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语言文化论文-浅谈非语言交际中的身势语.doc

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语言文化论文-浅谈非语言交际中的身势语.doc

语言文化论文浅谈非语言交际中的身势语摘要身势语同语言一样,都是文化的一部分。在不同文化中,身势语的意义并不完全相同。各民族有不同的非语言交际方式.例如不同的民族在谈话时,对双方保持多大距离才合适有不同的看法谈话双方身体接触的次数多少因文化不同而各异在目光接触这一方面也有许多规定看不看对方,什么时候看,看多久,什么人可以看,什么人不可以看在某些场合下,在中国和讲英语的国家无论微笑还是大笑,通常表示友好﹑赞同﹑满意﹑高兴﹑愉快,但是在某些场合,中国人的笑会引起西方人的反感打手势时动作稍有不同,就会与原来的意图有所区别,对某种手势理解错了,也会引起意外的反应等等。因此,要用外语进行有效的交际,在说某种语言时就得了解说话人的手势,动作,举止等所表示的意思。而有些权威人士认为两者相互依存。在大多数情况下这是对的。在某些情况下,人体动作与所说的话不一致,口头说的与身势语表达的意思不一样。这时要借助其他信息或从整个情况中猜测说话人的意思,从某种意义上说,一切身势语都要放在一定的情景下去理解忽视了整个情景就会发生误解。而通过中美身势语对比研究表明,两者有相似的地方,也有差异的地方,说明了解另一种语言中身势语的重要性。可见,真正掌握两种语言的人在换用另一种语言说话时也要换用另一种身势语。这样才能达到更好的交际效果。关键词非语言交际身势语不同文化不同方式BodyLanguageonNonverbalCommunicationAbstractBodylanguage,likeourverballanguage,isalsoapartofourculture.Butnotallbodylanguagemeansthesamethingindifferentcultures.Differentpeoplehavedifferentwaysofmakingnonverbalcommunication.Forexampledifferentpeoplehavedifferentideasabouttheproperdistancebetweenpeopleconversingtheappropriatenessofphysicalcontactvarieswithdifferentculturesonecoulddrawupquitealistofrulesabouteyecontacttolookornottolookwhentolookandhowlongtolookwhoandwhonottolookatsmilesandlaughterusuallyconveyfriendliness,approval,satisfaction,pleasure,joyandmerriment,and,thisisgenerallytrueinChinaaswellastheEnglishspeakingcountries,however,therearesituationswhensomeChinesewilllaughthatwillcausenegativereactionsbywesternersgesturescanbeparticularlytroublesome,foraslightdifferenceinmakingthegestureitselfcanmeansomethingquitedifferentfromthatintended,and,awronginterpretationofagesturecanarousequiteunexpectedreactionsandsoon.Soinordertocommunicateeffectivelyinaforeignlanguage,oneshouldknowalsothegestures,bodymovements,mannerismsandetc.thataccompanyaparticularlanguage.Someauthoritiesfeelthatthetwoaredependentoneachother.Thisiscertainlytrueinmostsituations.Butitisalsotruethatincertainsituationsbodyactioncontradictswhatisbeingsaid,justasthespokenwordsmaymeansomethingquitedifferentfromwhatbodylanguagecommunicates.Whenthisoccurs,onemusttrytogetfurtherinformation,orguessthemeaningfromthecontextofthesituation.Inasense,allbodylanguageshouldbeinterpretedwithinagivencontexttoignoretheoverallsituationcouldbemisleading.AcomparativestudyofChineseandAmericanbodylanguageshowsanumberofsimilaritiesanddiversitiesofbodylanguage.Itshowstheimportanceofknowingthespecificgesturesthatgowithalanguage.Observationshowsthatatrulybilingualpersonswitcheshisbodylanguageatthesametimeheswitcheslanguages.Thismakescommunicationeasierandbetter.KeywordsnonverbalcommunicationbodylanguagedifferentculturedifferentwaysContents1.Introduction12.Thenecessityandimportanceoflearningbodylanguageonnonverbalcommunication23.Theconcretetypesandapplicationofthebodylanguage33.1Typesofbodylanguage33.1.1Distancebetweenpeopleconversing33.1.2Physicalcontact33.1.3Eyecontact43.1.4Smilesandlaughter63.1.5Gestures63.2Applicationofthebodylanguage63.2.1Greetings63.2.2Signsofaffection83.2.3Physicalcontactinlife83.3AcomparativestudyofChineseandAmericanbodylanguage94.Conclusion121.IntroductionWhenaChineseconverseswithaCanadianorAmericanfriendoftheoppositesex,woulditbeindecenttobelookingattheotherpersonIftwoyoungfriendsofthesamesexwalkwiththeirarmsaroundeachothersshouldersorholdhands,wouldthisberegardedbyEnglishspeakingpeopleasproperDoesnoddingtheheadmeanyes,andshakingtheheadmeannoinallculturesTherearenotquestionsaboutlanguage,butaboutbodylanguage,aboutnonverbalcommunication.Nonverbalcommunication,composedofpictures,dresses,eyecontact,spatialsignals,gesturesandsoon,isasimportantasverbalcommunication