriters.AllPrescriptiveGrammarschoolshavesuchcommoncharacteristicsasbelowwww.freetem4tem8.cna.ThegrammarrulesaremadeonthebasisoflogicalreasoningjustlikeLatingrammar,andusedtodecidewhetheracertainlanguagephenomenoniscorrectornot.b.ThesystemisdividedintoMorphologyandSyntax.c.Theanalysisofsentenceismademoreorlessaccordingtotheirmeaningsthusalsocallednotionalgrammar.Itisemphasizedthatonelanguageformexpressesonlyoneconceptofidea.ThemainschoolsofPrescriptiveGrammararea.SchoolGrammartheonecompiledforteachingalanguageinththschoolsfromthe18centurytothe20century.b.PracticalGrammartheoneusedtomaster,ormoreexactly,tohelpthecommandofaforeignlanguage.c.TraditionalGrammarallthegrammarschoolsdifferentfromDescriptiveGrammarandExplanatoryGrammar.Thoughlastingforover2,000years,ithasnoactualdefinition.Generallyspeaking,itreferstotheterms,rules,conceptsandtheoriestakenandcarriedonfromthethworksof18centuryprescriptivegrammarandthoseafterwards.B.DescriptiveGrammarthDescriptiveGrammarcameintobringinthelate19centuryandththeearly20century.Thedescriptivegrammariansthinkthatlanguageisalwayschanginganddeveloping,andthatdifferentlanguageshavedifferentfeaturesoftheirown,sotheyobjecttoapplyingLatingrammarmechanically.Theyinsistupondescribingobjectivelyandindetailthepracticaluseofalanguage,andanalyzingitaccordingtoitsstructuresandfunctions.Itisemphasizedthatoneconceptofideacanbeexpressedindifferentways.SomemainschoolsofDescriptiveGrammara.StructuralGrammarthechiefviewpointsareasfarasalanguageisconcerned,speechisinthefirstplace,namely,oralformsarepriortowrittenones.Thedescriptionofalanguageoughttobegivenaccordingtohowitisspokeninreality,nothowitmustbespoken.Theconcretestepsofanalysisaretakenatthreelevelsfirst,thephonemethen,themorphemeandfinally,sentencepatterns.Thestructuralgrammariansareopposedtodividingwordclassesaccordingtothemeaning,butinsistondescribingalanguagebyitsforms.b.FunctionalGrammarTheBritishLinguistM.A.K.Hallidaywasthechieffounder.Hethoughtthatlanguageisacommunicativetoolwiththreesocialfunctionsexpressingconceptsofthought,relationshipsbetweenhumanbeings,andcoherentcontents.AnotherfeatureofFunctionGrammaristostudydeeplyvarioustypesofalanguageusedondifferentoccasionsandindifferentregionssuchasBritishEnglish,AmericanEnglish,formal,informal,etc..Oppositely,theothergrammarschoolsdostudytheuseofalanguagebutonlytheinnerstructuresortransformationandgenerationofsentences.Inthisaspect,FunctionalGrammarhasopenedupanewfieldofthegrammarresearchforus.c.CommunicativeGrammarthegrammaticalsystemputforwardbyBritishlinguistsG.LeechandJ.Svartvik.Ittakesconceptsofthoughtasthecore,andthefeaturesofvarioustypesofEnglishelevated,formal,neutral,informal,slangwritten,spoken,polite,familiar,etc.expressionsondifferentoccasions,pronunciationandintonationandsoon.Inmanyaspects,itrelatestoFunctionalGrammarsomanygrammariansregardthemasthesameone,butlaysmorespecialstressonthecommunicativeeffectofalanguage,particularlyonthatoneconceptofthoughtcanbeexpressedbyvariousformsoflanguage.Itschiefcontributionliesonhowtomakecommunicationbyusinggrammar.FollowMeandNewConceptEnglisharetypicaltwoofthewellknowntextbookscompiledonCommunicativeGrammar.C.ExplanatoryGrammarBasicallyspeaking,ExplanatoryGrammarbelongstotheoreticalgrammar,whichmakesrationaldiscussionandexpositionongrammarwiththehelpofsemantics,lexicology,logic,psychology,sociologyandeventhemethodsofmathematicalanalysis.Explanatorygrammariansobserveandstudylanguagephenomena,andfurthermore,explaintheirdistinctions,causesandorigins.SomeprincipalschoolsofExplanatoryGrammara.HistoricalGrammarItstudiesthedevelopmentofalanguagefromtheviewpointofhistory,dealingwiththestudyofmorphologyandsyntax.Departingfromthetraditionsofprescriptivegrammar,historicalgrammariansexpoundallkindsofphenomenaofEnglishaccordingtothehistoricalprinciples