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语言文化论文-英汉口译中文化因素的传达.doc

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语言文化论文-英汉口译中文化因素的传达.doc

语言文化论文英汉口译中文化因素的传达摘要英汉口译是通过口头表达,将信息由英语转换成汉语的语言交际行为。英汉口译所涉及的因素颇多,其中文化因素的传达尤为重要。不同的文化背景决定了语言的表达方式,因此,译者在口译过程中要采取转换、解释等技巧将文化内涵传达给听众。本文主要探讨口译过程中文化因素传达的内涵、技巧及意义。关键词英汉口译文化因素传达文化背景摘要英汉口译是通过口头表达,将信息由英语转换成汉语的语言交际行为。英汉口译所涉及的因素颇多,其中文化因素的传达尤为重要。不同的文化背景决定了语言的表达方式,因此,译者在口译过程中要采取转换、解释等技巧将文化内涵传达给听众。本文主要探讨口译过程中文化因素传达的内涵、技巧及意义。关键词英汉口译文化因素传达文化背景AbstractECinterpretationisakindofcommunicativebehaviorinwhichinformationinEnglishisconvertedintoChinesebyoralexpressions.AmongthefactorsinECinterpretation,themostimportantoneisculturalfactor.Differentculturalbackgroundsdeterminetheformofexpression.So,duringECinterpretation,theinterpretershouldhavetopassontheculturalconnotationtothelistenersbyexplanationorconversion.Thisarticleaimstoexploretheconnotations,techniquesaswellasitsimportanceoftransmissionforculturalfactorsinECinterpretation.KeywordsECinterpretationculturalfactorstransmissionculturalbackground1IntroductionItgoeswithoutsayingthatbothEnglishandChineselanguagesareendowedwithprofoundculture.Languageisanimportantcarrierofculture.DifferentLanguagesreflectdifferentcultures.WhatslanguageInthebroadestsense,languageisthesymbolicrepresentationofapeople,anditcomprisestheirhistoricalandculturalbackgroundsaswellastheirapproachtolifeandtheirwaysoflivingandthinkingAndwhataboutcultureAccordingtothedefinitionsofsociologistsandanthropologists,thetermCulturereferstothetotalpatternofbeliefs,customs,institutions,objects,andtechniquesthatcharacterizethelifeofahumancommunity.DengYanchang,LiuRenqing,1989.Languageisaveryspecialcomponentofculture.Asasymbolicsystemofhumancommunication,languageispartoftheconventionalculture.Mostofthelanguagesarecontainedwithintheircultures,andasocietyslanguageisanaspectofitsculture.Thereisadialecticalrelationshipbetweenlanguageandculture.Everylanguageispartofacultureandeverycultureispartofalanguage.Assuch,languagecantbutserveandreflectculturalneeds.Thetwoareintricatelyinterwovensuchthatonecannotseparatethetwowithoutlosingthesignificanceofeitherlanguageorculture.Thus,therelationoflanguagetocultureisthatofparttowhole.Cultureisreallyanintegralpartoftheinteractionbetweenlanguageandthought.Culturalpatterns,customs,andwaysoflifeareexpressedinlanguage.Forexample,Eskimotribescommonlyhaveasmanyassevendifferentwordsforsnowtodistinguishamongdifferenttypesofsnow.InAfricanculturesoftheequatorialforests,thereisnowordatallforsnow.Weshallnotgofurtherintotherelationshipbetweenlanguageandculture.Whatneedstobestressedhereisthatthetwointeract,andthatunderstandingofonerequiresunderstandingoftheother.Whatwecallculturalfactorreferstobeliefs,customs,socialsystems,institutions,objects,techniques,waysofthinking,familypatterns,etcthatcomprisetheculture.Thecriteriaofinterpretationdiffersfrompersontoperson,which,ingeneralsense,arequickness,exactnessandfluency.ECinterpretationcoversbroadcontentsinwhichthetransmissionofculturalfactorisnotonlyimportantbutalsocantbeignored.2ThetransmissionoftheconnotationofculturalfactorsJustaswementionedabove,culturalfactorsrefertobeliefs,customs,socialsystems,institutions,objects,techniques,waysofthinking,familypatterns,etcthatcomprisetheculture.So,itsobviousthatthetransmissionoftheconnotationofculturalfactorsistopassonwhatcomprisetheculturestemmedfromtheEnglishspeakingcountriestothelistenersinECinterpretation.ItgoeswithoutsayingthatbothEnglishandChineselanguagesareendowedwithprofoundculture.Languageisanimportantcarrierofculture.DifferentLanguagesreflectdifferentcultures.WhatslanguageInthebroadestsense,languageisthesymbolicrepresentationofapeople,anditcomprisestheirhistoricalandculturalbackgroundsaswellastheirapproachtolifeandtheirwaysoflivingandthinkingAndwhataboutcultureAccordingtothedefinitionsofsociologistsandanthropologists,thetermCulturereferstothetotalpatternofbeliefs,customs,institutions,objects,andtechniquesthatcharacterizethelifeofahumancommunity.DengYanchang,LiuRenqing,1989.Languageisaveryspecialcomponentofculture.Asasymbolicsystemofhumancommunication,languageispartoftheconventionalculture.Mostofthelanguagesarecontainedwithintheircultures,andasocietyslanguageisanaspectofitsculture.Thereisadialecticalrelationshipbetweenlanguageandculture.Everylanguageispartofacultureandeverycultureispartofalanguage.Assuch,languagecantbutserveandreflectculturalneeds.Thetwoareintricatelyinterwovensuchthatonecannotseparatethetwowithoutlosingthesignificanceofeitherlanguageorculture.Thus,therelationoflanguagetocultureisthatofparttowhole.Cultureisreallyanintegralpartoftheinteractionbetweenlanguageandthought.Culturalpatterns,customs,andwaysoflifeareexpressedinlanguage.Forexample,Eskimotribescommonlyhaveasmanyassevendifferentwordsforsnowtodistinguishamongdifferenttypesofsnow.InAfricanculturesoftheequatorialforests,thereisnowordatallforsnow.Weshallnotgofurtherintotherelationshipbetweenlanguageandculture.Whatneedstobestressedhereisthatthetwointeract,andthatunderstandingofonerequiresunderstandingoftheother.Whatwecallculturalfactorreferstobeliefs,customs,socialsystems,institutions,objects,techniques,waysofthinking,familypatterns,etcthatcomprisetheculture.Thecriteriaofinterpretationdiffersfrompersontoperson,which,ingeneralsense,arequickness,exactnessandfluency.ECinterpretationcoversbroadcontentsinwhichthetransmissionofculturalfactorisnotonlyimportantbutalsocantbeignored.2ThetransmissionoftheconnotationofculturalfactorsJustaswementionedabove,culturalfactorsrefertobeliefs,customs,socialsystems,institutions,objects,techniques,waysofthinking,familypatterns,etcthatcomprisetheculture.So,itsobviousthatthetransmissionoftheconnotationofculturalfactorsistopassonwhatcomprisetheculturestemmedfromtheEnglishspeakingcountriestothelistenersinECinterpretation.1Tobeaninterpreter,whatheorsheshouldconveyinECinterpretationMaybesomeonewouldsayIllinterpretwhatheorshesaysTheanswertotheabovequestionmayberightorwrong.Forexample,aforeignersaysHowabouthavingsuppertogethertonightGoDutch.Ifitisinterpretedas今晚一起吃饭如何去荷兰,theChineselistenersmightthinkthatyouwouldinvitehimorhertohavesupperinDutchorinacertainrestaurantnamedDutch.HereGoDutchmeanspayyourbillyourselfnottohavedinnerinDutchoraDutchRestaurant.Theexamplereflectsonekindofcharacteristicsofculture.Onthecontrary,ifsomeoneinChinainvitesyoutohavedinnerwithhimorher,he/shewillpaythebill.Thisphenomenoniscalledculturaldifference.ThereareplentyofexamplestoshowtheculturaldifferencebetweenEnglishandChinese.Chinesehasacomplexsystemofkinshipterms.Itdistinguishes外甥、侄子、堂兄、表兄、姑母、姨母、姑夫、舅父、姨夫、外祖母、外祖父,WhileinEnglishtherearenocounterparts.ThisisbecausetheChinesearemoreparticularabouttheserelationdistinctionswhiletheEnglishpeopledonotneedtomakethesedistinctionssooften.Therefore,aninterpreterhastopassprofoundknowledgeabouttheculturalconnotationofEnglishspeakingcountries.Inthiswayandonlyinthisway,heorshecanconveytheculturalconnotationinECinterpretation.Thisisthemainpointofculturalfactortransmission.2TherequirementsofculturalfactortransmissionTheinterpretershouldhavetointerpretnotonlywhatthespeakersaysbutalsowhatheorshereallymeans.Culturesdifferfromoneanother,andeachcultureisunique.Languageisinfluencedandshapedbycultureanditreflectsculture.Differentlanguagebackgroundsdeterminetheformoflanguageexpression.Forinstance,ItwasGreektomeinoneofShakespearesplaysJuliusCaesarmeansIknownothingaboutit.Itmeans一窍不通inChinese.Sotherequirementsofculturalfactortransmission,inmyopinion,are1toconveytherealmeaningofcultureSomephrasesandsentencesinEnglishhaveinnermeaning.ItsdifficultforourChineseinterpreterstograsp.Whatwemustdoistoputacrossthemeaningnoteveryindividualwordinthegivenphrasesorsentencesinthelightofthecontext.ForexampleItsverykindofyou→您太客气了Thatwontbetheendoftheworld→天塌不下来Heisbraverthanwise→他有勇无谋Takecarehowyoudoso→千万别这样做Pullsbslegs→嘲弄某人Similarly,ininterpretingthisEnglishsentence,Thispieceofinformationhasnotbeenmadepublicyet,sokeepitunderyourhat,wecangrasptherealmeaningofthesentencefromthecontextandrenderitinto.这条消息尚未发表,因此你要保密。2totransmittheattributesofcultureThetermattributeheremeansaqualityorfeature,especiallyonethatisconsideredtobegoodorusefulLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish,1997.Theattributesofaculturealsorefertothegoodorusefulpartsofitslanguage.Tobeagoodinterpreter,oneshouldcertainlyinterpretthegoodandusefulpartsofthetargetlanguage.Forinstance.Someforeignersoftenspeakcoarselanguage,suchasFuckDamnit,whicharebetternottobeinterpretedforthelistenerssake.Fortunately,somegoodexpressions,suchasgoandseeTrustthefuturetrusttheyoungarewidelyacceptedbyChinesepeople.Withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,peopleindifferentcountrieswillgettoknoweachotherbetter.3topassontheconnotationofcultureSomewordsorphrasesinEnglishreflecttheconnotationofitsculture,suchasidealismandmaterialism.Asatermofphilosophy,idealism,itsoppositeismaterialism,doesntcontainanyameliorativeorderogatorymeaninginEnglish.ButitisdifferentinChinese,whichmeans.唯心主义Onthecontrary,materialismmeans唯物主义inChinese,whichisanameliorativeword.Butthetwotermsidealismandmaterialismarenotalwaysameliorativeorderogatory.ForexampleIcamehereoutofconvictionandidealism.我是抱着信念和理想而来的。Alotofpeoplearepreparedtoturntheirbackonthematerialistwayoflife.很多人都准备放弃追求物质享受的生活方式。ADictionaryofBritishandAmericanCulture,HuWenzong1995Fromtheaboveexamples,wecanseethatidealismisameliorativeandmaterialismisderogatory.Theaboverequirementsmaybesomewhatabstract,Butinfact,itiswhataninterpreterhastodo.3ThetechniquesofculturalfactorstransmissionInthecaseofECinterpretation,whichinvolvestwowelldevelopedlanguagesthatarecarriersoftwovastlydifferentcultures,techniquesdoplayahelpfulrole.Besidesexplanationandconversion,techniquesofECinterpretationincludesubordination,diction,implication,omission,negationanddivision,etc.Butexplanationandconversionarethetwobasictechniquesofculturalfactorstransmission.AsfarasthecontentofECinterpretationisconcerned,itincludes

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