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语言文化论文-用语言学的方法分析短消息语言和行为.doc

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语言文化论文-用语言学的方法分析短消息语言和行为.doc

语言文化论文用语言学的方法分析短消息语言和行为AbstractThispaperbeginswithanintroductiontomobilebasedshortmassage,orSMforshort.AlthoughthearrivalofSMbringsconvenienceandhappinesstopeopleslife,thecharacteristicsofSMlanguageresultinitsvulnerabilitytomisunderstanding.Fromalinguisticperspective,factorsresponsibleforthemisunderstandingofSMareanalyzed.Firstly,SMlanguageviolatesthecooperativeprinciple.Peopleadoptacooperativeprinciplewhentheycommunicatewitheachothertheytrytogetalongwitheachotherbyfollowingcertainconversationalmaxims.TheviolationofthesemaximsmakesthefunctionsofSMindefiniteandSMusershavetointerpretSMbasedontheirownexperience.Secondly,incontrastwithfacetofaceconversationsandtelephonecalls,SMlacksbodylanguage,facialexpressions,properstressandintonation.Thirdly,SMlanguageismorecasualthanwrittenlanguage.Inconclusion,thispapersuggestssomesolutionstotherelatedproblem.KeywordsshortmassageorSM,misunderstanding,cooperativeprinciple,bodylanguage,facialexpression,intonation,stress,writtenlanguage摘要本文的开头对移动电话的短消息(又称短信)作了简要的介绍。尽管短消息的出现给人们带来了方便,短消息自身语言的特点导致了它容易被人们误解。从语言学的角度,本文分析了导致短信被误解的几个因素。第一,短消息语言违背了合作原则。人们在交际过程中,常常会采用一种准则。为了很好的交流,人们回遵守会话准则。而短信语言对准则的违背,导致了短信的作用不明确。并且,人们在解释短信内容时,往往只根据自己的经验。第二,与面对面的谈话和电话通讯相比,短信缺少肢体语言、表情、适当的重音和语调。第三,短信语言与书面语言相比,具有随意性。文章的结尾对相关的问题提出了解决的办法。关键词短消息或短信、误解、合作原则、肢体语言、表情、重音、语调、书面语言AnAnalysisofShortMessageLanguageandBehaviorswithaLinguisticApproachThesisstatementShortmessageisvulnerabletomisunderstanding,whichcanbeexplainedbytheviolationofthecooperativeprinciple,andincontrastwithtraditionalconversationandwrittenlanguage,thedeficiencyofshortmessageisanalyzed.OutlineIIntroductionIIThevulnerabilityofSMtomisunderstandingfromtheperspectiveofthecooperativeprincipleA.IntroductionofcooperativeandtheviolationofmaximsB.Threekindsofmisunderstanding⑴Theindefinitenatureofthesendersmessage⑵AnumberoffactorsaffectingtheinterpretationofSM⑶ThequeryconcerningtheendofSMconversationIIIThedeficiencyofSMincontrastwithfacetofaceconversationandTELcallA.ThelackofbodylanguageandexpressionB.ThelackofstressandintonationIVThecasualnessofSMincontrastwithwrittenlanguageA.SMprocessedatrandomB.ThedifferencesbetweenSMlanguageandwrittenlanguageVConclusionIIntroductionShortMessageServiceSMSisanewcommunicationaltoolthatcombinesthefunctionsofmobilephoneandpager.AccordingtothestatisticsfromGlobalGPSAssociation,thetotalnumberofSMshasreached510billionin2003,andChinaaccountsforonethirdofthem,soaringto170billion.SMisregardedasaconvenient,highlydemocratic,informationalmediumforconveyingmessagesthatconformswelltohumanneeds.Asamoderncommunicationtool,SMhasmanyadvantageswhichareabsentinothercommunicationmedias.Forexample,SMenablesdumbpeopletocommunicatefreelywithhealthypeopleSMmakesnonoisewhichmaybotherothersSMprotectsprivacy,becausenothirdpartyknowsthecontentofSMconversation.However,thecharacteristicsofSMlanguagealsobringnegativeeffectstopeopleslife.PeoplefindthatSMisnotsopowerfulandpleasant,anditcanbeeasilymisunderstood.Withthehelpoflinguisticapproaches,factorsthatareresponsibleforthemisunderstandingofSMareanalyzed1.theviolationofthecooperativeprinciple.2SMcannottaketheplaceoffacetofaceconversation.3SMismorecasualthanwrittenlanguage.IIThevulnerabilityofSMtomisunderstandingfromtheperspectiveofthecooperativeprincipleTheprocessofsendingSMissoeasyandinformalthatpeopletreatitastheydoconversation.SMisabitlikeaconversationatthewatercoolerthatcanbeinstantlyforwardedto50people.Foraconversationtobesuccessful,inmostsocialcontexts,theparticipantsneedtofeeltheyarecontributingsomethingtoitandaregettingsomethingoutofit.Forthistohappen,certainconditionsmustapply.Everyonemusthaveanopportunitytospeaknooneshouldbemonopolizingorconstantlyinterrupting.Theparticipantsneedtomaketheirrolescleartheyneedtohaveasenseofwhentospeakorstaysilentwhentoprofferinformationorholditbackwhentostayalooforbecomeinvolved.Thesuccessofaconversationdependsnotonlyonwhatspeakerssaybutontheirwholeapproachtotheinteraction.Ourtalkexchangesdonotnormallyconsistofasuccessionofdisconnectedremarks,andwouldnotberationaliftheydid.Theyarecharacteristically,tosomedegreeatleast,cooperativeeffortsandeachparticipantrecognizesinthem,tosomeextent,acommonpurposeorsetofpurposes,oratleastamutuallyaccepteddirectionGrice197545.Peopleadoptacooperativeprinciplewhentheycommunicatewitheachothertheytrytogetalongwitheachotherbyfollowingcertainconversationalmaximsthatunderlietheefficientuseoflanguage.Fourbasicmaximshavebeenproposed.Themaximofqualitystatesthatspeakerscontributionstoaconversationoughttobetrue.Theyshouldnotsaywhattheybelievetobefalse,norshouldtheysayanythingforwhichtheylackadequateevidence.Themaximofquantitystatesthatcontributionsshouldbeasinformativeasisrequiredforthepurposesoftheconversation.Oneshouldsayneithertoolittlenortoomuch.Themaximofrelevancestatesthatconversationsshouldclearlyrelatetothepurposeoftheexchange.Themaximofmannerstatesthatthecontributionshouldbeperspicuous,inparticular,thatitshouldbeorderlyandbrief,avoidingobstructingambiguity.Inshort,thesemaximsspecifywhatparticipantshavetodoinordertoconverseinamaximallyefficient,rational,cooperativewaytheyshouldspeaksincerely,relevantlyandclearly,whileprovidingsufficientinformation.Buttheuseoftermsprincipleandmaximdoesnotmeanthatthecooperativeprincipleanditsmaximswillbefollowedbyeverybodyallthetime.Ifpeopleviolatethesemaximsdeliberately,listenersmaydrawinferencefromwhatspeakershavesaidandworkouttheimplicatureoftheutterance.ButforSMusers,violationofmaximsisdonepassively.Thenletustakealookatthefollowingshortmessagesrecordedintheauthorsmobilephone.No.1.AStillbusy940pmConversationstarted,butAspurposeisconfusingNo.2.BNottoobusy,whatsup941pmActuallyBwasverybusyinhisessay,maybewriting,butBinferredthatAmusthavesomethingimportanttotell.No.3.AWhenyouworkedintheComputerAssociation,haveyoueverfailedtonegotiatewithsponsors946pmIttakesA5minutestorespond.Heattemptstomakehiswordsappropriate.Bhastosuspendhisworkandwaitforadirectanswer.Butthisanswerseemssoirrelevant.No.4.BNo947pmBtriestoconcentrateonhiswork,soherespondsbriefly.Aisquitefrustratedbythefailednegotiationandneedssomeonetocomforthim.ThesinglewordNomakeshimthinkthatifBisnotbusy,howBcouldbesocold.No.5.ASorry,Ithoughtyoudid,then,goodnight.949pmConversationhastobeendedupunpleasantlyNo.6.BGoodnight.950pmBisstillunawareofAsintention.Hecandonothingbutendconversation.Thetwoparticipantsofthisshortconversationviolatethefourmaximsviolationsofmaxims.No.1violatesMofquantity.Hesaystoolittle.Heshouldstatehispurposeclearly.No.2violatesMofquality.Hesayssomethingthatisfalse,buthehasto.No.3HereAscontributioninitsliteralmeaning,failstoanswerBsquestion,andthusseemstoviolateatleastthemaximsofquantityandrelevance.WemightthereforeexpectAsutterancetobeinterpretedasanoncooperativeresponse.Yetitisclearthatdespitethisapparentfailureofcooperation,wetrytointerpretAsutteranceascooperativeatsomedeeperlevel.WecanassurethattherecouldbesomepossibleconnectionbetweenNo.2andNo.3.However,sinceitisaSMconversation,AandBcouldnotseeeachother.Bisactuallyinahurryandhewantstogotothetopicdirectly,butAwantsaeuphemisticway.HereSMisnotpowerfulenoughtoconnectthestatesofmindofthetwopersons.No.4alsoviolatesMofquantity.Bissupposedtobeconsiderate.No.5violatesMofmanner.Twosentencesseemnotorderly.However,inourdailyconversation,theimplicaturesofwordsareeasilydeduced.SowhydoestheviolationofcooperativeprincipleinSMfailtoenablepeopletoworkouttheexactimplicaturesTheremustbesomeotherfactorscontributingtotheunderstandingofwords.Weshallfurtherdiscussthispointinthethirdsection.Althoughthetwoparticipantsofthisshortconversationdonotviolatemaximsdeliberatelyandpurposefully,theirwordsaremisconstrued.AndthemisconstructionsofSMcanbesortedintothree.Firstly,thepurposeofSMlanguageisnotdefinite,i.e.,thefunctionsofSMlanguagearenotclear.Linguiststalkaboutthefunctionsoflanguageinanabstractsense,thatis,notintermsofusinglanguagetochat,tothink,tobuyandsell,toreadandwrite,togreetpeople,etc.TocommunicateourideasistheusualanswertothequestionwhydoweuselanguageIndeed,thismustsurelybethemostwidelyrecognizedfunctionoflanguage.Wheneverwetellpeopleaboutourcircumstancesorourselvesoraskforinformationaboutotherselves,weareusinglanguageinordertoexchangefactsandopinions.Theuseoflanguageisoftencalledideationalorreferential.Butitwouldbeproblematictothinkofitastheonlywayweuselanguage.Linguistssummarizethesepracticalfunctionsoflanguagelikefollowinginformative,interpersonal,performative,emotive,phatic,recreationalandmetalingualHu200110.HallidayproposesatheoryofmetafunctionsoflanguagethatislanguagehasIDEATIONAL,INTERPERSONAL,andTextualfunctions.Ideationalfunctionconstructsamodelofexperienceandconstructslogicalrelations,interpersonalfunctionenactssocialrelationshipsandtextualfunctioncreatesrelevancetocontextHalliday1985VIII.Amongthem,thefirsttwofunctionsareoftenmixedupinSMlanguage.Formostpeople,theinformativefunctionispredominantlythemajorroleoflanguage.Languageistheinstrumentofthoughtandpeopleoftenfeeltheneedtospeaktheirthoughtsaloudaswhentheyareworkingonamathproblem.Andthemostimportantsociologicaluseoflanguageistheinterpersonalfunction,bywhichpeopleestablishandmaintainacomfortablerelationinasociety.SMisamediumwhosefunctionisratherconfusing.Peopleuseittoconveyinformation,keepintouchwitheachother,sharejokes,expressemotionsorevenpassanger.Buttherecipientcannottellwhichfromwhich,hemightdealwithhisshortmessageswithanattitudethatisunexpectedbyitssender.Letsseethefollowingexample.AIplayedfootballthisafternoon,howtiredIam.BOh,reallyYoureenergeticTheconversationendshere.Afeelstiredafterplayingfootball,andsendsaSMtooneofhisfriendsBtoexpresshisexcitement.ButthisconfusesBastohowtorespondappropriately,orhemaysimplybroodaboutitforquitealongtime.Secondly,therecipientsofSMmaketheirowninterpretationsbasedonsituationaleffectsandschemata.Thefirstandthesecondsortofmisunderstandingscanbesomewhatoverlapping.BecausefunctionofSMlanguageisnotclear,peoplebegantointerpretmessageswiththeirownexperience.Besides,thequantityofinformationconveyedisofteninadequate,SMleavesalotofblankspacesinwhatpeoplesay,whichtherecipienttendstofillwiththemostnegativeinterpretations.Thirdly,howtoendSMconversationandwhenistherighttimetoenditalsobotherSMusersalot.NomatterhowpeopleenjoySM,writingitisverytimeconsuming.Ifonewantstoenditandtheotherdoesnot,atleastonewillbeunpleasant.ItisunlikelythatbothofthemarereadyforSMconversationatthesametime,becausetwopeopleareintwoenvironments.IIIThedeficiencyofSMincontrastwithfacetofaceconversationandTelcallPeoplecanhidethemselvesbehindthetinyscreens,andtherefore,theyarebraverandtheycantellwhatevertheylike.Somanypeoplearenowabusingit.ButisitsuperiortofacetofaceconversationsandtelephonecallsTheanswermightbeno.Firstly,SMlacksbodylanguageandfacialexpressions.Thecommunicativeuseofthevisualandtactilemodesisoftenreferredtoasnonverbalcommunication,especiallyinacademicdiscussion.Ineverydayterms,itistheareaofbodylanguageCrystal1997403.Mostpeoplemaynotbeawareoftheimportanceofitwhentheymessageeachother,becausetheydoitsubconsciously.Thefieldofnonverbalvisualcommunication,kinesics,canbebrokendownintoseveralcomponentsfacialexpression,eyecontact,gesture,andbodyposture.Eachcomponentperformsavarietyoffunctions.Movementsofthefaceandbodycangivecluestoapersonspersonalityandemotionalstate.Theface,inparticular,signalsawiderangeofemotions,suchasfear,happiness,sadness,anger,surprise,interest,anddisgust.Manyoftheexpressionsvaryinmeaningfromculturetoculture.Inaddition,thefaceandbodysendsignalsaboutthewayasocialinteractionisproceeding.Patternsofeyecontactshowwhoistalkingtowhomfacialexpressionprovidesfeedbacktothespeaker,expressingsuchmeaningsaspuzzlementordisbeliefandabodypostureconveysapersonsattitudetowardstheinteractione.g.relaxation,interest,boredom.Severalkindsofsocialcontextareassociatedwithspecificfacialorbodybehaviorse.g.wavingwhiletakingleave.Ritualorofficialoccasionsareoftenprimarilymarkedbysuchfactorsaskneeling,orblessing.WhileSMonlyprovidesitsrecipientscoresofcharactersoneshortmassagecontainsnomorethan70Chinesecharacters,thesendersfacialexpressionorevenhisattitudetowardswhathesaidonlydependsontherecipientspersonalimagination.TherealmeaningofSMandintentionthusareoftenmisunderstood.Besides,comparedwithtraditionalconversation,SMlacksproperstressandintonation.Stressreferstothedegreeofforceusedinproducingasyllable.Intranscription,araisedverticallike′isusedjustbeforethesyllableitrelatesto.Abasicdistinctionismadebetweenstressedandunstressedsyllables,theformerbeingmoreprominentthanthelatterusuallyduetoanincreaseinloudness,lengthorpitch.Thismeansthatstressisarelativenotion.Hu200171Atthewordlevel,itonlyappliestowordswithatleasttwosyllables.StresspatterninChineseiseasier,becausewecanjustfocusonsentencelevel,whereamonosyllabicwordmaybesaidtobestressedrelativetootherwordsinthesentence.Sentencestressisoftenusedtoexpressemphasis,surprise,etc,sothatinprinciplestressmayfallonanywordoranysyllable.