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西方文化论文-评《老人与海》中海明写作风格和手法.doc

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西方文化论文-评《老人与海》中海明写作风格和手法.doc

西方文化论文评老人与海中海明写作风格和手法ContentsAbstractAbstractChinese.ⅠOutlineTopicThroughTheOldManandtheSeadisplayHemingwayuniquewritingstyleandtechnique.IntroductionLanguageStyle1.AnalysesofthelanguageStyle2.TheformingoftheLanguageStyle3.TheinfluenceoftheLanguageStyleTheWaytoUseFactsConclusionNoteBibliographyAbstractBeingdistinguishedfrommanygreatestAmericanwriters,Hemingwayisnotedforhiswritingstyle.Amongallhisworks,TheOldManandtheSeaisatypicalonetohisuniquewritingstyleandtechnique.Thelanguageissimpleandnaturalonthesurface,butactuallydeliberateandartificial.Sometimesthesimplestyleismadealittledifferent.Thedialogueiscombinedwiththerealisticandtheartificial.Thesimplicityishighlysuggestive,andoftenreflectsthestrongundercurrentofemotion.Occasionally,theauthorusessomefiguresofspeech.Hemingwaysstyleisrelatedtohisexperienceasajournalist,hislearningfrommanyfamouswriters,andmostimportantly,hisconscientiouseffortinlookingforastyleofhisown.Theinfluenceofhisstyleisgreatallovertheworld.TheOldManandtheSeaisfulloffacts,mostofwhichcomesfromHemingwaysownexperience.Sothewaytousefactsisaveryimportantwritingtechniqueinthisnovel.Thefactsinthenovelareselectedandusedasadevicetomakethefictionalworldaccepted.Intheforepartofthenovel,theyareusedtoshowthequalityofSantiagoslife,andarenarratedsimplyandnaturallywhileinthelatterpartofthenovel,theyareusedfrominsideSantiagosownconsciousnessandformpartofawholeschemeofthenovel.KeywordsFactsSimplicityArtificialIcebergTheory中文摘要在众伟大的美国作家中,海明威以独特的写作风格而著称。在他所有的作品中,老人与海最能体现他独特的写作风格和手法。这部小说语言看似简洁自然,其实包含了作者的精心揣摩和润色加工。有时为了突出某一部分,作者会采用长句代替短句。文中的对话内容真实、贴近生活,而表达形式则经过了艺术加工。小说简洁自然的语言背后隐藏了深刻的意义和感情。文中还运用了比喻、拟人等修辞手法.还名位的这种独特风格与他当过新闻记者的经历有关,同时他兼菜各家之长,自成一体,形成了自己独特的创作方法和艺术风格。这种风格对整个世界文坛产生了重要的影响。老人与海这部小说中运用了大量的事实,他们大多来自于作者亲身经历。海明威对这些事实精心选择,从而吸引读者的兴趣并使读者有一种身临其境的感觉。小说一开始用大量事实描写了主人公生活的环境,叙述风格简洁自然,未加任何感情色彩。随着情节的发展,大量的事实主要被运用于主人公的心理活动之中,而不是主要由作者来叙述。同时,这些事实构成了整个小说体系中不可缺少的一部分。关键词事实简洁加工冰山理论HemingwaysWritingStyleandTechniquesinTheOldManandtheSeaIntroductionTheOldManandtheSea1952comesroundatthefinishofHemingwayswritingcareer.Withitsvividcharacterization,itssimplelanguage,andtheprofoundimplicatingitcarries,itstandsoutasoneoftheexcellentbooksHemingwaysformerstatureasthewordspreeminentnovelistafterHemingwaysunsuccessfulnovelAcrosstheRiverandintothetrees1950.TheOldManandtheSeaearneditsauthorthePulitzerPrizeinfictionfor1952,andwasinstrumentalinwinninghimtheNobelPrizeforLiteraturetwoyearslater.ItisashortnovelaboutSantiago,anoldCubanfishermanwhohasgonefor84dayswithoutcatch.Thereforetheboy,Mandolin,whousedtosailwithhim,isforcedtoleavehimandcatchinanothership.Theoldmaninsistsonfishingaloneandatlast,hehooksaneighteenfoot,giantmarlin,thelargesthehaseverknown.Butthefishisverypowerfulanddisobedient.Ittowstheoldmanandhisboatouttoseafor48hours,withtheoldmanbearingthewholeweightofthefishthroughthelineonhisback.Theoldman,withlittlefoodandsleep,hastoenduremuchpainandfightsagainsthistreacheroushandcramp.Tohisgreatexcitement,onhisthirddayatsea,hesucceedsindrawingtheweakenedmarlintothesurfaceandharpoonsit.Onhiswayhome,helashesmarlinalongsidehisboatbecauseitistoobigtobepulledintotheboat.But,unfortunately,thecomeacrosssharksindifferentnumbersforfourtimes.Theoldmanfightstokillthesharkswithasmuchmightandmanyweaponsashecansummon,butonlytofindagiantskeletonofhismarlinleftafterhisdesperatedefense.Atlast,Santiago,havinglostwhathefoughtfor,reachestheshoreandstrugglestohisshack.Hefallsintosoundsleep,dreamingofAfrica,andthelionsagain.Hisstrugglewinshimmuchrespect.AmongmanygreatAmericanwriters,Hemingwayisfamousforhisobjectiveandterseprosestyle.AsthelastnovelHemingwaypublishedinhislife,TheOldManandtheSeatypicallyreflectshisuniquewritingstyle.ThispaperaimstodiscussthewritingstyleandtechniquesinTheOldManandtheSea.Ofcourse,Hemingwayhasusedmanytechniquesinthisnovel,suchasrealism,thecreationofsuspense,monologue,etc.Andthispaperfocusesespeciallyonthelanguagestyleandoneoftheimportanttechniquesthewaytousefactsinthisnovel.Hemingwayisfamousforhislanguage.Withmuchcareandeffort,hecreatedaveryinfluentialandimmediatelyrecognizablestyle.Thestylehecreatedinhisearlywork,suchasInOurTimeandTheSunalsoRises,wasalmosttoogood.Likethestyleofcertainpainters,ittendedtobecomeamanner,ratherthanaflexiblewayofrespondingtoexperienceandconveyingfreshinsightsthroughwords.1Amongallhisworks,TheOldManandtheSeaisthemosttypicalonetohisuniquelanguagestyle.Itslanguageissimpleandnatural,andhastheeffectofdirectness,clarityandfreshness.ThisisbecauseHemingwayalwaysmanagestochoosewordsconcrete,specific,morecommonlyfound,moreAngloSaxon,casualandconversational.2Heseldomusesadjectivesandabstractnouns,andavoidscomplicatedsyntax.Hemingwaysstrengthliesinhisshortsentencesandveryspecificdetails.Hisshortsentencesarepowerfullyloadedwiththetension,whichheseesinlife.Wherehedoesnotuseasimpleandshortsentence,heconnectsthevariouspartsofthesentenceinastraightforwardandsequentialway,oftenlinkedbyand.Inhistaskofcreatingrealpeople,Hemingwayusesdialogueasaneffectivedevice.Itispresentedinaformasclosetothedramaticaspossible,withaminimumofexplanatorycomment.3HereisanexamplechosenfromTheOldManandtheSeaWhatdoyouhavetoeattheboyasked.No,Iwilleatathome.DoyouwantmetomakethefireNo,Iwillmakeitlateron.OrImayeatthericecold.Herewecanseethatsuchinterpolationsashesaidhavefrequentlybeenomittedandthewordsareverycolloquial.Thusthespeechcomestothereaderasifhewerelistening.Hemingwayhascapturedtheimmediacyofdialogueskillfullyandhasmadetheeconomicalspeechconnotative.ButitisgoodtonotethatHemingwaysstyleisdeliberateandartificial,andisneverasnaturalasitseemstobe.Thereasonsareasfollows.Firstly,insomespecificmoments,inordertostandoutbycontrastandtodescribeanimportantturningpointorclimax,thestyleismadealittledifferentHetookallhispainandwhatwasleftofhislonggoneprideandheputitagainstthefishsagonyandthefishcameoverontohissideandswamgentlyonhisside,hisbillalmosttouchingtheplankingoftheskiff,andstartedtopasstheboat,long,deep,wide,silverandbarredwithpurpleandinterminableinthewater.5Thelanguageinthisonesentenceparagraphisdifferentfromotherpartsofthenovel.KennethGrahamhascommentedthatthesentencebuildsupitspartsinacarefullylaborioussequenceallhispainandwhatwasleftofhisstrengthandhislonggonepride.Itemulatesthemovementoftheexhaustedmarlinandthephysicalstrainoftheoldman.Anditmountstoaheavycrescendointheveryunprosaicinversionofadjectiveslong,deep,wideendinginthevirtuallypoeticcadence,interminableinthewater.6Thedialogue,too,iscombinedwiththerealisticandtheartificial.Usuallythecontentcontainsandtheexpressioncontainstheartificial.InTheOldManandtheSea,thelanguagestyleisverypeculiarfromHemingwaysotherwritings.ThisisbecausethenovelisanEnglishversionoftheSpanishthatSantiagoandMandolinwouldspeakinreallife.SincewearemeanttorealizethatSantiagoandMandolincouldnotpossiblyspeaklikethis,sinceEnglishisnothistongueanyway,wearemorelikelytoacceptotherartificialitiesofthedialogue.Usingthedeviceofapretendedtranslation,whichwouldbeboundtostiltinanycase,Hemingwaycanpoetizethedialogueashewishes.7Thespeakersaredistancedfromreaderstoacertaindegree.Andwhiletheirlanguagetakingonakindofepicdignity,itdoesnotloseitsconvincingness.Evenslightlystrangeexchangeslikethefollowingbecomefairlyacceptable.ForexampleYouremyalarmclock,theboysaid.Ageismyalarmclock,theoldmansaid.WhydooldmanwakesoearlyIsittohaveonelongerdayIdontknow,theboysaid.AllIknowisthatyoungboyssleeplateandhard.Icanrememberit,theoldmansaid.Illwakenyouintime.8Thesimplesentencesandtherepeatedrhythmshitattheprofunditiesthatthesurfaceofthelanguagetriestoignore.Itssimplicityishighlysuggestiveandconnotative,andoftenreflectsthestrongundercurrentofemotion.Indeed,themorecloselythereaderwatches,thelessroughandsimplethecharactersappear.InDeathintheAfternoon,HemingwayusesaneffectivemetaphortodescribehiswritingstyleIfawriteroftheproseknowsenoughaboutwhatheiswritingabout,hemayomitthingsthatheknowsandthereader,ifthewriteriswritingtrulyenough,willhaveafeelingofthosethingsasstronglyasthoughthewriterhadstatedthem.Thedignityofmovementofanicebergisduetoonlyoneeighthofitbeingabovewater.9AmongalltheworksofHemingway,thesagaofSantiagoisthoughtasthemosttypicalonetothisIcebergTheory.Theauthorseldomexpresseshisownfeelingsdirectly,nordoeshemakeanycommentsorexplanations.Onthecontrary,hetriestonarrateanddescribethingsobj

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