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从习语中看翻译和文化的关系以及影响文化的因素.doc

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从习语中看翻译和文化的关系以及影响文化的因素.doc

从习语中看翻译和文化的关系以及影响文化的因素TheRelationbetweenTranslationandCulturefromtheAspectofIdiomsandtheFactorswhichInfluencetheCultureAcknowledgmentsThisthesisconcludesmypostgraduatestudyinHenanNormalUniversity.IwouldliketoexpressmysincereappreciationtotheprofessorsintheCollegeofForeignLanguage,whoseprecisenessandstrictnesssetagoodexampleformeinthefutureacademiccareer.Ifeltgratitudeespeciallygoestomysupervisor,GuoYingzhen,whoseilluminatinginstructionandendlessassistancehavegreatlyconducedtotheaccomplishmentofthisthesis.Imalsoverygratefultotheteacherswhohavetaughtmeinvariouswaysduringthecourseofmystudyforthebachelorsdegree.EspeciallyIwouldliketothankProfessorGuoYingzhenandotherprofessorsintheFaultyofForeigninstitutionwhoinspiredmealot.Lastbutnotleast,Icontributethisarticletomydearfamilyfortheirhelpduringmycollegelife.摘要翻译是一个复杂的过程,对于文化翻译尤其如此。一般来说,翻译涉及语言以及文化。译者应该知道外国文化以及文化自己的人民。此外,译者应连续比较两种文化之间的等价获得意义。翻译的主要任务是翻译源语言到目标语言。如何消除不同文化之间的语言障碍,如何传达源语言的意义的重点到底是不同国家的人。本文说明了不同文化的影响已经在翻译。文能从不同的方面分析如思维的差异,心理学的文化之间的差异,不同的宗教、环境和生活环境不同的人,等等。翻译是一个复杂的过程,它是关于文化翻译尤其如此。一般来说,翻译涉及语言以及文化。译者应该知道外国文化以及文化自己的人民。此外,译者应连续比较两种文化之间的等价获得意义。翻译的主要任务是翻译源语言到目标语言。如何消除不同文化之间的语言障碍,如何传达源语言的意义。本文说明了不同文化的影响已经在翻译。文能从不同的方面分析如思维的差异,心理学的文化之间的差异,不同的宗教、环境和生活环境不同的人,等等。关键字翻译文化意识文化和思维文化差别习语AbstractTranslationisacomplexprocess,especiallywhenwetranslatetheculturaltext.Generallyspeaking,translationinvolveslanguageaswellasculture.Atranslatorshouldknowforeigncultureaswellasthecultureofhisownpeople.Moreover,atranslatorshouldmakecontinuouscomparisonsbetweenthetwoculturesforgettingtheequivalencemeaning.ThemajortaskoftranslationistotranslatethesourcelanguagetothetargetlanguageHowtogetridofthelanguagebarrierbetweendifferentculture,howtoconveythemeaningofthesourcelanguageexactlyisthefocusofthepeopleindifferentcountries.Thisthesisillustratetheinfluencesofdifferentcultureshaveupontranslation.Wencananalysisitfromdifferentaspectssuchasthedifferenceofthinking,thepsychologyofculture,thedifferencebetweendifferentreligion,theenvironmentandlivingsurroundingsofdifferentpeople,andsoon.KeyWordstranslationtheconsciousnessofculturecultureandthinkingculturaldifferenceidiomsTableofContentsAcknowledgmentsI摘要IIAbstractIIITableofContentsIVIntroduction1PARTONETHECONCEPTOFTRANSLATIONANDCULTURE21.1Theconceptoftranslation31.2Theconceptofculture5PARTTWOTHEFACTORSWHICHINFLUENCECULTURE72.1Religion72.2Thepsychologyofculture82.3Thewayofthinking92.4differentwaysoflife102.5Geographicalenvironment142.6Geographicalenvironment15PARTTHREEBETWEENCULTUREANDTRANSLATION16CONSLUSIONS18Bibliography19IntroductionThisarticlecontainstheconceptoftranslationandtheconceptofculture.Theaimoftranslationistomakingcommunication.Humanssocialdevelopmentandprocessneedtranslationandhumanssocialdevelopmentandprogressshouldmakecommunicationbetweendifferentnations,andduringtheprocessofcommunication,translationisindispensable.Translation,asanculturalphenomenon,thinkingactivity,relatedtotheeraandsocialbackgroundallinall.Translationistorenderthemeaningofatextintoanotherlanguageinthewaytheauthorintendedthetext.Translationisanartthatinvolvestherecreationofaworkinanotherlanguageforreaderswithadifferentbackground.Cultureisaverybroadconcept,togiveitarigorousandprecisedefinitionisaverydifficultthing.Manyphilosophers,sociologists,anthropologists,historiansandlinguistshavebeentryingtodefinetheconceptofculturefromtheperspectiveoftherespectivediscipline.However,sofaritstillhasnothavearecognizedandsatisfactorydefinition.Accordingtostatistics,aboutcultureatleast,ithasmorethantwohundredkindsofdifferentdefinition.Broadlyspeaking,cultureisasocialphenomenon,whichisthecreationoftheproductsforalongtime.Butitisalsoakindofhistoricalphenomenonandisthesocialhistoryremains.Rather,culturereferstoastateornationalhistory,geography,localconditionsandcustoms,traditions,lifestyles,literatureandart,behaviorstandards,wayofthinking,values,etc.Whenwetranslatesomething,thebackgroundofthecultureandthebackgroundofhistoryshouldbeconsidered.Therelationbetweencultureandtranslationisverycloseinagreatextent.Inthiscontext,weanalysisthisproblemfromdifferentaspectsthewayofthinking,thepsychologyofthinking,andthecustomsandhabitsindifferentnations.Ifthebackgroundofcultureandhistoryisignored,thetrulymeaningofthecontextwillbelost.PARTONETHECONCEPTOFTRANSLATIONANDCULTUREOnelinguistinChinahassaidwhatisthemostdifficultthingduringtheprocessoftranslation,itisthedifferencesbetweentwocultures.Nidahasmentionedthistootranslationisthecommunicationbetweentwodifferentcultures.Andwecannotignoretheimportanceofthebackgroundofcultureandthebackgroundofhistoryifwewanttotranslateapieceoftextwhichcontainstheinformationaboutcultureorsomethingelse.Whentranslatingsomething,masteringtheknowledgeofcultureandhistoryisindispensable.Therearetoomuchfactorswhichcaninfluencethecultureofthesourcelanguage.ZhuGuangqian,onewriterinmoderntimes,thinkstheassociatemeaningisthemostdifficultthingwhenwetranslateonelanguageintoanotherlanguage.Becauseinthedictionaryyoucannotfindthetrulymeaningunderacertaincontext.Butforliterarystudy,itisoneimportantfactoryoucannotignore.Thisrequiresustoknowthecustomandhabitofthecountrywewanttotranslatethelanguageofit.Orwewillfindwedonotknowhowtotranslatewhenwearegivenapieceoftext.Wecantakeapoemasanexample.Forexamplethepoem静夜思窗前明月光,疑是地上霜。举头望明月。低头思故乡。UsingEnglish,wecannotconveytheessenceofthispoemwithoutthebackgroundofoldChineseandthethoughtwhentheauthorwritethispoem.Andtherearesomanyversionsofit.Forinstance1InthestillofthenightIdescrybrightmoonlightinfrontofmybed.Isuspectittobehoaryfrostonthefloor.Iwatchthebrightmoon,asItilebackmyhead.Yearn,whilestooping,formyhomelandmore.2AtranquilnightbeforemybedIseeasilverlight,Ithinkthegroundiscoveredwithhoarfrost.Raisingmyhead,Ifindthefullmoonbrightandbowingdown,inthoughtofhomeImlost.Andtherearelotsofotherversionstranslatedbyothertranslators.Nomatterwhichversion,theemotionoftheauthormustbeconsidered,ortheywillruintheessenceofthepoem.Tyler,oneanthropologistinEngland,whosebookprimitivecultureraisestheconceptofcultureanddescribesitascultureisakindofcomplexabilitiesandhabits,whichincludesknowledge,faith,art,moral,lawandcustom.Thuswecanknowthewidecoverageofculture,itisacomplexsystem.Language,asacomponentofculture,reflectthephenomenonofaresourcefulculture.Translationissodifficultaslanguagereflecttheculture,whichconveystomuchculturalcontentandlimitedbyculture.Oncelanguageenteredthehumanslifeasatoolofcommunication,theproblemofculturalconnotationandtheabilityofexpresssomethingwillarise.Thisnotonlyrequiresthetranslatormastertheknowledgeofbilingualabilitybutmultilingualability,especiallytheymustknowtheconsciousnessoftwodifferentculture,religiouscultureandthegeographicfeatures,thehistoricalcustomsandtraditions,theprocessofformingculture,etc.Forthesefactors,thelanguageculturesofdifferentnationsreflecttheirownnationalfeaturesandthebackgroundofthenation.1.1TheconceptoftranslationTherearemanydifferentdefinitionsoftranslation,inTheOxfordEnglishDictionaryitmeanstoturnfromonelanguageintoanother.Orrecreatingaccordingtheoriginaltext.WebstersThirdNewInternationalDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguagegivesusthedefinitionoftranslationistoturnintoonesownoranotherlanguage.WhilethedefinitioninColumbiaEncyclopediaisthattranslationistheartofrecomposingaworkinanotherlanguagewithoutlosingitsoriginalflavor.Translationisthereplacementoftextualmaterialinonelanguagebyequivalenttextualinanotherlanguage.J.C.Catford,1994.Translationconsistsinreproducinginthereceptorlanguagetheclosestnaturalequivalentofthesourcelanguagemessage,firstintermsofmeaningandsecondlyintermsofstyle.EugeneNida,1969.Translationisanoldandyoungwork,whichcomeintoexistsincetheoldtimesanditbecomessohotinmoderntimes.Translationistheneedofhumansdevelopmentandprogress.Theconceptoftranslationcanbedefinedfromtwoaspectsbroadsenseandnarrowsense.Generalizedtranslationreferstothelanguageandthelanguage,languagevariationandlanguagevariants,suchaslanguageandnonverbalcodeconversionwhichconveythebasicinformation.Extensionoftheconceptisquitebroad,includinghistranslationbetweendifferentlanguages,translationbetweenlanguagevariation,languageandothersymbolsofthecommunicationconversion,etc.Thecontentsoftranslationrulesonlyemphasizesthebasicinformation,doesnotemphasizecompletelyloyal.Sometranslationtheoristsputforwardtheunderstandingandtranslationtheory,sothelanguageandthinkingarealsoincludedinthegeneraltranslation.Narrowsensetranslationisalinguisticactivity,whichisakindoflanguagetoexpressthecontentofthefaithfullyexpressedinanotherlanguage.Thisdefinitionemphasizestranslationisalanguageactivity.Thenatureoftranslationdeterminesthenarrowsense,whichindicatesthatitisahumanscommunicativeapproachinlanguagecommunication,whichemphasisononelanguageto

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