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语言文化论文-英汉谚语的比较.doc

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语言文化论文-英汉谚语的比较.doc

语言文化论文英汉谚语的比较ABSTRACTPROVERBSARETHECREAMOFALANGUAGETHEYREFLECTTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENLANGUAGEANDCULTUREHUMANBEINGS’COMMONSOCIALACTIVITIESAREINMANYASPECTSSIMILAR,SOENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSHAVESIMILARITIESBECAUSEOFTHECULTURALDIFFERENCES,ENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSHAVEDIFFERENCESINTHEIRDETAILEDCONTENTSTHEAUTHORCOMPARESTHEIRSIMILARITIESANDDIFFERENCESANDALSOPROPOSESTHATENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSWILLBREAKTHEBOUNDARYANDACCOMPLISHINTERFUSIONENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSHAVESIMILARORIGINANDSIMILARLINGUISTICCHARACTERSTHEYBOTHORIGINATEFROMFOLKLIFE,MYTHOLOGY,LITERARYWORKSANDFROMOTHERLANGUAGESDIFFERENCESBETWEENENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSALSOEXISTTHATISDIFFERENTGEOGRAPHY;DIFFERENTHISTORYCUSTOMS;DIFFERENTRELIGIONSANDDIFFERENTVALUECONCEPTSKEYWORDSPROVERBS;SIMILARITIES;DIFFERENCES;INTERFUSION摘要谚语是语言的一个重要组成部分,是各国语言文学艺术宝库中的一朵奇葩。谚语体现了语言与文化的关系。由于人类的普遍社会活动和心理思维过程有许多共同之处,因此英汉谚语也存在着相同之处。但由于各国具体历史文化背景的不同,所以英汉谚语又存在着差异。本文分析了英汉谚语的相同点与不同点,并提出英汉谚语在跨文化交际中的渗透与融合。英汉谚语有着相同的起源和语言特点。都来自民间生活,神话传说,文学作品和外来语。英汉谚语的语言具有简炼和生动形象的特点。但从具体内容来看,英汉谚语表现了不同的地理、历史、宗教和文化价值观念。最后指出随着世界文化的交流,谚语逐渐打破国家和民族的界限,英汉谚语在互相渗透与融合。关键词谚语;相同点;不同点;融合1INTRODUCTIONTHEDEFINITIONOFPROVERBBYOXFORDADVANCEDLEARNER’SENGLISHCHINESEDICTIONARYIS“SHORTWELLKNOWNSAYINGTHATSTATESAGENERALTRUTHORGIVESADVICE”精练的俗语,或为普遍道理或为劝诫语WUZHANKUNSAIDTHATPROVERBSARETHECRYSTALOFNATIONALWISDOMANDEXPERIENCETHEYAREFREQUENTLYUSEDORALLYANDHANDEDDOWNFROMGENERATIONTOGENERATIONANDUSUALLYGIVEPEOPLEINFORMATIONANDSPEAKTHETRUTHTHEYARESHORTSENTENCESWITHCOMMONSTYLE,CONCISESTRUCTURE,ANDVIVIDLANGUAGE1WANGQINSAIDTHATPROVERBSARETHESUMMINGUPOFPRACTICALEXPERIENCESTHEYARETHEORALFORMSOFLANGUAGETHATGIVEPEOPLEEXPERIENCE,ADVICEORWARNING2THEGREATENGLISHPHILOSOPHERFRANCISBACONONCESAID“THEGENIUS,WITANDSPIRITOFANATIONAREDISCOVEREDINITSPROVERBS”FROMTHESEDEFINITIONS,WECANSEECOMMONCHARACTERSOFPROVERBSPROVERBSARETHECRYSTALOFTHENATIONALWISDOMANDEXPERIENCEPROVERBSARECOLLOQUIAL,SOTHEYAREVERYEASYTOBEREMEMBEREDANDHANDEDDOWNTHEYUSUALLYGIVEPEOPLEADVICEANDWARNINGPROVERBSARETHECREAMOFALANGUAGELANGUAGEANDCULTUREARETIGHTLYINTERACTEDWITHEACHOTHER;EACHINFLUENCINGANDSHAPINGTHEOTHERLANGUAGEISPARTOFCULTURETHECHINESELANGUAGEISPARTOFCHINACULTUREANDENGLISHLANGUAGEISPARTOFENGLISHCULTURELANGUAGEISTHECARRIERANDCONTAINEROFCULTUREHUMANKNOWLEDGEANDEXPERIENCEAREDESCRIBEDANDSTOREDINLANGUAGE3ASAPARTOFLANGUAGE,PROVERBSCLOSELYINTEGRATEDWITHTHESOCIETYANDCULTUREPROVERBSREFLECTMANYASPECTSOFTHENATIONSUCHASGEOGRAPHY,HISTORY,RELIGIOUSFAITHANDVALUESENGLISHANDCHINESEBELONGTOTWODIFFERENTLANGUAGESYSTEMS,HAVINGGREATDIFFERENCESINTHEIRCULTURESBUTHUMANBEINGS’COMMONSOCIALACTIVITIESANDEMOTIONALREFLECTIONANDOBSERVATIONOFTHEWORLDAREINMANYASPECTSSIMILARSONOTONLYDIFFERENCESBUTALSOMANYSIMILARITIESEXISTINENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSWITHTHECOMMUNICATIONOFWORLD,ENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSAREPERMEATINGANDINTERFUSINGEACHOTHER2SIMILARITIESBETWEENENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSTHESIMILARITIESBETWEENENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSMAINLYLIEINTHEIRORIGINSANDLINGUISTICCHARACTERS21SIMILARORIGINSPROVERBSARECONCISE,VIVIDANDCOMMONSHORTSENTENCESWHICHBEUSEDANDPASSEDONORALLYTHEYARETHESUMMINGUPOFTHEEXPERIENCEINTHEPRODUCTIONSTRUGGLEANDTHESOCIALLIFEANDTHECRYSTALOFWISDOM4ANENGLISHPROVERBITSELFTELLSUSTHAT“PROVERBSARETHEDAUGHTEROFEXPERIENCE”FROMTHESEWECANFINDTHATENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSENJOYTHESIMILARORIGINTHEYBOTHORIGINATEFROMPEOPLE’SDAILYLIFEANDEXPERIENCESPECIFICALLYSPEAKING,THEYBOTHCOMEFROMFOLKLIFE,MYTHOLOGY,LITERARYWORKSANDFROMOTHERLANGUAGES211ORIGINATINGFROMFOLKLIFEPROVERBSARETHESUMMARYOFPEOPLE’SDAILYLIFEANDEXPERIENCE,ANDCLOSELYRELATEDTOTHEPRACTICEOFPEOPLE’SLIFEANDWORK,REVEALINGAUNIVERSALTRUTHFROMDETAILSSOASTOENLIGHTENPEOPLETHEREAREMANYPROVERBSORIGINATEDFROMFOLKLIFETHEYARECREATEDBYWORKINGPEOPLE,SUCHASFARMERS,WORKMEN,HUNTERS,BUSINESSMEN,ARMYMENANDSOONTHEYUSEFAMILIARTERMSTHATWEREASSOCIATEDWITHTHEIROWNFIELDSEGFARMERSCREATEDTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBS1MAKEHAYWHILETHESUNSHINES2APRILRAINYFORCORN,MAYFORGRASS3肥不过春雨,瘦不过秋霜。4春天不忙,秋后无粮。WORKMENCREATEDTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBS5STRIKEWHILETHEIRONISHOT6AGOODANVILDOESNOTFEARTHEHAMMER7木匠怕漆匠,漆匠怕光亮。HUNTERSCREATEDTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBS8HETHATISAFRAIDOFEVERYBUSHWILLNEVERPROVEAGOODHUNTSMAN9上山打虎心要狠,下海提龙心要齐。BUSINESSMENCREATEDTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBS10YOUPAYYOURMONEYANDTAKEYOURCHOICE11货有高低三等价,客无远近一样待。ARMYMENCREATEDTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBS12AGOODGENERALMAKEGOODMEN13养兵千日,用在一时。