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语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc

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语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc

语言文化论文美国文学史AbstractAmericashistoryofliteraturebeganwiththeswarminginofimmigrantswithdifferentbackgroundandcultures.Afterthat,AmericanliteraturehadbeengreatlyinfluencedbytheEuropeancultureforalongperiod.ItwasnotuntilAmericasindependence,didAmericansrealizedthattheyneednationalliteraturestrongly,andAmericanliteraturebegantodeveloped.TheCivilWarwasawatershedinthehistory,afterwhichAmericanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Romantics,whichemphasizedindividualismandintuitionandTnscendentalismrepresentedbyEmersoncameoutintobeing.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.TheyhavegivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliterature,andacceleratedtheformingofHighRomantics.ButduetotheinfluenceofCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituation.Thewritingsaboutlocallife,criticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.AfterTheFirstWorldWar,Americanswereatalosspostwar,andtheModernAmericanliteraturebegan.Mypieceofpaperiswritteninchronologicalorderastheseperiodsdevelopedinordertohaveaclearoutlineofitsprogress.KeywordsNationalLiterature,Romanism,Transcendentalism,LocalColor,Realism,Modernliterature摘要从殖民地时期起,欧洲殖民者和清教徒翻开了美国文学史的第一页。这往后很长一段时期,美国文学一直都受到欧洲文化的很大影响。一直到美国独立后,美国人强烈地感觉到了民族文学的需要,美国的民族文学开始发展。南北战争是美国文学史上一个分水岭,战后美国文学进入了一个全盛时期,产生了强调个性主义和直觉的早期浪漫主义,和以爱默生为代表的超验主义文学。爱默生的时代是美国前所未有的文学变动时代,产生了一大批优秀的作家和作品。他们突出地给予了当时美国文学以深度和力量,也促进了罗曼主义高潮的来临。但是由于战争的影响,社会动荡不安,这时的作品更注重于揭示社会的阴暗面,同时美国的民族文学进一步发展,创作出许多带有本土色彩和批判现实主义的作品。一战后,美国人陷入战后的茫然,美国也开始进入了现代文学阶段。我的论文随着这些时代的发展以时间顺序展开,以便对于美国文学史的产生和发展纲要能有一个清晰的条理。关键词民族文学,浪漫主义,超验主义,本土色彩,现实主义,现代文学Americanisamultinationalcountry.Justlikeabigcontainer,whichputinvariouskindsofelements.Differentcultures,thatcannotonlybecoexistedbutalsoformasharpcontrast,mixedtogether,ItmakesAmericanliteraturestylehasaflavorofdistinctandvariousaestheticfeeling.Manywriterscomefromlowerlevel,whichmakesAmericanliteraturehastherichflavoroflifeandlocalcolor.Furthermore,manynewstylesofliteratureintheworldareorientedinAmericasince20thcentury.TheprocessofAmericanliteraturecanbedividedintofollowingmainperiodsColonyandPuritanliteratureearlynationalliteraturelatternationalliteratureandModernliterature.Americashistoryofliteraturebeganwiththeswarminginofimmigrantswithdifferentbackgroundandcultures.Afterthat,AmericanliteraturehadbeengreatlyinfluencedbytheEuropeancultureforalongperiod.ItwasnotuntilAmericasindependence,didAmericansrealizethattheyneednationalliteraturestrongly,andAmericanliteraturebegantodevelop.TheCivilWarwasawatershedinthehistory,afterwhichAmericanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Romantics,whichemphasizedindividualismandintuition,andTnscendentalismrepresentedbyEmersoncameoutintobeing.