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语言文化论文-浅谈身势语-A Brief Discussion on Body Language.doc

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语言文化论文-浅谈身势语-A Brief Discussion on Body Language.doc

语言文化论文浅谈身势语ABriefDiscussiononBodyLanguageAbstractBodylanguageisanimportantpartofnonverbalcommunicationanditisconnectedwithculture.Inordertomakesuccessfulexchangeincrossculturalcommunication,weshouldknowthebodylanguagefromdifferentcultures.Andweshouldrealizethatbodylanguage,likeverbalcommunicationandculture,alsohasmanysimilaritiesallovertheworld.However,bodylanguagefromdifferentcultureshasmanydifferencesbecauseofdifferentregions,racesandculturalcustoms.Anditisrestrictedbyitscultureandhasdifferentculturalconnotations.Thatistosay,thesamebodylanguagehasdifferentmeaningsindifferentculturesandhasdifferentsocialfunctions.Thisarticledevotestoacomparisonandcontrastofbodylanguageindifferentculturesintermsofeyelanguage,gestures,postures,facialexpressionsandtouch.Itaimstoillustratethedifferencesandsimilaritiesofbodylanguageandputforwardtheprinciplesofreducingbarriersincommunicationsoastoachieveefficientcommunicationandtoavoidmisunderstanding.KeyWordsNonverbalCommunicationBodyLanguageCulturalDifferencesandSimilaritiesPrinciples【摘要】身势语是非语言交际的重要组成部分并和文化紧密联系在一起。为了在跨文化交际中能够成功地进行交流,我们应该了解不同文化的身势语,必须承认世界各国的身势语与语言和文化一样,也有相似之处。然而,由于地域,种族,文化习俗的差异,不同文化的身势语有许多差异。它们由文化制约并拥有独特的文化内涵。也就是说,同样的身势语在不同文化背景下有不同的含义,行使着不同的社会功能。本文致力于从目光语,手势语,身体姿态,面部表情,体触语方面对不同文化的身势语进行对比。目的在于通过列举身势语的文化差异与共性,并提出交际中遵循的原则,从而促进有效交流,避免误解。【关键词】非语言交际身势语文化异同原则1.IntroductionPeoplecancommunicatewitheachotherthroughnotonlyverbalcommunicationbutalsononverbalcommunication.Moreover,thelatterplaysanessentialroleinhumancommunication.Nonverbalcommunicationisconnectedwithculturesanditistheresultofcultures.Butmanypeoplepaygreatattentiontotheacceptanceandcorrectnessoftheverbalcommunicationandoverlooktheinfluenceandculturaldifferenceofnonverbalcommunication.Thenthemisunderstandingandculturalcrashoftenoccurinthecrossculturalcommunication.Sointheprocessofcommunication,itisnotacompletecommunicationwhileignoringtheculturaldifferencesofnonverbalcommunication.AfamousanthropologistE.T.HallpointedoutSilentlanguageexpressesmoreinformationthanverballanguage.Becauseitcontainsmuchinformation.Accordingtosomeresearchersabroad,inpeoplesdailylife,nonverbalcommunicationtakespartover65inallofinformationexchange.Andbodylanguageisanimportantpartofnonverbalcommunication.Manyexpertshaveshowntheimportanceofbodylanguageinthecrossculturalcommunication.Apsychologistproposedaformulathetotalimpactofmessage7verbal38vocal55facialexpressionsandbehavior.1p89Itisclearwithoutbodylanguagewecantfinishourinformationalexchange.Bodylanguage,likeverballanguagecanexpressemotions,exchangeideasanddeliverinformation.Sowemustknowtheculturaldifferencesofbodylanguagetoachieveefficientcommunication.2.DefinitionandFunctionsofNonverbalCommunication2.1DefinitionofNonverbalCommunicationNonverbalcommunicationisaprocessinwhichcommunicatorsusethenaturalfeaturesoftheirbodiestodeliverinformationandexpressspecificmeaninginstinctivelytotheothercommunicator.2p90ThestudyofnonverbalcommunicationcoversthreemajorpartsProxernics,KinesicsorBodyLanguage,andParalanguage.Proxernicsrefersthatpeoplekeepcertainspacewitheachotherwhentheycommunicateandthemeaningitsuggests.Forexample,ArabiansliketokeepclosewhileEnglishmenliketokeepacertaindistance.Itisfunnytoseetheyareinconversation.ArabianswillcomecloserandcloserbutEnglishmenwillwithdrawfurtherandfurther.Whentheyfinishtheconversation,theyarefarawayfromtheplacetheystood.Kinesicsisalsocalledbodylanguage,whichstudiesthemeaningsofthemovementofallpartsofbodyanditincludesmanynonverbalbehaviorsuchaseyelanguage,gestures,postures,facialexpressions,touchandsoon.Wewilldiscussitindetailslater.Paralanguagereferstoallkindsofsoundsignalsmadebymouth,whichcanexpresscertainemotionsandideas.Paralanguageisnotthephrasesandsentenceswithclearmeanings.Itistotransforminformationbysound,suchasOuch.Besidesthis,thepitchoftoneandloudnessorquietnessofvoicealsobelongstoparalanguage.Andsomeresearchersbelievethatclothingbelongstoparalanguage,too.2.2FunctionsofNonverbalCommunicationNonverbalcommunication,likeverbalcommunicationisalsoapartofcultureandthecarrierofacertainculture.Thefunctionofnonverbalcommunicationinthewholecommunicationcantbeoverlooked.Inthedailycommunication,wecanseepeoplecantcommunicateefficientlybyverballanguagealone.Andnonverbalcommunicationwillexpressclearmeaningsinacertaincontext.Andacertainnonverbalcommunicationshouldbeconnectedwithverbalcommunicationortheothernonverbalcommunicationtoprovidecorrectinformation.3p37Soincommunicativeactivities,nonverbalcommunicationalsoplaysagreatrole.Ofcourse,weshouldpaycloseattentiontothefunctionsofnonverbalcommunication.Inanycase,whenverbalcommunicationconflictswithnonverbalcommunication,peoplearewillingtoaccepttheinformationnonverbalcommunicationdelivers.Becausenonverbalcommunicationsoundsmorenatural,moreinstinctiveanditishardtopretend.4同1p90Obviously,weshouldmakefulluseofnonverbalcommunicationtoachieveefficientcommunication.Now,wewilldiscussthefunctionsofnonverbalcommunication.Repetition.Forexample,whenwetellpeoplehowtogettothenearesthospital,wearenotonlytellingthemthedirectionbutalsopointingtothedirectionwithhands.Supplement.Forinstance,wegreetpeoplewithasmile.Smilefunctionsasasupplementtothepleasureofmeetingpeople.Replacement.Whenwecommunicatewithothers,wewillfrowninsteadofaskingdirectlytohintthatwedontunderstandandexpectrepetitionorexplanation.Emphasis.Whenwearetalkingormakingaspeech,weoftenraiseourvoicetostressthecontent.Andsometimes,wesay,Itismyfaultwhilehungdownourheads.Wesmileandsay,Welcome.Weshoutouttothepeoplewhilewavingourfists.Allthenonverbalcommunicationhereemphasizeswhatwesay.Adjustment.Weoftensuggestthatourtalkisoverbyourtone,eyes,headnoddingandothernonverbalcommunicativebehaviors.Forexample,themanagerstandsuptoshowtheendoftheinterview.3.ClassificationofBodyLanguageWehavediscussedtheimportanceofnonverbalcommunication.Andwealsoknowbodylanguagereflectsacertainculturalbackground.Ontheonehand,inacertaintradition,bodylanguageisdeterminedbyitscustomsandtraditions.Violatingthemwillcausecommunicativedisconnectionandmisunderstanding.Ontheotherhand,themeaningsofbodylanguageinacertainculturearedevelopingandchanging.Withthedevelopmentoftechnology,trafficandcontactallovertheworld,themeaningsofbodylanguagearerenewingeveryday.Inthisessay,weintendtomakeacomparisonandcontrastofthesimilaritiesanddifferencesonbodylanguageinordertoavoidmisunderstandingandmakeefficientcommunication.Ingeneralsense,thestudyofbodylanguagebeganin1950s.Andduring1970s,thestudyofbodylanguageenteredafullydevelopingperiod.Fromthelateof1970stotheearlyperiodof1980s,bodylanguagecontainedmorecontents,andhadagreatinfluenceontheotherfields.AndDoctorR.L.BirdWhitellistherepresentiveofstudyofbodylanguage.Hisresearchindicatedeyebrowscouldchangefor23positionsandpeoplecouldmake250,000differentfacialexpressions.AndpsychologistDavidAberconbiealsopointedoutwespeakwithverbalorgansbutwetalkwithourbody.5p34Bodylanguagecontainseyelanguage,gestures,postures,facialexpressions,mannersandbehaviorsandtouchandsoon.Asthemostimportantpartofnonverbalcommunication,bodylanguage,likeverballanguage,hasnotableculturalfeatures.Somepartsofbodylanguageareinnate,someareacquiredandothersareconscious.Forexample,1Ababycancrywhenitisborn.Itcansuckitsfingerswhenitishungry.Whenweareexcited,ourpupilswillenlargedistinctively.Oureyebrowswillmoverapidlywhenwegreet.Andwewillfrownwhenweareunsatisfied.Weareyawningwhenwefeelsleepy.Andacquiredbodylanguageisgreatlyaffectedbysocialenvironmentandacceptedthroughcommonpractice.Itoftenbecomesadistinctiveculture.Everycountry,everynation,andeveneveryregionhasitsownhistoricalandculturalbackground.Sothebodylanguagepeopleuseisquitedifferent.Forexample,2Americansliketoshrugwhentheyhavenoideaaboutsomething.ButChinesedontdothesamething.StretchingoutonestonguemeanscontemptinAmerica,butinChinaitmeanssurpriseandrespectforguestsinTibet.Wecancontrolsomebodylanguageandwecandosomeposturesconsciously.Forexample,3Ifapublicspeakerisfiddlingwithapencilorwithhisglassesallthetimewhileheistalking,heistellingquiteclearlythatheisnervous.Butsomeexperiencedspeechmakerwillpretendwellandshowconfidence.4.CulturalDifferencesofBodyLanguageDifferentbelievesarethecausesofthedifferencesofbodylanguage.AccordingtothetheoriesproposedbyAmericananthologistsBarnetttPearce,VerrionCronent,peoplesbehavior,thewayofthinkingandsoonareaffectedbytheirbelieves.Andeveryculturehasitsdistinctivebeliefsystem.Anormalactioninthisculturewillbeabnormalinanotherone.Apositivebehaviorinoneculturewillbenegativeinanother.Peoplefromeasternworldadvocatemodesty,tolerance,mutualsupportandresponsibilityforthegroup.Butwesternpeopleadmireindependence,selfrespect,freedevelopment,andrequiringindividualspaceandsoon.Next,wewillgotothedifferencesofbodylanguagefromfiveparts.4.1EyeLanguageAssayinggoesTheeyesarethewindowofthesoul.Thatistosay,wecanreadonesmindthroughhis/hereyes.Eyelanguagecanexpresscomplicatedfeelingsanditisanimportantwaytojudgetheintimacyofcommunicators.PeoplefromEnglishspeakingcountrieshavemoreeyecontactwhentheyareinconversation.AccordingtoAmericantradition,communicatorsmustgazeateachother.ButtherearemanyrulesabouteyelanguageWhethertolookattheothercommunicatorornotwhenitisthetimetolookatthem,howlongwecanlookatwhowecanlookatandwhowecanttheyallimplydifferentmeaningsincommunication.6p94InJulietsFastersbookBodyLanguage,thereisaparagraphwhichcanexplaintheproblem.Twostrangerssitfacetofaceinthedinningroominatraintheycanintroducethemselvestoeachother.Whentheyareeating,theycantalkanythingelse.Theyalsocanavoideyecontactanddonotshowinterestineachother.AwriterdescribedthissituationinanarticleTheylookoverthemenuagainandagain,playwithknivesandlookattheirnails.Itseemsthattheylookatthemforthefirsttime.Iftheireyesmeet,theywillturnawayimmediatelyandlookoutofthewindow.4Americanspaygreatattentiontothetimeandthewayofeyecontact.Incommonconversation,theywilllookateachotheraboutoneminuteandthentheywilllookaway.IftwoAmericansgazeateachother,whichindicatetheyareintimate.InNorthAmerica,thechildrentherehavelearnedtolookattheothercommunicatordirectly.Iftheydont,theyareregardedlackofenthusiasmorconfidence.TheybelievethesayingNevertrustapersonwhocantlookyouintheeyes.7p365IftwoArabiansareinconversation,theywilllookateachotherwarmly.Becausetheythinkeyesarethekeyoftheirexistence.ButinAmericaneyes,theythinkthisbehaviorisunsuitableorahomosexualbehavior.TheeducatedEnglishmenbelievedirecteyecontactwithourcommunicatorsisgentlemanly.ButSwedeniansuseeyelanguagemoreoftenthanEnglishmen.AndtheFrenchespeciallyliketolookattentivelyattheothercommunicatorswithadmiration.Japaneseoftenlookattheothercommunicatorsneckwhentheyareinconversation.Theybelieveeyecontactisimpolite.AndChineseconsidergazingpeopleisanunfriendlybehavioranditisachallenge.SomeSouthAmericanIndiansusedtolookatdifferentdirectionswhentheyaretalking.IntheMiddleEast,itisconsideredextremelyprovocativeforawomantoletamancatchhereyes,letalone,returnhisgaze.6Anotherexample,Americanshaveatriptoavillageandthelocalpeoplestareatthem.Theyareannoyedandthinkthelocalpeoplearerude.Infact,itisnormalinthevillage.Theyarejustcurious.AmericansocialpsychologistMichaelArgylefoundoutPeoplewholikeeachotherhavemoreeyecontactthanpeoplewhodislikeeachother.8同5p35Incommunication,lookingdownfrequentlycanindicatesubmissivenessorembarrassment.Lookingawayconstantlymayexpressdissatisfaction.Femalesarelikelytocommunicatewithmoreeyecontact,especiallyamongfemales.Buttoolongeyecontactwillcauseembarrassment.Mostpeoplefeeluneasyanduncomfortableunderthestrongstaring.Whenpeoplealwaysstareatus,wewillfeelwearethreatenedorsuspecttheirsincerity.Fromwhatismentionedabovewecanconcludethatdifferentculturalbackgroundhasagreatinfluenceonbodylanguage.Andeyelanguagealsoreflectsdifferentculturesandbelieves.Soweneedtoobserveandcompareandcontrastcarefullysoastoimproveculturalexchangeandtoblendwell.4.2GesturesGesturemeanswecommunicateandexpressbythemovementandmannersofourhandsandfingers.9p123Withoutgestures,ourworldwillbestaticandcolorless.Wemayliterallyrollupoursleeveswhentalkingaboutcleaninguptheroomandruntomeetthepersonweareeagertosee.Itseemsnaturaltoclenchourfistorperhapsevenpoundtothelecterntoleteveryonerealizetheimportanceofourmessagewhentryingtocommunicateastrongfeeling,whichemphasizeourwords.10p64Inourdailylife,everyonemakesgestures,butmanygestureshavedistinctregionalandculturalfeatures.Dontassumethateveryoneintheworldunderstandsonegestureinthesameway.11p44Forexample,7Americansoftentouchtheirtemplestoexpresssomebodyscleverness.ButthisactionmeansthereissomethingwrongwithonesmindoroneisstupidtoChinese.ChineseareoftensurprisedtoseeAmericanslaytheirhandsontheirneckswhentheyarefull.BecauseitisansuicideactiontoChinese,whousedtoexpressfullnessbypattingtheirstomachs.Andanotherexample,8Inwesternculture,peoplestretchoutonesforefingerandswingitleftandright,whichsignalstowarnsomebodynottodosomething.Thephrasecrossonesfingersmeansblessingsomebodysgoodluck.Thegestureofthumbingaridesignifiesaskingforafreerideinmotorvehiclebystretchinguponesthumb.InAmerica,peopleholdtheirthumbsandforefingersintoacircleandstretchuptheotherfingers,whichmeansOKinAmerica,butitmeanssomebodyisfiredbybossinJapan.InChina,holdinguponesthumbmeansgood,andraisingoneslitterfingermeansbad.ButJapanesewillholduptheirlittlefingerstoexpressoneistheirlover.InAmerica,wavingoneshandmeansgoodbye.ButSouthAmericanswillnotleavewhentheyseethisgesture,inturnstheywillruntowardsyou.9PeoplefromEnglishspeakingcountriesturnaroundtheirringsconstantlytoshownervousnessoruneasiness.NowpeoplefromTaiwanandHongKongalsohavethisgesture.ButifpeopleinthemainlandofChinaactlikethis,theywillberegardedtheyareshowingoffrichness.Itiscleartoseethesamegesturewithdifferentmeaningsindifferentcultures,andpeoplefromdifferentcultureswillexpresssamemeaningbydifferentgestures.Soitisnecessaryforustoknowtheculturaldifferencetoavoidmisunderstanding.4.3PosturesPostureisamatterofhowpeoplesit,walk,standandmove.12同8p65Whatkindofposturepeopleusealsocanreflecttheculturaldifferencesbetweeneastandwest.Hewespointedoutculturemostlydeterminedwhatkindofposturespeopleuseandthemeaningandemotiontheysuggested.13同7p3510AccordingtoChinesetradition,peoplewhoaresittinghaverighttotakechargeofothersMonarchsitsandofficerstandsfathersitsandsonstandsleadersitsandemployeestandsandsoon.Sotheyoungergivetheoldaseattoshowrespect.ButinAmericaandBritain,peoplewhoareinchargeofothershavetendencytostand.Theywillmakeuseoftheheightofspacetoindicatethehighstatus.Peoplewhohavehighstatuschoosetositwhentheyareconversingwithyou,whichmeantheywanttocreateharmoniousandequalatmosphereandlessenspace.Soadultswillbenddownwhentheyaretalkingtochildren.FroydoncesaidNoonecanreallykeepsecret.Ifhedoesnottalkandkeepsilent,hewilltalkwithhisfingers.Inawhole,partofhisbodywillsellhimout.14同5p36Infact,thisstatementrefersthatpeoplespostures,attitudeandotherbodylanguagecandelivermorehiddeninformation.Peoplemaycontroltheirfacialexpressionssuccessfullyandappearcalm.Buttheydonotrealizethathisnervousnessandeagernesshaveletoutfromhisbodylanguage.Theirfeetmaybestampingonthefloor.Madnessistheemotionthatmayletoutfromourfeetandlegs.11Whenwearequarrellingwithothers,ourfeetwillbenervousandtremblingunconsciously.Andfemaleswillmakesometeasingpostureswiththeirlegs.Andposturescanalsoreflectpeoplesattitudetowardstheircommunicators.Theresearchindicatedmalescommunicatewiththepersontheydontlike,whethertheyarerelaxedornervousdeterminedbywhethertheircommunicatorsarethreateningornot.Inthisexperiment,femaleswillexpressdislikewithveryrelaxingpostures.Postureswillbetheclueoftheinternalrelationshipofagroup.Forexample,

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