THESEWEREFIRSTUSEDBYALIMITEDGROUPOFPEOPLEINTHESAMEFIELDSBECAUSETHEYAREPHILOSOPHICALCOLLOQUIALISM,LATERTHEYGRADUALLYGAINEDWIDEACCEPTANCEANDPARTLYBECAMEPARTOFTHECOMMONCORNOFLANGUAGEANDARENOWUSEDINMANYOTHERSITUATIONS212ORIGINATINGFROMMYTHOLOGYEACHNATIONHASITSOWNMYTHOLOGY,FABLEANDALLUSIONCHINESETRADITIONALCULTURE,ANCIENTGREEKANDROMANCIVILIZATIONBEQUEATHMANYMYTHOLOGIESANDALLUSIONSTHEYBECOMEONEOFTHEMAJORSOURCESOFPROVERBSTHESTORIESANDHEROESINGREEKMYTHOLOGY,THEFABLEOFAESOPANDTHEHOMERLEFTALOTOFPROVERBSEG14IFEARTHEGREEKS,EVENWHENBRINGINGGIFTSFROMTHEWELLKNOWNSTORYOFTHETROJANHORSEBYWHICHTHEGREEKSTOOKTHECITYOFTROY15YOUCANNOTMAKEAMERCURYOFEVERYDOGFROMROMANMYTHOLOGYITMEANSTHATNOTEVERYMINDWILLANSWEREQUALLYWELLTOBETRAINEDINTOASCHOLAR16THEFOXSAIDTHEGRAPESWERESOURFROMTHEFABLESOFAESOPITMEANSTHATONESAIDSOMETHINGISBADWHENONECANNOTGETITCHINESECULTURECANTRACEBACKTOANCIENTTIMESTHEREWEREMANYNATURALPHENOMENONSANDOURANCESTORCAN’TEXPLAINTHESEPHENOMENONSTHEYCREATEDTHEMYTHOLOGYANDFABLETOEXPLAINTHEPHENOMENONSOMANYCHINESEPROVERBSCOMEFROMMYTHOLOGYANDFABLEEG17八仙过海,各显神通。(FROM八仙过海)18过着牛郎织女的生活。(FROMAFOLKLEGEND)213ORIGINATINGFROMLITERARYWORKSMANYENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSCOMEFROMLITERARYWORKSANATION’SLITERARYLANGUAGESAREITSLANGUAGE’SGINGERTHEYPROMOTETHEDEVELOPMENTOFLANGUAGESOMEOFBRILLIANTSENTENCES,PLOTANDHERO’SNAMEINLITERARYWORKSBECOMEPROVERBS5THEREAREMANYGREATWRITERSINWESTERNSOCIETY,SUCHASSHAKESPEARE,FRANCISBACON,JOHNMILTONANDSOONTHEYHADMADEDISTINCTIVECONTRIBUTIONSTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFENGLISHLITERATURETHEIRWORKSWEREACCEPTEDANDPASSEDONBYENGLISHPEOPLEFROMGENERATIONTOGENERATIONMANYSENTENCESBECOMETHEENGLISHPROVERBSSHAKESPEARE’SWORKSARETHEMOSTCOLORFULLITERATUREORIGINOFPROVERBSMANYENGLISHPROVERBSAREFROMTHEWORKSOFSHAKESPEAREEG19“THEBITERISSOMETIMESBIT”ISFROMSHAKESPEARE’SHAMLETITTELLSPEOPLETHATTHOSEWHODOBADTHINGSTOOTHERSWILLBRINGTHEMSELVESTROUBLE20“ALLISNOTGOLDTHATGLITTERS”ISFROMSHAKESPEARE’STHEMERCHANTSOFVENICEITMEANSTHATTHOSEWHOHAVEAGOODAPPEARANCEARENOTNECESSARILYPROFOUNDORLEARNEDSOMEOTHERWRITERS,PHILOSOPHERS’WORDSALSOBECOMEPROVERBSEG21“READINGMAKESAFULLMAN,CONFERENCEAREADYMAN,ANDWRITINGANEXACTMAN”ISFROMADISTINGUISHEDENGLISHPHILOSOPHERANDWRITERBACON’SONREADINGITTELLSPEOPLETHATREADING,CONFERENCEANDWRITINGCANMAKEAPERSONLEARNED,SHARPANDPRECISEAND22“THECHILDHOODSHOWSTHEMAN”ISFROMMILTON’SPARADISEREGAINEDMANYCHINESEPROVERBSAREFROMCLASSICCHINESELITERARYWORKSTHEFOURGREATWORKSTHEPILGRIMAGETOTHEWEST,THETHREEKINGDOMS,ADREAMOFREDMANSIONSANDTHEMARSHREBELLIONARETHEMOSTPOPULARCLASSICSINCHINASUCHAS23温故而知新。