Forexample,aSMconversationbeginswithasentencelikethis,IwentshoppingaroundJiefangbeithewholeday.Iboughtnothing.Thesentenceisquiteclear,butwhichworddoesthesenderemphasizeIfthissentenceiscarriedonatelephoneorfacetofaceconversation,itwillnotcauseanypuzzle.Intonation,andothersuprasegmentalfeaturesoflanguage,performsavarietyofdifferentfunctions.Crystal1992173Themostobviousfunctionistoexpressawiderangeofattitudinalmeaningsexcitement,boredom,surprise,friendliness,reserve,andmanyhundredsmore.Intonationconveysagreatdealaboutwhatisreferredtoastheinformationstructureoftheutterance.Intonationcanhelptoorganizelanguageunitsthataremoreeasilyperceivedandmemorized.IVThecasualnessofSMincontrastwithwrittenlanguageHowever,wecannotsimplysaythewrittenformofspeechislesspowerfulincommunication.OnethingthatdiffersSMlanguagefromletters,andEmailisthecasualnessofSM.SMisoftenprocessedunderarandomcondition.Theusermaydoitwhileheishavinglunch,takingawalk,readingbooks,talkingtoothers,orwatchingTV,etc.Hecouldnotfocusallhisattentiononwritingwhathewantstosay.Hehastodoitwithlittlethought.Besides,sometimes,oneSMusermaymessagethreeothersormoreatthesametime.Theoverloadeduserhastospeeditup,andthequalityofSMdecreases.Butwhenpeoplewriteletters,theyaremuchmoreconsiderate.UnlikeSM,sendinglettersisdemanding,sincewecannotwriteletterswhereverandwheneverwelike.Oncealetterissent,littlechanceleftfortheaddressertoexplainit.Thus,SMismorelikearecordofspokenlanguage,andthenumberofitscharactersisquitelimitednomorethan70,includingpunctuations.Inthefollowingparts,wefocusondifferencebetweenSMlanguageandwrittenlanguage.Thepermanenceofwritingallowsrepeatedreadingandcloseanalysis.Itpromotesthedevelopmentofartfulorganizationandmoreconcise,intricatelystructuredexpression.Unitsofdiscourse,suchassentencesandparagraphs,areclearlyidentifiedthroughlayoutandpunctuation.Crystal1992181Bycontrast,thespontaneityandrapidityofSMminimizethechanceofcomplexpreplanning,anditalsolacksrepetition,rephrasingfillerphrasessuchasyouknow,yousee,thinkthatassistspeakerstothinkstandingup,andthereisnouseofintonationandpausetodivideanutteranceintomanageablechunks.Theparticipantsinwritteninteractioncannotusuallyseeeachother,andtheythuscannotrelyonthecontexttohelpmakeclearwhattheymean,astheywouldwhenspeaking.Asaconsequence,writingavoidswordswhosemeaningrelyonsituationsuchasthisone,overthere.Writersalsohavetoanticipatetheeffectsoftimelagbetweenproductionandreception.ThisisoutofthequestioninSM.SMusersassumethattheothersideisalwaysreadyforreceptionofSMactually,itisquitenormalthattherecipientisverybusy,andthatthefeedbackwouldcomeimmediately.ButSMisnottimebound,andthesituationinwhichbothparticipantsarepresentisrare.WrittenlanguagetendstobemoreformalthanSMlanguageandismorelikelytoprovidethestandardthatsocietyvalues.DifferentpeoplehavedevelopedtheirownSMhabitorstyle.Somepeoplefrequentlyusepunctuations,suchas,,,someusecapitalizedwordforexampleOh,TMD,IllTyoutoexpressspecialmeanings.Thesewords,ononehand,makeSMlanguagevivid,butontheotherhand,languagebarrierisformed.Noteverybodycouldunderstandthesefashionablewords,anditisbeingupdated.People,especiallythosewhoseldommessageanother,findthemselvestrappedbythesepersonallycoinedwordsand

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