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语言文化论文-英汉谚语的比较.doc

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语言文化论文-英汉谚语的比较.doc

语言文化论文英汉谚语的比较AbstractProverbsarethecreamofalanguage.Theyreflecttherelationshipbetweenlanguageandculture.Humanbeingscommonsocialactivitiesareinmanyaspectssimilar,soEnglishandChineseproverbshavesimilarities.Becauseoftheculturaldifferences,EnglishandChineseproverbshavedifferencesintheirdetailedcontents.TheauthorcomparestheirsimilaritiesanddifferencesandalsoproposesthatEnglishandChineseproverbswillbreaktheboundaryandaccomplishinterfusion.EnglishandChineseproverbshavesimilaroriginandsimilarlinguisticcharacters.Theybothoriginatefromfolklife,mythology,literaryworksandfromotherlanguages.DifferencesbetweenEnglishandChineseproverbsalsoexist.Thatisdifferentgeographydifferenthistorycustomsdifferentreligionsanddifferentvalueconcepts.KeyWordsproverbssimilaritiesdifferencesinterfusion摘要谚语是语言的一个重要组成部分,是各国语言文学艺术宝库中的一朵奇葩。谚语体现了语言与文化的关系。由于人类的普遍社会活动和心理思维过程有许多共同之处,因此英汉谚语也存在着相同之处。但由于各国具体历史文化背景的不同,所以英汉谚语又存在着差异。本文分析了英汉谚语的相同点与不同点,并提出英汉谚语在跨文化交际中的渗透与融合。英汉谚语有着相同的起源和语言特点。都来自民间生活,神话传说,文学作品和外来语。英汉谚语的语言具有简炼和生动形象的特点。但从具体内容来看,英汉谚语表现了不同的地理、历史、宗教和文化价值观念。最后指出随着世界文化的交流,谚语逐渐打破国家和民族的界限,英汉谚语在互相渗透与融合。关键词谚语相同点不同点融合1.IntroductionThedefinitionofproverbbyOxfordAdvancedLearnersEnglishChineseDictionaryisshortwellknownsayingthatstatesageneraltruthorgivesadvice.精练的俗语,或为普遍道理或为劝诫语WuZhankunsaidthatproverbsarethecrystalofnationalwisdomandexperience.Theyarefrequentlyusedorallyandhandeddownfromgenerationtogenerationandusuallygivepeopleinformationandspeakthetruth.Theyareshortsentenceswithcommonstyle,concisestructure,andvividlanguage.1WangQinsaidthatproverbsarethesummingupofpracticalexperiences.Theyaretheoralformsoflanguagethatgivepeopleexperience,adviceorwarning.2ThegreatEnglishphilosopherFrancisBacononcesaidThegenius,witandspiritofanationarediscoveredinitsproverbs.Fromthesedefinitions,wecanseecommoncharactersofproverbs.Proverbsarethecrystalofthenationalwisdomandexperience.Proverbsarecolloquial,sotheyareveryeasytoberememberedandhandeddown.Theyusuallygivepeopleadviceandwarning.Proverbsarethecreamofalanguage.Languageandculturearetightlyinteractedwitheachothereachinfluencingandshapingtheother.Languageispartofculture.TheChineselanguageispartofChinacultureandEnglishlanguageispartofEnglishculture.Languageisthecarrierandcontainerofculture.Humanknowledgeandexperiencearedescribedandstoredinlanguage.3Asapartoflanguage,proverbscloselyintegratedwiththesocietyandculture.Proverbsreflectmanyaspectsofthenationsuchasgeography,history,religiousfaithandvalues.EnglishandChinesebelongtotwodifferentlanguagesystems,havinggreatdifferencesintheircultures.Buthumanbeingscommonsocialactivitiesandemotionalreflectionandobservationoftheworldareinmanyaspectssimilar.SonotonlydifferencesbutalsomanysimilaritiesexistinEnglishandChineseproverbs.Withthecommunicationofworld,EnglishandChineseproverbsarepermeatingandinterfusingeachother.2.SimilaritiesbetweenEnglishandChineseproverbsThesimilaritiesbetweenEnglishandChineseproverbsmainlylieintheiroriginsandlinguisticcharacters.2.1SimilaroriginsProverbsareconcise,vividandcommonshortsentenceswhichbeusedandpassedonorally.Theyarethesummingupoftheexperienceintheproductionstruggleandthesociallifeandthecrystalofwisdom.4AnEnglishproverbitselftellsusthatProverbsarethedaughterofexperience.FromthesewecanfindthatEnglishandChineseproverbsenjoythesimilarorigintheybothoriginatefrompeoplesdailylifeandexperience.Specificallyspeaking,theybothcomefromfolklife,mythology,literaryworksandfromotherlanguages.2.1.1OriginatingfromfolklifeProverbsarethesummaryofpeoplesdailylifeandexperience,andcloselyrelatedtothepracticeofpeopleslifeandwork,revealingauniversaltruthfromdetailssoastoenlightenpeople.Therearemanyproverbsoriginatedfromfolklife.Theyarecreatedbyworkingpeople,suchasfarmers,workmen,hunters,businessmen,armymenandsoon.Theyusefamiliartermsthatwereassociatedwiththeirownfields.E.g.Farmerscreatedthefollowingproverbs1Makehaywhilethesunshines.2Aprilrainyforcorn,Mayforgrass.3肥不过春雨,瘦不过秋霜。4春天不忙,秋后无粮。Workmencreatedthefollowingproverbs5Strikewhiletheironishot.6Agoodanvildoesnotfearthehammer.7木匠怕漆匠,漆匠怕光亮。Hunterscreatedthefollowingproverbs8Hethatisafraidofeverybushwillneverproveagoodhuntsman.9上山打虎心要狠,下海提龙心要齐。Businessmencreatedthefollowingproverbs10Youpayyourmoneyandtakeyourchoice.11货有高低三等价,客无远近一样待。Armymencreatedthefollowingproverbs12Agoodgeneralmakegoodmen.13养兵千日,用在一时。Thesewerefirstusedbyalimitedgroupofpeopleinthesamefields.Becausetheyarephilosophicalcolloquialism,latertheygraduallygainedwideacceptanceandpartlybecamepartofthecommoncornoflanguageandarenowusedinmanyothersituations.2.1.2OriginatingfrommythologyEachnationhasitsownmythology,fableandallusion.Chinesetraditionalculture,ancientGreekandRomancivilizationbequeathmanymythologiesandallusions.Theybecomeoneofthemajorsourcesofproverbs.ThestoriesandheroesinGreekMythology,TheFableofAesopandTheHomerleftalotofproverbs.E.g.14IfeartheGreeks,evenwhenbringinggifts.FromthewellknownstoryoftheTrojanhorsebywhichtheGreekstookthecityofTroy.15YoucannotmakeaMercuryofeverydog.FromRomanMythology.Itmeansthatnoteverymindwillanswerequallywelltobetrainedintoascholar.16Thefoxsaidthegrapesweresour.FromTheFablesofAesop.Itmeansthatonesaidsomethingisbadwhenonecannotgetit.Chineseculturecantracebacktoancienttimes.Thereweremanynaturalphenomenonsandourancestorcantexplainthesephenomenons.Theycreatedthemythologyandfabletoexplainthephenomenon.SomanyChineseproverbscomefrommythologyandfable.E.g.17八仙过海,各显神通。(from八仙过海)18过着牛郎织女的生活。(fromafolklegend)2.1.3OriginatingfromliteraryworksManyEnglishandChineseproverbscomefromliteraryworks.Anationsliterarylanguagesareitslanguagesginger.Theypromotethedevelopmentoflanguage.Someofbrilliantsentences,plotandherosnameinliteraryworksbecomeproverbs.5Therearemanygreatwritersinwesternsociety,suchasShakespeare,FrancisBacon,JohnMiltonandsoon.TheyhadmadedistinctivecontributionstothedevelopmentofEnglishliterature.TheirworkswereacceptedandpassedonbyEnglishpeoplefromgenerationtogeneration.ManysentencesbecometheEnglishproverbs.Shakespearesworksarethemostcolorfulliteratureoriginofproverbs.ManyEnglishproverbsarefromtheworksofShakespeare.E.g.19Thebiterissometimesbit.isfromShakespearesHamlet.Ittellspeoplethatthosewhodobadthingstootherswillbringthemselvestrouble.20Allisnotgoldthatglitters.isfromShakespearesTheMerchantsofVenice.Itmeansthatthosewhohaveagoodappearancearenotnecessarilyprofoundorlearned.Someotherwriters,philosopherswordsalsobecomeproverbs.E.g.21Readingmakesafullman,conferenceareadyman,andwritinganexactmanisfromadistinguishedEnglishphilosopherandwriterBaconsOnReading.Ittellspeoplethatreading,conferenceandwritingcanmakeapersonlearned,sharpandprecise.And22ThechildhoodshowsthemanisfromMiltonsParadiseRegained.ManyChineseproverbsarefromclassicChineseliteraryworks.ThefourgreatworksThePilgrimagetotheWest,TheThreeKingdoms,ADreamofRedMansionsandTheMarshRebellionarethemostpopularclassicsinChina.Suchas23温故而知新。Bystudyingtheoldonelearnssomethingnew论语SelectedReading24三个臭皮匠顶个诸葛亮。ThreecobblerswiththeirwitscombinedequalZhugeLiangthemasterthewisdomofthemassesexceedsthatofthewisestindividual.三国演义TheThreeKingdoms25三十六计,走为上计。Ofthethirtysixstratagems,thebestisrunningaway.水浒传TheMarshRebellion26谋事在人,成事在天。ManproposesGoddisposes.红楼梦ADreamofRedMansions27说曹操,曹操到。Talkofthedevilandheissuretoappear.三国演义TheThreeKingdomsLiterature,asamirrorofsociallife,isanothersourceofproverbs.Manysentencesintheseliteraryworksarefullofwisdomandeasytoberemembered,sopeoplelikethemandusethemagainandagain.Atlast,theybecometheproverbsandarewidelyused.Wecansaythatproverbsarethecreamoftheliteraryworks.2.1.4OriginatingfromotherlanguagesWiththecommunicationofworld,nationsboundaryisbeingbroken.Moreandmorelanguagescontactedwitheachother.Becauseofthegeographyandhistory,Englishwasinfluencedandimpactedbyotherlanguagesinitsdevelopmentprocess.SoEnglishhaveabsorbedagreatnumberofexpressionsofothernationsculture.Sodoproverbs.ManyEnglishproverbsarefromLatin,Greek,FrenchandChinese.Asthereasonofhistory,mostoftheseloanedproverbsweretransferredintoEnglishandsomemaintaintheoriginallanguages.ManyEnglishproverbsoriginatefromLatin.E.g.28Artislong,lifeisshort.29Thewishisfathertothethought.SomeLatinproverbsaretransferredintoEnglish.ForexampleEnglishpeoplehavegot30Soonripe,soonrottenfromCitomaturumcitoputridum.ManyEnglishproverbscomefromFrench.Forexample,Englishpeoplehavegot31Whenthefoxpreaches,takecareoffyourgeesefromQuandlerenardsemetaprecher,gardeauxpoules.Englishproverbsalsocomefromforeignwritersworks.Forexample,32Constantdrippingwearsawaythestone.isfromRomanpoetOvid.Chinesepeoplehavealsogotsomeproverbsfromotherlanguages.Suchas33吃不到葡萄说葡萄酸isfromThegrapesaresour.34谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好isfromHewholaughslastlaughsbest.35条条大路通罗马isfromAllroadsleadtoRome.ThesehavebeenacceptedbyChinesepeopleandbecomeChineseproverbs.FromabovewecanfindoutthatEnglishandChineseproverbshavesimilaroriginsfromfolklife,mythology,literaryworksandfromotherlanguages.FromthesesimilaroriginswecanseethatEnglishandChinesepeoplehavesimilarsocialactivitiesandemotionalreflectionandobservationoftheworld.2.2SimilarlinguisticcharactersProverbsarecreatedbycommonpeopleandorallyhandeddownfromgenerationtogenerationagainandagain.EnglishandChineseproverbsareconciseandvivid.2.2.1ConcisenessThecleanestwaterisspringthemostrefinedwordsareproverbs.Proverb

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