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现当代文学论文-关于霍桑作品的基本主题.doc

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现当代文学论文-关于霍桑作品的基本主题.doc

现当代文学论文关于霍桑作品的基本主题ABSTRACTNATHANIELHAWTHORNE’SWHOLELIFEISPERPLEXEDBYHUMANBEINGS’SINANDEVILHISDEEPROOTEDCONSCIOUSNESSOFPURITANISMISSHOWNINHISWORKS,ANDTHESEEXTRAORDINARYWORKSHAVEASIMILARTHEME,NAMELY,THEPROCESSFROMTHEORIGINALSINTOREDEMPTIONINTHEFIRSTPARTOFTHISPAPER,THEAUTHORDISCUSSESTHEBASICTHEMEREPRESENTEDINHAWTHORNE’SSHORTSTORIESINCLUDINGYOUNGGOODMANBROWN,THEMINISTER’SBLACKVEIL,EGOTISMORTHEBOSOMSERPENT,ROGERMELVIN’SBURIALANDHISMASTERPIECETHESCARLETLETTERMOREOVER,THEAUTHORSUMMARIZESDISCREPANCIESAMONGTHESEFIVEWORKSALTHOUGHTHEYHAVEACOMMONSUBJECTOFSINTHESECONDPARTFOCUSESONTHEREASONSWHYNATHANIELHAWTHORNECHOOSESSUCHABASICTHEMEHAWTHORNEISADESCENDANTOFTHEPURITANSANDLIVESINAPURITANTOWN,SOTHEPURITANHERITAGEPLAYSALARGEPARTINHISLIFEANDLITERARYWORKSANDTHETHEMEISINFLUENCEDBYHISFAMILYLIFEASWELLASHISOWNHERMITLIFEFURTHERMORE,THEFREQUENTRECOLLECTIONOFHISSINFULANCESTORSURGESHAWTHORNETOSETSUCHAGLOOMYBASICTHEMEANDTHELASTREASONISTOMORALIZEPEOPLETOGETAWAYFROMSINFULBEHAVIORINTHELASTPARTOFTHISPAPER,THEAUTHORILLUMINATESTHESIGNIFICANCEOFHAWTHORNE’SBASICTHEMETHEWHOLEPAPERISAIMEDATHELPINGREADERSTOBETTERUNDERSTANDANDAPPRECIATEHAWTHORNE’SWORKSKEYWORDSBASICTHEME,SIN,EXPIATION,REDEMPTION,PURITAN,CALVINISM论文摘要纳撒尼尔霍桑是美国19世纪影响最伟大的浪漫主义小说家,同时又是一个深受新英格兰清教传统影响的作家。他多以加尔文教派的善恶观念来认识社会和整个世界,几乎倾其一生致力于探讨人性中的罪恶这一问题。他的作品反应了他根深蒂固的清教主义思想,因此很多作品都表现了一个相似的基本主题原罪赎罪救赎。该论文的第一部分以霍桑的五部作品为例好人布朗、胸中的蛇、教长的黑面纱、罗杰麦文的葬礼、以及最著名的红字来探讨他的上述基本主题,并归纳出这五部作品的精神意义。论文的第二部分通过霍桑家乡的所在地,家庭背景,和霍桑祖先的行为分析了霍桑选择这一主题的原因和清教徒迫害异端的事件对霍桑的思想所产生的深刻影响。而在最后一部分,论文阐释了霍桑这一基本主题的社会意义和人文意义。霍桑的作品中渗透着加尔文教派中关于“原罪”、“彻底堕落”等教义的观念”,略显隐晦难懂,本论文的目的在于帮助读者更好的理解和欣赏霍桑的作品及其意义。论文关键词基本主题原罪悔罪救赎清教加尔文教ⅠINTRODUCTIONNATHANIELHAWTHORNEISAGREATBRILLIANTAMERICANWRITERFULLOFINSPIRATIONANDTALENTHEISHONOREDASONEOFTHEBESTANDMOSTIMPORTANTNOVELISTOFAMERICAINTHE19THCENTURYAND“THEGREATESTIMAGINATIVEGENIUSSINCESHAKESPEARE”WJLONG,392NEVERTHELESS,MANYREADERS,WHILEAPPRECIATINGHISEXCELLENTARTISTICTECHNIQUES,FINDHISWORKSVERYDIFFICULTTOUNDERSTANDTHEOBSTACLES,ASFARASIAMCONCERNED,AREPROBABLYDUETOHAWTHORNE’SBASICTHEMEWHICHISRELATEDWITHCALVINISM;THEREFOREITISNECESSARYTODEEPLYEXPLOREITIBELIEVETHATTHERESULTOFTHEEXPLORATIONWILLHELPTHEREADERTOUNDERSTANDTHISGREATGENIUSMOREDEEPLYANDTOAPPRECIATEHISWORKSBETTERⅡTHEBASICTHEMEOFHAWTHORNE’SWRITINGSACCORDINGTOCHRISTIANITY,EVERSINCEADAMANDEVEAREDECEIVEDBYSATANINTOEATINGTHEFRUITANDEXPELLEDFROMTHEGARDENOFEDENBYGOD,EVILHASENTEREDTHEWORLD,ANDHUMANBEINGSAREDOOMEDTOCARRYTHEBURDENOFSINDEEPLYINFLUENCEDBYCHRISTIANITY,HAWTHORNEPUTSTHECALVINISMIDEAOFORIGINALSINANDDEPRAVITYINTOHISWORKSINMANYOFHISSHORTSTORIESANDROMANCES,HAWTHORNEPRESENTSACENTRALTHEMEOFORIGINALSIN,TOGETHERWITHANACCOMPANYINGTHEMEOFTHEHUNGERFORCONFESSIONANDEXPIATIONHISWORKSMAKEUSREALIZETHATPEOPLEAREBORNSINFULANDEVERYONEHASSOMESECRETGUILTANDSINHIDDENINHEART,THATSINEXISTSEVERYWHEREINTHEWORLD,ANDTHATHUMANLIFEISASUFFERINGJOURNEYOFSELFREDEMPTIONBYCITINGTHEFOLLOWINGWORKSOFHAWTHORNE,IWISHTOFULLYDISPLAYHISBASICTHEMEOFSINEXPIATIONREDEMPTIONAYOUNGGOODMANBROWNDISILLUSIONMENTINFAITHNATHANIELHAWTHORNE’SBESTSHORTSTORYYOUNGGOODMANBROWNTELLSREADERSTHESTORYOFTHEDISILLUSIONMENTINFAITH,WHICHCOULDBECOMPREHENDEDINTWOASPECTSTHEDISILLUSIONMENTOFTHEHEROBROWN’SFAITHOFHISOWN,ANDTHATOFHISFAITHINOTHERSGOODMANBROWNISANHONESTYOUNGMANINPEOPLE’SEYES,BUTISLATERSEDUCEDBYEVILHEONCEGOESTOATTENDTHEWITCHES’SABBATH,BUTTHEREHEFINDSOUTSOMEGUILTYSECRETSOFOTHERPEOPLEHEMEETSALLTHERESPECTABLE,REPUTABLE,ANDPIOUSPERSONSOFTHEVILLAGEINCLUDINGTHELADYOFGOVERNOR,WIVESOFHONOREDHUSBAND,EXCELLENTFAIRYOUNGGIRLS,ANDCHURCHMEMBERSOFTHEVILLAGEFAMOUSFORTHEIRESPECIALSANCTITYTOHISGREATERSURPRISE,HEEVENSEESHISNEWLYMARRIEDWIFE,THEPUREANDSWEETESTFAITHTHEREFORE,BROWNREALIZESTHEEVILOFOTHERSANDCANNOTBELIEVEINGOODINHIMSELFANDINOTHERSINTHESTORY,HAWTHORNECREATESA“DARKFIGURE”TOTELLBROWN,ORRATHERTHEREADERSTHEFOLLOWINGWORDS“THEREAREALLWHOMYEHAVEREVERENCEDFROMYOUTHYEDEEMEDTHEMHOLIERTHANYOURSELVES,ANDSHRANKFROMYOUROWNSIN,CONTRASTINGITWITHTHEIRLIVESOFRIGHTEOUSNESSANDPRAYERFULASPIRATIONSHEAVENWARDYETHEREARETHEYALLINMYWORSHIPINGASSEMBLYTHISNIGHTITSHALLBEGRANTEDYOUTOKNOWTHEIRSECRETDEEDSHOWHOARYBEARDEDELDERSOFTHECHURCHHAVEWHISPEREDWANTONWORDSTOTHEYOUNGMAIDSOFTHEIRHOUSEHOLD;HOWAWOMAN,EAGERFORWIDOW’SWEEDS,HASGIVENHERHUSBANDADRINKATBEDTIMEANDLETHIMSLEEPHISLASTSLEEPINHERBOSON,HOWBEARDLESSYOUTHSHAVEMADEHASTETOINHERITTHEIRFATHER’SWEALTH;ANDHOWFAIRDAMSELSBLUSHNOT,SWEETONESHAVEDUGLITTLEGRAVESINTHEGARDENANDBIDDENMETHESOLEGUESTTOANINFANT’SFUNERALBYTHESYMPATHYOFYOURHUMANHEARTSFORSINYESHALLSCENTOUTALLTHEPLACESWHETHERINCHURCH,BEDCHAMBER,STREET,FIELD,ORFORESTWHERECRIMEHASBEENCOMMITTED,ANDSHALLEXULTTOBEHOLDTHEWHOLEEARTHONESTAINOFGUILT,ONEMIGHTYBLOODSPOTFARMORETHANTHIS,ITSHALLBEYOURSTOPENETRATE,INEVERYBOSOM,THEDEEPMYSTERYOFSIN,THEFOUNTAINOFALLWICKEDARTS,ANDWHICHINEXHAUSTIBLYSUPPLIESMOREEVILIMPULSESTHANHUMANPOWERCANMAKEMANIFESTINDEED”COWLEY65INTHISSTORY,ATTENDINGTHESABBATHCOULDBEACTUALLYCONSIDEREDAS“ASPIRITUALJOURNEYFOREXPLORINGTHETRUTHOFHUMANWORLD”WANG3,WHICHISFILLEDWITHSINANDGUILTANDWECANALSOCONCLUDETHATTHEPATHINTHEFORESTSYMBOLIZESADARKJOURNEYOFBROWNTOMEETT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