.Peoplecommunicateinmanydifferentways.Oneofthemostimportantways,ofcourse,isthroughlanguage.Moreover,whenlanguageiswrittenitcanbecompletelyisolatedfromthecontextinwhichitoccursitcanbetreatedasifitwereanindependentandselfcontainedprocess.Likeallanimals,peoplecommunicatebytheiractionsaswellasbythenoisestheymake.Itisasortofbiologicalanomalyofmansomethinglikethegiraffesneck,orthepelicansbeakthatourvocalnoiseshavesoforoutgrowninimportanceandfrequencyallourothermethodsofsignalingtooneanother.Languageisobviouslyessentialforhumanbeings,butitisnotthewholestoryofhumancommunication.Notbyalongshot.Thestudyofnonverbalcommunicationshouldbecomplementarytothestudyoflanguage.Theunderstandingofoneshouldbehelpfulinthefurtherunderstandingoftheother.Someauthoritiesfeelthatthetwoaredependentoneachother.Thisiscertainlytrueinmostsituations.Butitisalsotruethatincertainsituationbodyactioncontradictswhatisbeingsaid,justasthespokenwordsmaymeansomethingquitedifferentfromwhatnonverbalcommunicationcommunicates.Whenthisoccurs,onemusttrytogetfurtherinformation,orguessthemeaningfromthecontextofthesituation.Inacase,allnonverbalcommunicationshouldbeinterpretedwithinagivencontexttoignoretheoverallsituationcouldbemisleading.2.ThenecessityandimportanceoflearningbodylanguageonnonverbalcommunicationAlthoughwemaynotrealizeit,whenweconversewithotherswecommunicatebymuchmorethanwords.Byourexpressions,gesturesandotherbodymovementswesendmessagestothesearoundusasmileandanoutstretchedhandshowwelcome.Aformisasignofdispleasure.NoddingonesheadmeansagreementYes.Wavinganoutstretchedhandwithopenpalmisthegestureforgoodbye.Leaningbackinonesseatandyawningatatalkorlectureshowslackofinterest,boredom.Thesegestureshavecometobeacceptedingeneralashavingthemeaningsmentioned,atlasttoChineseandAmericans.Therearepartsofthewayinwhichwecommunicate.Thisbodylanguage,likeourverballanguage,isalsoapartofourculture.Butnotallbodylanguagemeansthesamethingindifferentcultures.Differentpeoplehavedifferentwaysofmakingnonverbalcommunication.Theanswerstothequestionsatthebeginningofthischapterareallno.Evennoddingtheheadmayhaveadifferentmeaning.ToNepalese,SriLankans,someIndiansandsomeEskimositmeansnotyes,butno.Soinordertocommunicateeffectivelyinaforeignlanguage,oneshouldknowalsothegestures,bodymovements,mannerismsandetc.thataccompanyaparticularlanguage.Bodylanguageisanimportantmediathroughwhichpeoplecommunicatewitheachother.Itreferstothepatternsoffacialexpressionsandgesturesthatpeopleusetoexpresstheirfeelingsincommunication.ThespecialistonbodylanguageresearchFen.Lafle.Angles,oncesaidOnceitwaslost,ababycouldnthavegrownintoanormalperson.Itsalsotruetothejuveniles.Inschooleducation,bodylanguageplaysapositiveroleincultivatingthestudentscharacters.3.Theconcretetypesandapplicationofthebodylanguage3.1Typesofbodylanguage3.1.1DistancebetweenpeopleconversingWatchanArabandanEnglishmaninconversation.TheArab,showingfriendlinessinthemannerofhispeople,willstandclosetotheEnglishman.Thelatterwillmoveback,watchingtotheEnglishman.TheArabwillthenmoveforwardtobeclosertheEnglishmanwillkeepmovingbackward.Bytheendoftheconversation,thetwomaybequiteadistancefromtheconversationthetwomaybequiteadistancefromtheplacewheretheywereoriginallystandingHere,distancebetweenthetwoisthekeyfactor.Differentpeoplehavedifferentideasabouttheproperdistancebetweenpeopleconversing.Accordingtostudies,itseemstherearefourmaindistancesinAmericansocialandbusinessrelationsintimate,personal,social,andpublic.Intimatedistancerangesfromdirectphysicalcontacttoadistanceofabout45centimetersthisisforpeoplesmostprivaterelationsand

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