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语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc

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语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc

语言文化论文美国文学史ABSTRACTAMERICA’SHISTORYOFLITERATUREBEGANWITHTHESWARMINGINOFIMMIGRANTSWITHDIFFERENTBACKGROUNDANDCULTURESAFTERTHAT,AMERICANLITERATUREHADBEENGREATLYINFLUENCEDBYTHEEUROPEANCULTUREFORALONGPERIODITWASNOTUNTILAMERICA’SINDEPENDENCE,DIDAMERICANSREALIZEDTHATTHEYNEEDNATIONALLITERATURESTRONGLY,ANDAMERICANLITERATUREBEGANTODEVELOPEDTHECIVILWARWASAWATERSHEDINTHEHISTORY,AFTERWHICHAMERICANLITERATUREENTEREDAPERIODOFFULLBLOOMINGROMANTICS,WHICHEMPHASIZEDINDIVIDUALISMANDINTUITIONANDTNSCENDENTALISMREPRESENTEDBYEMERSONCAMEOUTINTOBEINGTHISWASANEXCITINGPERIODINTHEHISTORYOFAMERICANLITERATURELIKETHEFLOWERSOFSPRING,THEREWERESUDDENLYMANYDIFFERENTKINDSOFWRITINGATTHESAMETIMETHEYHAVEGIVENDEPTHANDSTRENGTHTOAMERICANLITERATURE,ANDACCELERATEDTHEFORMINGOFHIGHROMANTICSBUTDUETOTHEINFLUENCEOFCIVILWAR,THEAMERICANSOCIETYWASINATURBULENTSITUATIONTHEWRITINGSABOUTLOCALLIFE,CRITICALREALISMANDUNVEILINGTHEDARKSIDEOFTHESOCIETYWEREINCREASEDAFTERTHEFIRSTWORLDWAR,AMERICANSWEREATALOSSPOSTWAR,ANDTHEMODERNAMERICANLITERATUREBEGANMYPIECEOFPAPERISWRITTENINCHRONOLOGICALORDERASTHESEPERIODSDEVELOPEDINORDERTOHAVEACLEAROUTLINEOFITSPROGRESSKEYWORDSNATIONALLITERATURE,ROMANISM,TRANSCENDENTALISM,LOCALCOLOR,REALISM,MODERNLITERATURE摘要从殖民地时期起,欧洲殖民者和清教徒翻开了美国文学史的第一页。这往后很长一段时期,美国文学一直都受到欧洲文化的很大影响。一直到美国独立后,美国人强烈地感觉到了民族文学的需要,美国的民族文学开始发展。南北战争是美国文学史上一个分水岭,战后美国文学进入了一个全盛时期,产生了强调个性主义和直觉的早期浪漫主义,和以爱默生为代表的超验主义文学。爱默生的时代是美国前所未有的文学变动时代,产生了一大批优秀的作家和作品。他们突出地给予了当时美国文学以深度和力量,也促进了罗曼主义高潮的来临。但是由于战争的影响,社会动荡不安,这时的作品更注重于揭示社会的阴暗面,同时美国的民族文学进一步发展,创作出许多带有本土色彩和批判现实主义的作品。一战后,美国人陷入战后的茫然,美国也开始进入了现代文学阶段。我的论文随着这些时代的发展以时间顺序展开,以便对于美国文学史的产生和发展纲要能有一个清晰的条理。