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语言文化论文-浅谈身势语-A Brief Discussion on Body Language.doc

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语言文化论文-浅谈身势语-A Brief Discussion on Body Language.doc

语言文化论文浅谈身势语ABRIEFDISCUSSIONONBODYLANGUAGEABSTRACTBODYLANGUAGEISANIMPORTANTPARTOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONANDITISCONNECTEDWITHCULTUREINORDERTOMAKESUCCESSFULEXCHANGEINCROSSCULTURALCOMMUNICATION,WESHOULDKNOWTHEBODYLANGUAGEFROMDIFFERENTCULTURESANDWESHOULDREALIZETHATBODYLANGUAGE,LIKEVERBALCOMMUNICATIONANDCULTURE,ALSOHASMANYSIMILARITIESALLOVERTHEWORLDHOWEVER,BODYLANGUAGEFROMDIFFERENTCULTURESHASMANYDIFFERENCESBECAUSEOFDIFFERENTREGIONS,RACESANDCULTURALCUSTOMSANDITISRESTRICTEDBYITSCULTUREANDHASDIFFERENTCULTURALCONNOTATIONSTHATISTOSAY,THESAMEBODYLANGUAGEHASDIFFERENTMEANINGSINDIFFERENTCULTURESANDHASDIFFERENTSOCIALFUNCTIONSTHISARTICLEDEVOTESTOACOMPARISONANDCONTRASTOFBODYLANGUAGEINDIFFERENTCULTURESINTERMSOFEYELANGUAGE,GESTURES,POSTURES,FACIALEXPRESSIONSANDTOUCHITAIMSTOILLUSTRATETHEDIFFERENCESANDSIMILARITIESOFBODYLANGUAGEANDPUTFORWARDTHEPRINCIPLESOFREDUCINGBARRIERSINCOMMUNICATIONSOASTOACHIEVEEFFICIENTCOMMUNICATIONANDTOAVOIDMISUNDERSTANDINGKEYWORDSNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION;BODYLANGUAGE;CULTURALDIFFERENCESANDSIMILARITIES;PRINCIPLES【摘要】身势语是非语言交际的重要组成部分并和文化紧密联系在一起。为了在跨文化交际中能够成功地进行交流,我们应该了解不同文化的身势语,必须承认世界各国的身势语与语言和文化一样,也有相似之处。然而,由于地域,种族,文化习俗的差异,不同文化的身势语有许多差异。它们由文化制约并拥有独特的文化内涵。也就是说,同样的身势语在不同文化背景下有不同的含义,行使着不同的社会功能。本文致力于从目光语,手势语,身体姿态,面部表情,体触语方面对不同文化的身势语进行对比。目的在于通过列举身势语的文化差异与共性,并提出交际中遵循的原则,从而促进有效交流,避免误解。【关键词】非语言交际;身势语;文化异同;原则1INTRODUCTIONPEOPLECANCOMMUNICATEWITHEACHOTHERTHROUGHNOTONLYVERBALCOMMUNICATIONBUTALSONONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONMOREOVER,THELATTERPLAYSANESSENTIALROLEINHUMANCOMMUNICATIONNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONISCONNECTEDWITHCULTURESANDITISTHERESULTOFCULTURESBUTMANYPEOPLEPAYGREATATTENTIONTOTHEACCEPTANCEANDCORRECTNESSOFTHEVERBALCOMMUNICATIONANDOVERLOOKTHEINFLUENCEANDCULTURALDIFFERENCEOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTHENTHEMISUNDERSTANDINGANDCULTURALCRASHOFTENOCCURINTHECROSSCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONSOINTHEPROCESSOFCOMMUNICATION,ITISNOTACOMPLETECOMMUNICATIONWHILEIGNORINGTHECULTURALDIFFERENCESOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONAFAMOUSANTHROPOLOGISTETHALLPOINTEDOUT“SILENTLANGUAGEEXPRESSESMOREINFORMATIONTHANVERBALLANGUAGEBECAUSEITCONTAINSMUCHINFORMATION”ACCORDINGTOSOMERESEARCHERSABROAD,INPEOPLE’SDAILYLIFE,NONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTAKESPARTOVER65INALLOFINFORMATIONEXCHANGEANDBODYLANGUAGEISANIMPORTANTPARTOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONMANYEXPERTSHAVESHOWNTHEIMPORTANCEOFBODYLANGUAGEINTHECROSSCULTURALCOMMUNICATION“APSYCHOLOGISTPROPOSEDAFORMULATHETOTALIMPACTOFMESSAGE7VERBAL38VOCAL55FACIALEXPRESSIONSANDBEHAVIOR”1P89ITISCLEARWITHOUTBODYLANGUAGEWECAN’TFINISHOURINFORMATIONALEXCHANGEBODYLANGUAGE,LIKEVERBALLANGUAGECANEXPRESSEMOTIONS,EXCHANGEIDEASANDDELIVERINFORMATIONSOWEMUSTKNOWTHECULTURALDIFFERENCESOFBODYLANGUAGETOACHIEVEEFFICIENTCOMMUNICATION2DEFINITIONANDFUNCTIONSOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION21DEFINITIONOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION“NONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONISAPROCESSINWHICHCOMMUNICATORSUSETHENATURALFEATURESOFTHEIRBODIESTODELIVERINFORMATIONANDEXPRESSSPECIFICMEANINGINSTINCTIVELYTOTHEOTHERCOMMUNICATOR”2P90THESTUDYOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONCOVERSTHREEMAJORPARTSPROXERNICS,KINESICSORBODYLANGUAGE,ANDPARALANGUAGEPROXERNICSREFERSTHATPEOPLEKEEPCERTAINSPACEWITHEACHOTHERWHENTHEYCOMMUNICATEANDTHEMEANINGITSUGGESTSFOREXAMPLE,ARABIANSLIKETOKEEPCLOSEWHILEENGLISHMENLIKETOKEEPACERTAINDISTANCEITISFUNNYTOSEETHEYAREINCONVERSATIONARABIANSWILLCOMECLOSERANDCLOSERBUTENGLISHMENWILLWITHDRAWFURTHERANDFURTHERWHENTHEYFINISHTHECONVERSATION,THEYAREFARAWAYFROMTHEPLACETHEYSTOODKINESICSISALSOCALLEDBODYLANGUAGE,WHICHSTUDIESTHEMEANINGSOFTHEMOVEMENTOFALLPARTSOFBODYANDITINCLUDESMANYNONVERBALBEHAVIORSUCHASEYELANGUAGE,GESTURES,POSTURES,FACIALEXPRESSIONS,TOUCHANDSOONWEWILLDISCUSSITINDETAILSLATERPARALANGUAGEREFERSTOALLKINDSOFSOUNDSIGNALSMADEBYMOUTH,WHICHCANEXPRESSCERTAINEMOTIONSANDIDEASPARALANGUAGEISNOTTHEPHRASESANDSENTENCESWITHCLEARMEANINGSITISTOTRANSFORMINFORMATIONBYSOUND,SUCHAS“OUCH”BESIDESTHIS,THEPITCHOFTONEANDLOUDNESSORQUIETNESSOFVOICEALSOBELONGSTOPARALANGUAGEANDSOMERESEARCHERSBELIEVETHATCLOTHINGBELONGSTOPARALANGUAGE,TOO22FUNCTIONSOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION,LIKEVERBALCOMMUNICATIONISALSOAPARTOFCULTUREANDTHECARRIEROFACERTAINCULTURETHEFUNCTIONOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONINTHEWHOLECOMMUNICATIONCAN’TBEOVERLOOKED“INTHEDAILYCOMMUNICATION,WECANSEEPEOPLECAN’TCOMMUNICATEEFFICIENTLYBYVERBALLANGUAGEALONEANDNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONWILLEXPRESSCLEARMEANINGSINACERTAINCONTEXTANDACERTAINNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONSHOULDBECONNECTEDWITHVERBALCOMMUNICATIONORTHEOTHERNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTOPROVIDECORRECTINFORMATION”3P37SOINCOMMUNICATIVEACTIVITIES,NONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONALSOPLAYSAGREATROLEOFCOURSE,WESHOULDPAYCLOSEATTENTIONTOTHEFUNCTIONSOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION“INANYCASE,WHENVERBALCOMMUNICATIONCONFLICTSWITHNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION,PEOPLEAREWILLINGTOACCEPTTHEINFORMATIONNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONDELIVERSBECAUSENONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONSOUNDSMORENATURAL,MOREINSTINCTIVEANDITISHARDTOPRETEND”4同1P90OBVIOUSLY,WESHOULDMAKEFULLUSEOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTOACHIEVEEFFICIENTCOMMUNICATIONNOW,WEWILLDISCUSSTHEFUNCTIONSOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONREPETITIONFOREXAMPLE,WHENWETELLPEOPLEHOWTOGETTOTHENEARESTHOSPITAL,WEARENOTONLYTELLINGTHEMTHEDIRECTIONBUTALSOPOINTINGTOTHEDIRECTIONWITHHA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