,avoidingestablishingsomeabstractrulestoguideorpurifythelanguage.b.ComparativeGrammarItmakesalotofcomparisonbetweenthedifferentlanguagesconcernedorbetweenthecorrespondinggrammaticalrelationsofonelanguageatdifferentstagesofhistory.c.TransformationalgenerativeGrammarThefounderisanAmericanlinguist,N.Chomsky.InhiswellknowngrammarbookSyntacticStructures,hesetsforthhisnewandoriginalviewsongrammar.Hethinksgrammarmustbesimpleandclear,andmustpossesstheabilityofgeneration,thatis,theabilitytoproduceinfinitesentencesaccordingtothegrammar.Heholdsthateverynativespeakerofalanguageisbornwithasetoflinguisticacquisitiondeviceandthatthemathematicalpatternsmustbeusedtomakegrammarsimpleandclear.Heputsforwardawholesetofstrictsystematicformulas,i.e.thetransformationalrules,fromwhichthepracticalspeechcanbeproduced.Oneofitsoutstandingfeaturesistheadvancingofthedistinctionbetweensurfacestructureanddeepstructureofthesentence.ConclusionFinally,letuscometothequestionHowshouldweproperlythinkofTraditionalGrammarAsalinguistictheoreticbranch,TraditionalGrammarhasalreadybeenlastingformorethan2,000years.Itcertainlyhasitsownadvantagesandhasgivensomeimportantcontributionstolanguagestudyingandteaching.Itmakesthestudyofalanguageeasierbygivingdefinitions,makingrulesandprovidingillustrations.Thebasicgrammaticalconceptssuchaspartsofspeech,membersofthesentence,methodsofanalyzingsentenceswordbyword,etc.dohelpthelearnerstomastersyntacticstructures,comprehendessaysandreadtheoriginalsmoreeasily.Moreover,ithashadsomeinfluenceupontheestablishmentanddevelopmentofothergrammaticalschools.TraditionalGrammar,however,hasitsowndeficiencyandshortcomings.First,itputsstressonthemorphologyanddoesnotpayenoughattentiontothesyntax.Astheresult,itisusuallynoteasyforlearnerstomakesentencesbothinrightstructureandagreeingwiththehabits.Thenthetraditionalgrammarattachesimportancetothewrittenlanguagebutnottotheorallanguage,andthusthecommunicativeandsocialfunctionsofthelanguageareoverlooked.Inaddition,itsdefinitionsandrulesaremadebylogicalreasoningandbasedonvariousstandards,andsotheylackcontinuity.Forexample,somepartsofspeechareclassifiedbythemeaningsuchasnoun,verbandinterjection,somebytheirfunctionspronoun,adjective,adverb,conjunction,andsomebybothpreposition.Manycontemporarylinguistssharplycriticizeandblamethetraditionalgrammar,andsomeevenregarditassubjectivismorrationalism.Inotherwords,theyconsiderittobethesynonymofnonwww.freetem4tem8.cnscience.Itisnecessaryandhelpfultopointoutthedeficiencyandshortcomingsofthetraditionalgrammar,butitisnotpracticaltothrowitallawayatpresent.Wemustseethatwiththedevelopmentoflanguage,thetraditionalgrammarhasbeenimprovingitselfconstantly,particularlydrawingsomeresearchresultsofthestructuralgrammarandtransformationalgrammar.Inourcountry,especiallyinmiddleschoolsandmostcolleges,thegrammarsystemadoptedinEnglishteachingisbasicallythetraditionalgrammar.AsforStructureGrammarandTransformationalgenerativeGrammar,theyhavenotallalongtakentheplaceofTraditionalGrammar.StructuralGrammarisalreadyoutofpowernow.AlthoughTransformationalgenerativeGrammarhasgreatinfluence,itisstillstudiedasameretheoryandnotyetwidelyusedinthepracticallanguageteaching.Ifwetakegrammarjustasausefultoolforlanguagestudyingandteaching,notasthepurposeifweconstantlyimproveourEnglishgrammarteachingandstudythenewresultsofothercontemporarygrammarschools,wewillsurelymakegoodprogressinourEnglishstudyongrammar.●【Bibliography】1Thomson,A.J,andMartinetA.V.APracticalEnglishGrammar.2Leech,G.andSvartvik,J.ACommunicativeGrammarofEnglish.3Chomsky,N.SyntacticStructures.4Lester,M.IntroductoryTransformationalGrammarofEnglish.5XuLiwuAPracticalGrammarofContemporaryEnglish.6YuGuolinANewEnglishGrammarforCollegeStudents.7李学平、潘欢怀当代英语语法概论.8四川大学外文系英语语法词典浅谈英语语法及其分类

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