BYSTUDYINGTHEOLDONELEARNSSOMETHINGNEW论语SELECTEDREADING24三个臭皮匠顶个诸葛亮。THREECOBBLERSWITHTHEIRWITSCOMBINEDEQUALZHUGELIANGTHEMASTERTHEWISDOMOFTHEMASSESEXCEEDSTHATOFTHEWISESTINDIVIDUAL三国演义THETHREEKINGDOMS25三十六计,走为上计。OFTHETHIRTYSIXSTRATAGEMS,THEBESTISRUNNINGAWAY水浒传THEMARSHREBELLION26谋事在人,成事在天。MANPROPOSES;GODDISPOSES红楼梦ADREAMOFREDMANSIONS27说曹操,曹操到。TALKOFTHEDEVILANDHEISSURETOAPPEAR三国演义THETHREEKINGDOMSLITERATURE,ASAMIRROROFSOCIALLIFE,ISANOTHERSOURCEOFPROVERBSMANYSENTENCESINTHESELITERARYWORKSAREFULLOFWISDOMANDEASYTOBEREMEMBERED,SOPEOPLELIKETHEMANDUSETHEMAGAINANDAGAINATLAST,THEYBECOMETHEPROVERBSANDAREWIDELYUSEDWECANSAYTHATPROVERBSARETHECREAMOFTHELITERARYWORKS214ORIGINATINGFROMOTHERLANGUAGESWITHTHECOMMUNICATIONOFWORLD,NATION’SBOUNDARYISBEINGBROKENMOREANDMORELANGUAGESCONTACTEDWITHEACHOTHERBECAUSEOFTHEGEOGRAPHYANDHISTORY,ENGLISHWASINFLUENCEDANDIMPACTEDBYOTHERLANGUAGESINITSDEVELOPMENTPROCESSSOENGLISHHAVEABSORBEDAGREATNUMBEROFEXPRESSIONSOFOTHERNATION’SCULTURESODOPROVERBSMANYENGLISHPROVERBSAREFROMLATIN,GREEK,FRENCHANDCHINESEASTHEREASONOFHISTORY,MOSTOFTHESELOANEDPROVERBSWERETRANSFERREDINTOENGLISHANDSOMEMAINTAINTHEORIGINALLANGUAGESMANYENGLISHPROVERBSORIGINATEFROMLATINEG28ARTISLONG,LIFEISSHORT29THEWISHISFATHERTOTHETHOUGHTSOMELATINPROVERBSARETRANSFERREDINTOENGLISHFOREXAMPLEENGLISHPEOPLEHAVEGOT30“SOONRIPE,SOONROTTEN”FROM“CITOMATURUMCITOPUTRIDUM”MANYENGLISHPROVERBSCOMEFROMFRENCHFOREXAMPLE,ENGLISHPEOPLEHAVEGOT31“WHENTHEFOXPREACHES,TAKECAREOFFYOURGEESE”FROM“QUANDLERENARDSEMETAPRECHER,GARDEAUXPOULES”ENGLISHPROVERBSALSOCOMEFROMFOREIGNWRITERS’WORKSFOREXAMPLE,32“CONSTANTDRIPPINGWEARSAWAYTHESTONE”ISFROMROMANPOETOVIDCHINESEPEOPLEHAVEALSOGOTSOMEPROVERBSFROMOTHERLANGUAGESSUCHAS33“吃不到葡萄说葡萄酸”ISFROM“THEGRAPESARESOUR”34“谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好”ISFROM“HEWHOLAUGHSLASTLAUGHSBEST”35“条条大路通罗马”ISFROM“ALLROADSLEADTOROME”THESEHAVEBEENACCEPTEDBYCHINESEPEOPLEANDBECOMECHINESEPROVERBSFROMABOVEWECANFINDOUTTHATENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSHAVESIMILARORIGINSFROMFOLKLIFE,MYTHOLOGY,LITERARYWORKSANDFROMOTHERLANGUAGESFROMTHESESIMILARORIGINSWECANSEETHATENGLISHANDCHINESEPEOPLEHAVESIMILARSOCIALACTIVITIESANDEMOTIONALREFLECTIONANDOBSERVATIONOFTHEWORLD22SIMILARLINGUISTICCHARACTERSPROVERBSARECREATEDBYCOMMONPEOPLEANDORALLYHANDEDDOWNFROMGENERATIONTOGENERATIONAGAINANDAGAINENGLISHANDCHINESEPROVERBSARECONCISEANDVIVID221CONCISENESSTHECLEANESTWATERISSPRING;THEMOSTREFINEDWORDSAREPROVERBSPROVERB

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