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现当代文学论文-关于霍桑作品的基本主题.doc

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现当代文学论文-关于霍桑作品的基本主题.doc

现当代文学论文关于霍桑作品的基本主题AbstractNathanielHawthorneswholelifeisperplexedbyhumanbeingssinandevil.HisdeeprootedconsciousnessofPuritanismisshowninhisworks,andtheseextraordinaryworkshaveasimilartheme,namely,theprocessfromtheoriginalsintoredemption.Inthefirstpartofthispaper,theauthordiscussesthebasicthemerepresentedinHawthornesshortstoriesincludingYoungGoodmanBrown,TheMinistersBlackVeil,EgotismortheBosomSerpent,RogerMelvinsBurialandhismasterpieceTheScarletLetter.Moreover,theauthorsummarizesdiscrepanciesamongthesefiveworksalthoughtheyhaveacommonsubjectofsin.ThesecondpartfocusesonthereasonswhyNathanielHawthornechoosessuchabasictheme.HawthorneisadescendantofthePuritansandlivesinaPuritantown,sothePuritanheritageplaysalargepartinhislifeandliteraryworks.Andthethemeisinfluencedbyhisfamilylifeaswellashisownhermitlife.Furthermore,thefrequentrecollectionofhissinfulancestorsurgesHawthornetosetsuchagloomybasictheme.Andthelastreasonistomoralizepeopletogetawayfromsinfulbehavior.Inthelastpartofthispaper,theauthorilluminatesthesignificanceofHawthornesbasictheme.ThewholepaperisaimedathelpingreaderstobetterunderstandandappreciateHawthornesworks.Keywordsbasictheme,sin,expiation,redemption,Puritan,Calvinism论文摘要纳撒尼尔霍桑是美国19世纪影响最伟大的浪漫主义小说家,同时又是一个深受新英格兰清教传统影响的作家。他多以加尔文教派的善恶观念来认识社会和整个世界,几乎倾其一生致力于探讨人性中的罪恶这一问题。他的作品反应了他根深蒂固的清教主义思想,因此很多作品都表现了一个相似的基本主题原罪赎罪救赎。该论文的第一部分以霍桑的五部作品为例好人布朗、胸中的蛇、教长的黑面纱、罗杰麦文的葬礼、以及最著名的红字来探讨他的上述基本主题,并归纳出这五部作品的精神意义。论文的第二部分通过霍桑家乡的所在地,家庭背景,和霍桑祖先的行为分析了霍桑选择这一主题的原因和清教徒迫害异端的事件对霍桑的思想所产生的深刻影响。而在最后一部分,论文阐释了霍桑这一基本主题的社会意义和人文意义。霍桑的作品中渗透着加尔文教派中关于原罪、彻底堕落等教义的观念,略显隐晦难懂,本论文的目的在于帮助读者更好的理解和欣赏霍桑的作品及其意义。论文关键词基本主题原罪悔罪救赎清教加尔文教Ⅰ.IntroductionNathanielHawthorneisagreatbrilliantAmericanwriterfullofinspirationandtalent.HeishonoredasoneofthebestandmostimportantnovelistofAmericainthe19thcenturyandthegreatestimaginativegeniussinceShakespeareW.JLong,392.Nevertheless,manyreaders,whileappreciatinghisexcellentartistictechniques,findhisworksverydifficulttounderstand.Theobstacles,asfarasIamconcerned,areprobablyduetoHawthornesbasicthemewhichisrelatedwithCalvinismthereforeitisnecessarytodeeplyexploreit.Ibelievethattheresultoftheexplorationwillhelpthereadertounderstandthisgreatgeniusmoredeeplyandtoappreciatehisworksbetter.Ⅱ.ThebasicthemeofHawthorneswritingsAccordingtoChristianity,eversinceAdamandEvearedeceivedbySatanintoeatingthefruitandexpelledfromtheGardenofEdenbyGod,evilhasenteredtheworld,andhumanbeingsaredoomedtocarrytheburdenofsin.DeeplyinfluencedbyChristianity,HawthorneputstheCalvinismideaoforiginalsinanddepravityintohisworks.Inmanyofhisshortstoriesandromances,Hawthornepresentsacentralthemeoforiginalsin,togetherwithanaccompanyingthemeofthehungerforconfessionandexpiation.Hisworksmakeusrealizethatpeoplearebornsinfulandeveryonehassomesecretguiltandsinhiddeninheart,thatsinexistseverywhereintheworld,andthathumanlifeisasufferingjourneyofselfredemption.BycitingthefollowingworksofHawthorne,Iwishtofullydisplayhisbasicthemeofsinexpiationredemption.A.YoungGoodmanBrownDisillusionmentinfaithNathanielHawthornesbestshortstoryYoungGoodmanBrowntellsreadersthestoryofthedisillusionmentinfaith,whichcouldbecomprehendedintwoaspectsthedisillusionmentoftheheroBrownsfaithofhisown,andthatofhisfaithinothers.GoodmanBrownisanhonestyoungmaninpeopleseyes,butislaterseducedbyevil.HeoncegoestoattendthewitchesSabbath,buttherehefindsoutsomeguiltysecretsofotherpeople.Hemeetsalltherespectable,reputable,andpiouspersonsofthevillageincludingtheladyofgovernor,wivesofhonoredhusband,excellentfairyounggirls,andchurchmembersofthevillagefamousfortheirespecialsanctity.Tohisgreatersurprise,heevenseeshisnewlymarriedwife,thepureandsweetestFaith.Therefore,Brownrealizestheevilofothersandcannotbelieveingoodinhimselfandinothers.Inthestory,HawthornecreatesadarkfiguretotellBrown,orratherthereadersthefollowingwordsThereareallwhomyehavereverencedfromyouth.Yedeemedthemholierthanyourselves,andshrankfromyourownsin,contrastingitwiththeirlivesofrighteousnessandprayerfulaspirationsheavenward.Yetherearetheyallinmyworshipingassembly.Thisnightitshallbegrantedyoutoknowtheirsecretdeedshowhoarybeardedeldersofthechurchhavewhisperedwantonwordstotheyoungmaidsoftheirhouseholdhowawoman,eagerforwidowsweeds,hasgivenherhusbandadrinkatbedtimeandlethimsleephislastsleepinherboson,howbeardlessyouthshavemadehastetoinherittheirfatherswealthandhowfairdamselsblushnot,sweetoneshaveduglittlegravesinthegardenandbiddenmethesoleguesttoaninfantsfuneral.Bythesympathyofyourhumanheartsforsinyeshallscentoutalltheplaceswhetherinchurch,bedchamber,street,field,orforestwherecrimehasbeencommitted,andshallexulttobeholdthewholeearthonestainofguilt,onemightybloodspot.Farmorethanthis,itshallbeyourstopenetrate,ineverybosom,thedeepmysteryofsin,thefountainofallwickedarts,andwhichinexhaustiblysuppliesmoreevilimpulsesthanhumanpowercanmakemanifestindeed.Cowley65Inthisstory,attendingtheSabbathcouldbeactuallyconsideredasaspiritualjourneyforexploringthetruthofhumanworldWang3,whichisfilledwithsinandguilt.AndwecanalsoconcludethatthepathintheforestsymbolizesadarkjourneyofBrowntomeetthedeepmysteryoforiginalsin.FromtheangleoforiginalsinofPuritanism,thisjourneymakeshimagonybecausehefindsthedarknessandsininthedeepheartofhumanbeings.Fromthemomenthedecidestoleavehiswife,Faith,Brownbetrayshisfaith.Moreover,whilehelooksathiswifeandotherpeoplearoundhimwithsuspicioussightthenextmorning,theinnocentBrownchangescompletelyintoanotherperson,gloomyandunbelieving.ThoughthisyoungmanisstillcalledGoodmanBrown,thereadersknowthereinnogoodmaninrealityandthateveryoneissinful.B.TheMinistersBlackVeilRevelationofsinHawthornesTheMinistersBlackVeilisregardedasoneoftheearliestandgreatestAmericanshortstories.LikemanyofHawthornesstories,thenatureofsecretsinandhumansfallennaturearethemaintheme,whilethisstoryisspeciallyfocusedontherevelationofsininpeoplesheart.Theyoungrespectableministeronedaysuddenlyputsablackveilonhisfaceandcontinuestowearituntilhedies.Thoughseverelycriticized,heneverexplainswhyhedoesso.Yettheauthorgivesthereadersahintthathestartstoweartheblackveilonthedayayounggirlinhisparishdies,leadingthereadertorealizethattheministerhassomesecretguiltconnectingwiththedeadgirl.Atthelastmomentofhislife,theministersaystothepeoplearoundhim,WhydoyoutrembleatmealoneTremblealsoateachother...WhenthefriendshowshisinmosthearttohisfriendthelovertohisbestbelovedwhenmandoesnotvainlyshrinkfromeyeofhisCreator,loathsomelytreasuringupthesecretofhissinthendeemmeamonster,forthesymbolbeneathwhichIhavelived,anddieHawthorne181Mr.Hoopersdeathbedremarksshowthatheintendstheblackveiltosymbolizethesecretsinwhichallmenloathsomelytreasureupintheirhearts.Wan3Mr.Hooperrevealshissinbywearingaveilforalifelongtime,andthesinsofpeopleinhisparisharerevealedbyfeelingfrightenedofHoopersveil,becauseonlythosepeoplewhohidetheirsinsdeeplyintheirheartswouldbeafraidofthesightofMr.Hooperbehindhisveil.Onthewedding,hisframeshudderedhislipsgrewwhitehespilttheuntastedwineuponthecarpetandrushedforthintothedarknessHawthorne180.Hisbehaviorarousesawarenessofthemajorityofpeoplepresentattheweddingthatitisinevitablethateveryoneisasinnerevenincludingtheministerhimself.ThusHoopertearsawaypeopleswrongillusionofapriestwhoisabsolutelyaholyrepresentativeofGod.Heseemstotellthevillagersthattoerrishumantoforgiveisdivine.HoopergoestogreatlengthstorevealhissininsteadofbeautifyinghimselfjustbecausehehasdiscoveredtheEarth,too,hadonherBlackVeilHawthorne181.WhilemanyreadersconsiderHooperacoward,Iprefertoseehimasarelativelyhonestman.Evenhishiddensintothatyoungladyistrue,theactionofcomingtotheladysfuneralstillshowshisgutandrepentanceofwhathedoes.Hisconfessionofhissinthroughwearingtheblackveillastsforalifetimelong,whichpresentshishonesty.Thewearingoftheveil,inmypointofview,doesnotindicatethattheministerdespairsofhisownandhiscongregationssalvation.Onthecontrary,itismotivatedbyhishopeforpeaceofmindintheafterlifeItisbutamortalveilitisnotforeternityHawthorne181Comparedwiththosewhokeeptheirsinsecretinheart,Mr.Hooperhasthewillingnesstoremedyhismistake,whichismoreadmirableandvenerable.C.Egotism,ortheBosomSerpentPerceptivityonsinsAnotherexample,theshortstoryEgotismortheBosomSerpentalsoclearlyshowsHawthornesblacktheme.Heprovidesaverypowerfulinsightintotheselfobsessionknownasegotism.TheheroRoderickEllistonisestrangedfromhiswife,andfromthenon,asingulargloomspreadsoverhisdailylife.Hebelievesthatthereisaliveserpentinhisbosomperpetuallygnawinghim.Itleaveshimonlywhenheisabletomeethiswifeagainandforgetshisobsessionwithhisownills.Actuallythesnakeisthesymbolofpeoplesinnermostsinfulconsciousness.Asallpeoplearesinful,theyhavesnakesintheirhearts,too.SinceRoderickhimselfkeepstheguiltyandsinfulsenseinhisbosom,hehasabetterperceptivityofthesinscommitted,andhecanseekouthisowndiseaseineverybreast.Whenhemeetsanindividualwhoforthirtyyearshascherishedhatredagainsthisownbrother,heimmediatelyperceivesthatthereisaserpentinthemansheartwhichisgnawinghim,too.Whenheencountersanambitiousstatement,heaffirmsthatthegentlemansserpentmustbeofthespeciesoftheboaconstrictor,foritsappetiteisenormousenoughtodevourthewholecountryandconstitution.Pearson1110Onceheassuresaclosefistedoldfellow,ofgreatwealth,butwhoskulksaboutthecityintheguiseofascarecrow,withapatchedbluecoat,brownhatandmouldboots,scrapingpencetogetherandpickinguprustynailsPearson1110thathisserpentisacopperhand,andhasbeengeneratedbytheimmensequantitiesofthatbasementalitywithwhichhedailydefileshisfingers.Onanotheroccasionhetellsanenviousauthor,whodepreciatesworkswhichhecouldneverequal,thathissnakeistheslimiestandthefilthiestofallthereptiletribebutisfortunatelywithoutstingPearson1111.Hewarnsafairyounggirlthatshecherishesaserpentofthedeadestkindwithinhisbosom,andafewmonthslater,thepoorgirldiesofloveandshame.Hemakestwoladies,rivalsinfashionablelife,whotormentedoneanotherwithathousandlittlestingsofwomanishspitePearson1111,understandsthateachoftheirheartsisanestofdiminutivesnakewhichdoesquiteasmuchmischiefasonegreatonePearson1111.Inthisway,hemakeshisownserpent,ifhereallyhasoneinhisbosom,thetypeofeachmansfatalerror,orhoardedsin,oruniqueconscience,andstrikeshisstingsounremorsefullyintothesorestspot,whichnearlyeverybodyindeedpossesses.D.RogerMelvinsBurialRetributionofsins

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