关键词民族文学,浪漫主义,超验主义,本土色彩,现实主义,现代文学AMERICANISAMULTINATIONALCOUNTRYJUSTLIKEABIGCONTAINER,WHICHPUTINVARIOUSKINDSOFELEMENTSDIFFERENTCULTURES,THATCANNOTONLYBECOEXISTEDBUTALSOFORMASHARPCONTRAST,MIXEDTOGETHER,ITMAKESAMERICANLITERATURESTYLEHASAFLAVOROFDISTINCTANDVARIOUSAESTHETICFEELINGMANYWRITERSCOMEFROMLOWERLEVEL,WHICHMAKESAMERICANLITERATUREHASTHERICHFLAVOROFLIFEANDLOCALCOLORFURTHERMORE,MANYNEWSTYLESOFLITERATUREINTHEWORLDAREORIENTEDINAMERICASINCE20THCENTURYTHEPROCESSOFAMERICANLITERATURECANBEDIVIDEDINTOFOLLOWINGMAINPERIODSCOLONYANDPURITANLITERATURE;EARLYNATIONALLITERATURE;LATTERNATIONALLITERATUREANDMODERNLITERATUREAMERICA’SHISTORYOFLITERATUREBEGANWITHTHESWARMINGINOFIMMIGRANTSWITHDIFFERENTBACKGROUNDANDCULTURESAFTERTHAT,AMERICANLITERATUREHADBEENGREATLYINFLUENCEDBYTHEEUROPEANCULTUREFORALONGPERIODITWASNOTUNTILAMERICA’SINDEPENDENCE,DIDAMERICANSREALIZETHATTHEYNEEDNATIONALLITERATURESTRONGLY,ANDAMERICANLITERATUREBEGANTODEVELOPTHECIVILWARWASAWATERSHEDINTHEHISTORY,AFTERWHICHAMERICANLITERATUREENTEREDAPERIODOFFULLBLOOMINGROMANTICS,WHICHEMPHASIZEDINDIVIDUALISMANDINTUITION,ANDTNSCENDENTALISMREPRESENTEDBYEMERSONCAMEOUTINTOBEINGTHISWASANEXCITINGPERIODINTHEHISTORYOFAMERICANLITERATURELIKETHEFLOWERSOFSPRING,THEREWERESUDDENLYMANYDIFFERENTKINDSOFWRITINGATTHESAMETIMETHEYHAVEGIVENDEPTHANDSTRENGTHTOAMERICANLITERATURE,ANDACCELERATEDTHEFORMINGOFHIGHROMANTICSBUTDUETOTHEINFLUENCEIFCIVILWAR,THEAMERICANSOCIETYWASINATURBULENTSITUATIONTHEWRITINGSABOUTLOCALLIFE,CRITICALREALISMANDUNVEILINGTHEDARKSIDEOFTHESOCIETYWEREINCREASEDAFTERTHEFIRSTWORLDWAR,AMERICANSWEREATALOSSPOSTWAR,ANDTHEMODERNAMERICANLITERATUREBEGAN1COLONIALANDEARLYAMERICANLITERATURE1TRAVELERSANDEXPLORERSWHENTHEEUROPEANEXPLORERSFIRSTCAMETOTHISNEWCONTINENT,THENATIVEINDIANSWHOPROBABLYGOTHEREFROMASIAABOUTFIFTEENTHOUSANDYEARSAGOWERESTILLINORIGIN,ANDTHEYEVENHADNOWRITTENLANGUAGE,“THETRADITIONALLITERATUREWASORIGINALLYTRANSMITTEDALMOSTENTIRELYBYWORDOFMOUTH,ANDTHEREFOREBELONGSTOTHECATEGORYOFORALLITERATURE,”WUDINGBO,1ASTIMEPAST,MOREANDMORETRAVELERSANDEXPLORERSSWARMEDINTHEYWROTEALOTOFDIARIES、LETTERS,ANDTRAVELACCOUNTSTODESCRIBETHENEWLANDASSECONDEDENNOWANDERSOMEBODYSAIDTHATTHEEARLIESTAMERICANLITERATUREWERETHETRAVELACCOUNTSWRITTENBYEUROPEANADVENTURERSAMONGTHEMOSTREMAINEDWERECAPTAINJOHNSMITH’STRUERELATIONOFVIRGINIA1608,ANDDESCRIPTIONOFNEWENGLAND1616ALTHOUGHMOSTOFTHEINDIANHISTORYWASPRESERVEDINTALESANDSONGS,THEYHADTHOUGHTSABOUTLIFEANDNATURETHEYLOVEDTHENATURALWORLDAROUNDTHEMDEEPLY,ANDTHEYBELIEVEDTHATWHENAPERSONWASDEAD,HEWOULDGIVEBACKWHATHADBORROWEDWHILEHEWASALIVETONATURETHISKINDOFPHILOSOPHYHADINFLUENCEDLATEROREVENMODERNAMERICANWRITERSIT’SINTERESTINGTHATWHENWELOOKATTHELITERATUREOFTHEPURITANS,THETRANSCENDENTALISTS,THENATURALISTS,ANDEVENTHEMODERNS,WHENWEREADANNEBRADSTREET,EMILYDICKINSON,STEPHENCRANE,ANDERNESTHEMINGWAY,WECANFINDSIMILARTHEMES2PILGRIMSETTLEMENTSSEVERALYEARSLATER,ANOTHERGROUPOFSETTLERSALSOARRIVEDINTHENEWWORLDTHISGROUPWASLOOKINGFORTHEJAMESTOWNSETTLEMENTHOWEVER,BECAUSEOFBADNAVIGATION,THEYLANDEDINMASSACHUSETTSTHEYWEREALSOCOMINGTOTHENEWWORLDWITHDREAMSOFSUCCESS,BUTTHEIRGOALWASDIFFERENTFROMTHEJAMESTOWNSETTLEMENTTHEYWANTEDTOSTARTANEWWORLDGOVERNEDBYTHEBIBLETHEYWERECALLEDPURITANSBECAUSETHEYWANTEDTOLIVEABETTERLIFEBYMAKINGTHEMSELVESPURETHEYFIRSTARRIVEDONTHEMAYFLOWERANDSETTLEDINPLYMOUTHTHISISTHEGROUPWEAREUSUALLYTHINKINGABOUTWHENWETALKABOUTTHEFIRSTAMERICANSTHECLEARESTHISTORYOFTHEIRJOURNEYTOTHENEWWORLDCANBEFOUNDINHISTORYOFPLYMOUTHPLANTATION1608WRITTENBYWILLIAMBRADFORD,WHOWASALSOONEOFTHEMAYFLOWERPASSENGERSTHEHISTORYOFPLYMOUTHPLANTATIONISAPURITANBOOKINTHEBESTSENSE“IT’SLOOSELYANNALISTIC,BUTADIRECTANDSIMPLESTYLEGIVESCHARM,ASASINCEREFAITHINPURITANISMGIVESPURITY,TOTHEENTIREBOOK”WPTRENT,1997THEPURITANSHADSEVERALKINDSOFLITERATUREBYFARTHEMOSTCOMMONFORMISTHEWRITINGRELATEDTOBIBLICALTEACHINGS,ORSERMONS,THATTHECHURCHLEADERSWROTETHEPURITANSBELIEVEDTHATTHEYWEREINTHENEWWORLDBECAUSEGODHADBROUGHTTHEMTHEREFORASPECIALPURPOSETHEYTHOUGHTTHATBYSTUDYINGTHEBIBLETHEYCOULDLEARNMOREABOUTTHISWAYOFLIFESOTHEYWEREVERYSTRICTTOTHEIRLIFE,ANDTHEYDIDN’TALLOWANYKINDOFENTERTAINMENTEVENINLITERATURETHAT’SWAYWUDINGBOSAIDINHISBOOK“LITERATUREOFTHENEWENGLANDSETTLEMENTISMAINLYALITERARYEXPRESSIONOFTHEPURITANIDEALISM”AND“THELITERATUREOFTHECOLONIALSETTLEMENTSERVEDEITHERGODORCOLONIALEXPANSIONORBOTH”WUDINGBO,4ANOTHERIMPORTANTFORMOFWRITINGFROMTHISPERIODISTHEHISTORIESTHESEBOOKS,LIKEBRADFORDSHISTORYOFPLYMOUTHPLANTATION,AREIMPORTANTBECAUSETHEYTELLUSABOUTLIFEATTHETIMEOFTHEPURITANSPEOPLEALSOWROTEMANYPOEMSBUTALOTOFWORKSWEREHIDDENANDLOSTBECAUSEPEOPLEOFTENCONSIDEREDPOETRYTOBEANINFERIORFORMOFWRITINGANDNOTTOTALLYACCEPTABLETOPURITANTHINKINGONEOFTHEMOSTSIGNIFICANTPOETSFROMTHISPERIODWASANNEBRADSTREET16121672HERPOEMSINTENTHMUSELATELYSPRUNGUPINAMERICA1650REFLECTEDTHECONCONCERNSOFWOMENWHOCAMETOSETTLEINTHECOLONIES,ANDINALLHERPOEMS,HOWEVER,SHESHOWSHERSTRONGBELIEFINGOD218THCENTURYTHEAGEOFREASON1THEAGEOFREASONINTHE18THCENTURY,PEOPLEBELIEVEDINMAN’SOWNNATUREANDTHEPOWEROFHUMANREASONWITHFRANKLINASITSSPOKESMAN,THE18THCENTURYAMERICAEXPERIENCEDANAGEOFREASONWORDSHADNEVERBEENSOUSEFULANDSOIMPORTANTINHUMANHISTORYPEOPLEWROTEALOTOFPOLITICALWRITINGSNUMEROUSPAMPHLETSANDPRINTINGSWEREPUBLISHEDTHESEWORKSAGITATEDREVOLUTIONARYPEOPLENOTONLYINAMERICABUTALSOAROUNDTHEWORLDAMONGTHEMOSTRENOWNEDWASTHEWORKCOMMONSENSE1776OFTHOMASPAINE17371809IT’STHERINGINGCALLFORTHEDECORATIONOFLIBERTYHEALSOWROTECRISIS17741783ANDTHEAGEOFREASON17941796,ACCORDINGTOWU,“HETHOUGHTTHATRELIGIONSHOULDBEBASEDONRATIONAL,REASONABLEGROUND”WUDINGBO,12THEPAMPHLETSHELPEDCOMPLETETHEDEBATETHATRESULTEDINAMERICASSEPARATIONFROMENGLANDANDOFCOURSEFORALLTHEAMERICANS,THEMOSTIMPORTANTDOCUMENTFROMTHISPERIODWASASINGLESHEETOFPAPERCALLEDTHEDECLARATIONOFINDEPENDENCE1776,MAINLYWRITTENBYTHOMASJEFFERSONANDBENJAMINFRANKLINBENJAMINFRANKLIN17061790,THEMOSTDISTINGUISHEDPERSONANDGIANTINAMERICANHISTORY,HEWROTEANDWORKEDFORAMERICANINDEPENDENCEHARDLYANDHADMADESOMANYGREATEFFORTSTOAMERICATHATHEHASBEENCALLEDTHEFIRSTAMERICANAWORLDRENOWNEDSCIENTIST,DIPLOMAT,PHILOSOPHER,ANDWRITERHEPERFECTEDTHESMOOTH,CLEAR,SHORTSENTENCESOFTHEPURITANPLAINSTYLEHISAUTOBIOGRAPHYENCOURAGESHARDWORKANDEMPHASIZESTHEIMPORTANCEOFACHIEVEMENTANOTHERWORKTHATISWELLKNOWNISPOORRICHARDSALMANACK,ANDMANYOFTHESENTENCESHAVEBECOMEPOPULARQUOTATIONSDURINGTHISTIMEWRITERSTHOUGHTTHATTHETRUTHSHOULDBERELIEDONBIBLE,CHURCHMEN,AUTHORITIES,ORPRACTICEANDEXPERIENCE2EARLYNATIONALLITERATUREDURINGTHEPERIODOFAMERICANREVOLUTIONWAR,AMERICANNATIONALLITERATURECAMEINTOBEINGSINCEBEFORETHEWAR,AMERICANPEOPLEHAVEALREADYHADTHEAWARENESSOFNATIONALINDEPENDENCE,SOTHEYWROTEMANYPOLITICALWRITINGSREVOLUTIONARYPOEMSTHEWARHELPEDTHEFIRSTIMPORTANTAMERICANPROSEWRITERSANDPOETSGROWUPBOTHCULTURALLYANDARTISTICALLYFURTHERMORE,THEINDEPENDENCEOFNATIONLEDTOTHEINDEPENDENCEOFNATIONALLITERATUREFROMTHISMOMENTON,AMERICANPEOPLEBEGANTOUNDERSTANDOFMEANINGOFBEINGAREAL”AMERICAN“3THEFLOURISHINGOFAMERICANLITERATUREIN19THCENTURYFROMTHE1820’STOTHECIVILWARBROKEOUT,AMERICANLITERATUREENTEREDAPERIODOFFULLBLOOMINGWRITINGSALLCHARACTERIZEDBYADISTINCTNATIONALSTYLEANDFLAVORATTHESAMETIME,THEWORLDASAWHOLEWASEXPERIENCINGACHANGEINWAYSOFTHINKINGTHEREWASAMOVEFROMCLASSICALIDEASTOROMANTICONESTHISCHANGEWASTAKINGPLACEINALLAREASOFCULTUREAROUNDTHEWORLDTHISWASANEXCITINGPERIODINTHEHISTORYOFAMERICANLITERATURELIKETHEFLOWERSOFSPRING,THEREWERESUDDENLYMANYDIFFERENTKINDSOFWRITINGATTHESAMETIMEALLTHEWORKSHAVEANOPTIMISTICSPIRITTHEYREPRESENTEDTHEVARIOUSANDQUICKDEVELOPMENTOFAMERICANNATIONALLITERATURE1EARLYROMANTICSINEARLY19THCENTURY,WASHINGTONIRVING17831859,THEPERSONBORNWITHTHENEWNATION,HISTHESKETCHBOOKCREATEDANEWSTYLEOFAMERICANLITERATURESHORTNOVELJAMESFENIMORECOOPER17891851HISLEATHERSTOCKINGNOVELSTOLDUSASTORYABOUTHOWTHEBRAVEIMMIGRANTSFIGHTWITHSAVAGEUSINGWHATTHEYHAVELEARNTFROMNATUREANOTHERFAMOUSWRITEROFTHISTIMEWASWILLIAMCULLENBRYANT17941878,HEWASREGARDEDONEOFTHEEARLIESTNATURALISTPOETSINAMERICANHISTORYHISGREATESTPOEMTHANATOPSISWASPUBLISHEDINTHENORTHAMERICANREVIEWIN1817HEAPPRECIATESNORMALBIRDSANDFLOWERS,THROUGHWHICHAPPRECIATEDHARMONIOUSRELATIONSHIPBETWEENHUMANANDNATURETHEROMANTICSEMPHASIZEDINDIVIDUALISMANDTHEYTHOUGHTFEELINGSANDEMOTIONSWEREMOREIMPORTANTTHANREASONANDCOMMONSENSE2THETRANSCENDENTALISM“THENEWENGLANDTRANSCENDENTALISMWASROMANTICIDEALISMONPURITANSOIL”WUDINGBO28ITSTRESSEDTHEPOWEROFINTUITIONPLACEDSPIRITFIRST,ANDITTOOKNATUREASSYMBOLICOFSPIRITORGODTHEREWERETHREEMAINFEATURESOFTRANSCENDENTALISMWEREUNITARIANISM,IDEALISTICPHILOSOPHY,ANDORIENTALMYSTICISMRALPHWALDOEMERSON18031882,THELEADEROFAMERICANTRANSCENDENTALISM“HECAPTAINEDAGROUPOFENTHUSIASTANDFORMEDATRANSCEN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