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.TheyhavegivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliterature,andacceleratedtheformingofHighRomantics.ButduetotheinfluenceifCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituation.Thewritingsaboutlocallife,criticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.AfterTheFirstWorldWar,Americanswereatalosspostwar,andtheModernAmericanliteraturebegan.1.ColonialandearlyAmericanliterature1.TravelersandExplorersWhentheEuropeanexplorersfirstcametothisnewcontinent,thenativeIndianswhoprobablygotherefromAsiaaboutfifteenthousandyearsagowerestillinorigin,andtheyevenhadnowrittenlanguage,Thetraditionalliteraturewasoriginallytransmittedalmostentirelybywordofmouth,andthereforebelongstothecategoryoforalliterature,WuDingbo,1Astimepast,moreandmoretravelersandexplorersswarmedin.Theywrotealotofdiaries、letters,andtravelaccountstodescribethenewlandassecondEden.NowandersomebodysaidthattheearliestAmericanliteraturewerethetravelaccountswrittenbyEuropeanadventurers.AmongthemostremainedwereCaptainJohnSmithsTrueRelationofVirginia1608,andDescriptionofNewEngland1616.AlthoughmostoftheIndianhistorywaspreservedintalesandsongs,theyhadthoughtsaboutlifeandnature.Theylovedthenaturalworldaroundthemdeeply,andtheybelievedthatwhenapersonwasdead,hewouldgivebackwhathadborrowedwhilehewasalivetonature.ThiskindofphilosophyhadinfluencedlaterorevenmodernAmericanwriters.ItsinterestingthatwhenwelookattheliteratureofthePuritans,theTranscendentalists,theNaturalists,andeventheModerns,whenwereadAnneBradstreet,EmilyDickinson,StephenCrane,andErnestHemingway,wecanfindsimilarthemes.2PilgrimsettlementsSeveralyearslater,anothergroupofsettlersalsoarrivedintheNewWorld.ThisgroupwaslookingfortheJamestownsettlement.However,becauseofbadnavigation,theylandedinMassachusetts.TheywerealsocomingtotheNewWorldwithdreamsofsuccess,buttheirgoalwasdifferentfromtheJamestownsettlement.TheywantedtostartanewworldgovernedbytheBible.TheywerecalledPuritansbecausetheywantedtoliveabetterlifebymakingthemselvespure.TheyfirstarrivedontheMayflowerandsettledinPlymouth.ThisisthegroupweareusuallythinkingaboutwhenwetalkaboutthefirstAmericans.TheclearesthistoryoftheirjourneytotheNewWorldcanbefoundinHistoryofPlymouthPlantation1608writtenbyWilliamBradford,whowasalsooneoftheMayflowerpassengers.TheHistoryofPlymouthPlantationisaPuritanbookinthebestsense.Itslooselyannalistic,butadirectandsimplestylegivescharm,asasincerefaithinPuritanismgivespurity,totheentirebook.W.P.Trent,1997ThePuritanshadseveralkindsofliterature.ByfarthemostcommonformisthewritingrelatedtoBiblicalteachings,orsermons,thatthechurchleaderswrote.ThePuritansbelievedthattheywereintheNewWorldbecauseGodhadbroughtthemthereforaspecialpurpose.TheythoughtthatbystudyingtheBibletheycouldlearnmoreaboutthiswayoflife.Sotheywereverystricttotheirlife,andtheydidntallowanykindofentertainmenteveninliterature.ThatswayWuDingbosaidinhisbookLiteratureoftheNewEnglandSettlementismainlyaliteraryexpressionofthePuritanidealismandTheliteratureofthecolonialsettlementservedeitherGodorcolonialexpansionorboth.WuDingbo,4Anotherimportantformofwritingfromthisperiodisthehistories.Thesebooks,likeBradfordsHistoryofPlymouthPlantation,areimportantbecausetheytellusaboutlifeatthetimeofthePuritans.Peoplealsowrotemanypoems.ButalotofworkswerehiddenandlostbecausepeopleoftenconsideredpoetrytobeaninferiorformofwritingandnottotallyacceptabletoPuritanthinking.OneofthemostsignificantpoetsfromthisperiodwasAnneBradstreet16121672.HerpoemsinTenthMuseLatelySprungUpInAmerica1650reflectedtheconconcernsofwomenwhocametosettleinthecolonies,andinallherpoems,however,sheshowsherstrongbeliefinGod.2.18thcenturytheAgeofreason1TheAgeofreasonInthe18thcentury,peoplebelievedinmansownnatureandthepowerofhumanreason.WithFranklinasitsspokesman,the18thcenturyAmericaexperiencedanageofreason.Wordshadneverbeensousefulandsoimportantinhumanhistory.Peoplewrotealotofpoliticalwritings.Numerouspamphletsandprintingswerepublished.TheseworksagitatedrevolutionarypeoplenotonlyinAmericabutalsoaroundtheworld.AmongthemostrenownedwastheworkCommonSense1776ofThomasPaine17371809.Itstheringingcallforthedecorationofliberty.HealsowroteCrisis17741783andTheAgeofReason17941796,accordingtoWu,Hethoughtthatreligionshouldbebasedonrational,reasonableground.WuDingbo,12ThepamphletshelpedcompletethedebatethatresultedinAmericasseparationfromEngland.AndofcourseforalltheAmericans,themostimportantdocumentfromthisperiodwasasinglesheetofpapercalledTheDeclarationofIndependence1776,mainlywrittenbyThomasJeffersonandBenjaminFranklin.BenjaminFranklin17061790,themostdistinguishedpersonandgiantinAmericanhistory,hewroteandworkedforAmericanindependencehardlyandhadmadesomanygreateffortstoAmericathathehasbeencalledTheFirstAmerican.aworldrenownedscientist,diplomat,philosopher,andwriter.Heperfectedthesmooth,clear,shortsentencesofthePuritanplainstyle.HisAutobiographyencourageshardworkandemphasizestheimportanceofachievement.AnotherworkthatiswellknownisPoorRichardsAlmanack,andmanyofthesentenceshavebecomepopularquotations.DuringthistimewritersthoughtthatthetruthshouldbereliedonBible,churchmen,authorities,orpracticeandexperience.2EarlyNationalLiteratureDuringtheperiodofAmericanRevolutionWar,Americannationalliteraturecameintobeing.Sincebeforethewar,Americanpeoplehavealreadyhadtheawarenessofnationalindependence,sotheywrotemanypoliticalwritingsrevolutionarypoems.ThewarhelpedthefirstimportantAmericanprosewritersandpoetsgrowupbothculturallyandartistically.Furthermore,theindependenceofnationledtotheindependenceofnationalliterature.Fromthismomenton,AmericanpeoplebegantounderstandofmeaningofbeingarealAmerican.3.TheflourishingofAmericanliteraturein19thcenturyFromthe1820stotheCivilWarbrokeout,Americanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Writingsallcharacterizedbyadistinctnationalstyleandflavor.Atthesametime,theworldasawholewasexperiencingachangeinwaysofthinkingtherewasamovefromclassicalideastoromanticones.Thischangewastakingplaceinallareasofculturearoundtheworld.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.Alltheworkshaveanoptimisticspirit.TheyrepresentedthevariousandquickdevelopmentofAmericannationalliterature.1EarlyRomanticsInearly19thcentury,WashingtonIrving17831859,thepersonbornwiththenewnation,hisTheSketchBookcreatedanewstyleofAmericanliteratureshortnovel.JamesFenimoreCooper17891851HisLeatherStockingnovelstoldusastoryabouthowthebraveimmigrantsfightwithsavageusingwhattheyhavelearntfromnature.AnotherfamouswriterofthistimewasWilliamCullenBryant17941878,hewasregardedoneoftheearliestnaturalistpoetsinAmericanhistory.HisgreatestpoemThanatopsiswaspublishedintheNorthAmericanReviewin1817.Heappreciatesnormalbirdsandflowers,throughwhichappreciatedharmoniousrelationshipbetweenhumanandnature.TheRomanticsemphasizedindividualismandtheythoughtfeelingsandemotionsweremoreimportantthanreasonandcommonsense.2TheTranscendentalismTheNewEnglandTranscendentalismwasromanticidealismonpuritansoilWuDingbo28.Itstressedthepowerofintuitionplacedspiritfirst,andittooknatureassymbolicofspiritorGod.TherewerethreemainfeaturesofTranscendentalismwereUnitarianism,idealisticphilosophy,andorientalmysticism.RalphWaldoEmerson18031882,theleaderofAmericanTranscendentalism.Hecaptainedagroupofenthusiastandformedatranscendentalclubwiththem.HealsohelpedtosetupandeditedthetranscendentalistjournalTheDial.Hehadwrittenmanyfamousessays.AmongthebestareNatureandTheAmericanScholar,whichhasbeencalledAmericasDeclarationofIntellectualIndependence.EmersonwroteinTheAmericanScholar1837,amanmustlearntodetectandwatchthatgleamoflightwhichflashesacrosshismindfromwithin.Themainkeytothisinnerworldistheimagination.Mansimaginationleadstoexpression.Ourexpressionmakeseachofusauniquehuman.Romanticismbecamethewayofthinkingforthisgenerationofwriters.HenryDavidThoreauwasalsooneofthewritersofTranscendentalism,andhisfamousessaywasWalden,inwhichherevealedthehiddenspiritualpossibilitiesineveryoneslife,andtoconsideratethepursuitofmaterialthings.3HighRomanticsDuetothegreateffortmadebythosegeniusessuchasEmersonandThoreau,awildrangednationalAmericanliteraturehadbeenlaidasolidfoundationbythemid19thcentury.TherearefourimportantnamesinAmericanliteraturetorememberfromthisperiodWashingtonIrving17831859,WaltWhitman18191892,JamesFennimoreCooper17891851,andEdgarAllanPoe180949.Irvingwilllongberememberedforhisbookofessaysandstories,TheSketchBookofGeoffreyCrayon1819,whichhelpingthisnewnationstarteditsfirststepconfidently.CooperandWhitmandescribedthecharacterofthenation,whichcombinedthecourageandclevernessofexpansion,thegreatsenseofdestination,andtheoptimisticspirittogether.HawthorneandMelvilleexpressedthedarksideofAmericandreamthoughtheirprofoundandsymbolizedworks.WaltWhitman18191892,fatheroffreeverse,hethrewasidethetraditionalornamentsandprettinessofverse,andcreatedhisownformWuDingbo,44.HisLeavesofGrass1855,whichcontainssuchwellknownpoemsasIHearAmericaSinging,andSongofMyself,wasregardedAmericasfirstgenuineepicpoem.Herejectedregularmeterandrhymeinfavorofflowingfreeverseandcelebratedpatrioticlove,raggedindividualism,democracyandequalityandstressedanalmostmysticalidentificationwithAmerica.NathanielHawthorne18041864,duetohisfamilybackground,hisworksalwaysconcernedwithsin,morality,romance,andhadcomplexPuritanism.HismasterpiecewasthenovelTheScarletLetter,andhisTheHouseofSevenGableswasalsowellliked.Intheseworkshepresentedmaterialonthealienationbetweenfactsandfancy,byusingmanysymbolsandsettingtorevealthepsychologyofthecharacter.HermanMelvillewasHawthornesgoodfriend,alsoanimportantnovelist.Melvillesgreatestwork,MobyDick1851wasbasedonMelvillesadventuresonthewhalingships.Itisthedeeptragediesofhumanthoughtthatshowhiscriticalunderstandingofhumannature.TodayMelvilleisconsideredoneofAmericasgreatestwriterstoday.RomanismwasextremelyinfluencedinarisingAmericaasAmericahadalwayshadastrongspiritualtraditionandromanticismwasverycomfortablewithAmericanspiritualheritageanditsidealsofdemocracyandequality.Duringthisperiod,theAmericanliteraturewassochangeablethathasneverbeenbefore.NathanielHawthorne,HermanMelville,WaltWhitmanandEdgarAllanPoe,thesefourgreatwritershadgivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliteratureatthattime.4.LocalColorAndRealismANewFlavortoAmericanLiteratureAftertheCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituationthroughseveraleconomicalcrises.Thewritingsaboutcriticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.Theyweremainlyfocusonbankruptincountries,difficultlifeorstruggleoflowpositionpeopleandsoon.Thus

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