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A.3RELATIVEDENSITY.pdf

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A.3RELATIVEDENSITY.pdf

PleasenoticethatonlyEuropeanCommunityslegislationpublishedinthepapereditionsoftheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesisdeemedauthentic.Whenpreparingthisdocument,carehasbeentakentoensurecorrectnessofthetextneverthelesspossibilityoferrorscannotbecompletelyexcluded,sodifferencesmayexistbetweenthisversionandtheoneagreedandpublishedinthepapereditionoftheOfficialJournal.IncaseofdoubtthereaderisadvisedtoconsulttheOfficialJournal.ThismethodcanbefoundinDir92/69/EECO.J.L383AAcompletelistofAnnexVTestingMethodsandthecorrespondingOJcanbedownloadedfromapreviouspageinthissite.A.3RELATIVEDENSITY1.METHODThemethodsdescribedarebasedontheOECDTestGuideline1.Thefundamentalprinciplesaregiveninreference2.1.1.INTRODUCTIONThemethodsfordeterminingrelativedensitydescribedareapplicabletosolidandtoliquidsubstances,withoutanyrestrictioninrespecttotheirdegreeofpurity.Thevariousmethodstobeusedarelistedintable1.1.2.DEFINITIONSANDUNITSTherelativedensity204Dofsolidsorliquidsistheratiobetweenthemassofavolumeofsubstancetobeexamined,determinedat20°C,andthemassofthesamevolumeofwater,determinedat4°C.Therelativedensityhasnodimension.Thedensity,ρ,ofasubstanceisthequotientofthemass,m,anditsvolume,v.Thedensity,ρ,isgiven,inSIunits,inkg/m3.1.3.REFERENCESUBSTANCES13Referencesubstancesdonotneedtobeemployedinallcaseswheninvestigatinganewsubstance.Theyshouldprimarilyservetochecktheperformanceofthemethodfromtimetotimeandtoallowcomparisonwithresultsfromothermethods.1.4.PRINCIPLEOFTHEMETHODSFourclassesofmethodsareused.1.4.1.Buoyancymethods1.4.1.1.HydrometerforliquidsubstancesSufficientlyaccurateandquickdeterminationsofdensitymaybeobtainedbythefloatinghydrometers,whichallowthedensityofaliquidtobededucedfromthedepthofimmersionbyreadingagraduatedscale.1.4.1.2.HydrostaticbalanceforliquidandsolidsubstancesThedifferencebetweentheweightofatestsamplemeasuredinairandinasuitableliquide.g.watercanbeemployedtodetermineitsdensity.Forsolids,themeasureddensityisonlyrepresentativeoftheparticularsampleemployed.Forthedeterminationofdensityofliquids,abodyofknownvolume,v,isweighedfirstinairandthenintheliquid.1.4.1.3.Immersedbodymethodforliquidsubstances4Inthismethod,thedensityofaliquidisdeterminedfromthedifferencebetweentheresultsofweighingtheliquidbeforeandafterimmersingabodyofknownvolumeinthetestliquid.1.4.2.PycnometermethodsForsolidsorliquids,pycnometersofvariousshapesandwithknownvolumesmaybeemployed.Thedensityiscalculatedfromthedifferenceinweightbetweenthefullandemptypycnometeranditsknownvolume.PleasenoticethatonlyEuropeanCommunityslegislationpublishedinthepapereditionsoftheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesisdeemedauthentic.Whenpreparingthisdocument,carehasbeentakentoensurecorrectnessofthetextneverthelesspossibilityoferrorscannotbecompletelyexcluded,sodifferencesmayexistbetweenthisversionandtheoneagreedandpublishedinthepapereditionoftheOfficialJournal.IncaseofdoubtthereaderisadvisedtoconsulttheOfficialJournal.ThismethodcanbefoundinDir92/69/EECO.J.L383AAcompletelistofAnnexVTestingMethodsandthecorrespondingOJcanbedownloadedfromapreviouspageinthissite.1.4.3.AircomparisonpycnometerforsolidsThedensityofasolidinanyformcanbemeasuredatroomtemperaturewiththegascomparisonpycnometer.Thevolumeofasubstanceismeasuredinairorinaninertgasinacylinderofvariablecalibratedvolume.Forthecalculationofdensityonemassmeasurementistakenafterconcludingthevolumemeasurement.1.4.4.Oscillatingdensitimeter567Thedensityofaliquidcanbemeasuredbyanoscillatingdensitimeter.AmechanicaloscillatorconstructedintheformofaUtubeisvibratedattheresonancefrequencyoftheoscillatorwhichdependsonitsmass.Introducingasamplechangestheresonancefrequencyoftheoscillator.Theapparatushastobecalibratedbytwoliquidsubstancesofknowndensities.Thesesubstancesshouldpreferablybechosensuchthattheirdensitiesspantherangetobemeasured.1.5.QUALITYCRITERIATheapplicabilityofthedifferentmethodsusedforthedeterminationoftherelativedensityislistedinthetable.1.6.DESCRIPTIONOFTHEMETHODSThestandardsgivenasexamples,whicharetobeconsultedforadditionaltechnicaldetails,areattachedintheAppendix.Thetestshavetoberunat20°C,andatleasttwomeasurementsperformed.2.DATASeestandards.3.REPORTINGThetestreportshall,ifpossible,includethefollowinginformationmethodused,precisespecificationofthesubstanceidentityandimpuritiesandpreliminarypurificationstep,ifany.Therelativedensity,204D,shallbereportedasdefinedin1.2,alongwiththephysicalstateofthemeasuredsubstance.Allinformationandremarksrelevantfortheinterpretationofresultshavetobereported,especiallywithregardtoimpuritiesandphysicalstateofthesubstance.PleasenoticethatonlyEuropeanCommunityslegislationpublishedinthepapereditionsoftheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesisdeemedauthentic.Whenpreparingthisdocument,carehasbeentakentoensurecorrectnessofthetextneverthelesspossibilityoferrorscannotbecompletelyexcluded,sodifferencesmayexistbetweenthisversionandtheoneagreedandpublishedinthepapereditionoftheOfficialJournal.IncaseofdoubtthereaderisadvisedtoconsulttheOfficialJournal.ThismethodcanbefoundinDir92/69/EECO.J.L383AAcompletelistofAnnexVTestingMethodsandthecorrespondingOJcanbedownloadedfromapreviouspageinthissite.TABLEAPPLICABILITYOFMETHODS4.REFERENCES1OECD,Paris,1981,TestGuideline109,DecisionoftheCouncilC8130final.2R.Weissbergered.,TechniqueofOrganicChemistry,PhysicalMethodsofOrganicChemistry,3rded.,ChapterIV,IntersciencePubl.,NewYork,1959,vol.I,Part1.3IUPAC,Recommendedreferencematerialsforrealizationofphysicochemicalproperties,Pureandappliedchemistry,1976,vol.48,508.4Wagenbreth,H.,DieTauchkugelzurBestimmungderDichtevonFlüssigkeiten,TechnischesMessentm,1979,vol.ll,427430.5Leopold,H.,DiedigitaleMessungvonFlüssigkeiten,Elektronik,1970,vol.19,297302.6Baumgarten,D.,FüllmengenkontrollebeivorgepacktenErzeugnissenVerfahrenzurDichtebestimmungbeiflüssigenProduktenundihrepraktischeAnwendung,DiePharmazeutischeIndustrie,1975,vol.37,717726.6Riemann,J.,DerEinsatzderdigitalenDichtemessungimBrauereilaboratorium,Brauwissenschaft,1976,vol.9,253255.AppendixForadditionaltechnicaldetails,thefollowingstandardsmaybeconsultedforexample1.BUOYANCYMETHODS1.1.HydrometerDIN12790,ISO387HydrometergeneralinstructionsDIN12791PartIDensityhydrometersconstruction,adjustmentandusePartIIDensityhydrometersstandardizedsizes,designationPartIIIUseandtestISO6492LaboratoryglasswareDensityhydrometersforgeneralpurposePleasenoticethatonlyEuropeanCommunityslegislationpublishedinthepapereditionsoftheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesisdeemedauthentic.Whenpreparingthisdocument,carehasbeentakentoensurecorrectnessofthetextneverthelesspossibilityoferrorscannotbecompletelyexcluded,sodifferencesmayexistbetweenthisversionandtheoneagreedandpublishedinthepapereditionoftheOfficialJournal.IncaseofdoubtthereaderisadvisedtoconsulttheOfficialJournal.ThismethodcanbefoundinDir92/69/EECO.J.L383AAcompletelistofAnnexVTestingMethodsandthecorrespondingOJcanbedownloadedfromapreviouspageinthissite.NFT20050ChemicalproductsforindustrialuseDeterminationofdensityofliquidsAreometricmethodDIN12793Laboratoryglasswarerangefindhydrometers1.2.HydrostaticbalanceForsolidsubstancesISO1183MethodAMethodsfordeterminingthedensityandrelativedensityofplasticsexcludingcellularplasticsNFT20049ChemicalproductsforindustrialuseDeterminationofthedensityofsolidsotherthanpowdersandcellularproductsHydrostaticbalancemethodASTMD792SpecificgravityanddensityofplasticsbydisplacementDIN53479TestingofplasticsandelastomersdeterminationofdensityForliquidsubstancesISO901ISO758DIN51757TestingofmineraloilsandrelatedmaterialsdeterminationofdensityASTMD94155,ASTMD129667andASTMD148162ASTMD1298Density,specificgravityorAPIgravityofcrudepetroleumandliquidpetroleumproductsbyhydrometermethodBS4714Density,specificgravityorAPIgravityofcrudepetroleumandliquidpetroleumproductsbyhydrometermethod1.3.ImmersedbodymethodDIN53217Testingofpaints,varnishesandsimilarcoatingmaterialsdeterminationofdensityimmersedbodymethod2.PYCNOMETERMETHODS2.1.ForliquidsubstancesISO3507PycnometersISO758Liquidchemicalproductsdeterminationofdensityat20°CDIN12797GayLussacpycnometerfornonvolatileliquidswhicharenottooviscousDIN12798Lipkinpycnometerforliquidswithakinematicviscosityoflessthanl00.106m2s1at15°CDIN12800SprengelpycnometerforliquidsasDIN12798DIN12801Reischauerpycnometerforliquidswithakinematicviscosityoflessthanl00.106m2s1at20°C,applicableinparticularalsotohydrocarbonsandaqueoussolutionsaswellastoliquidswithhighervapourpressure,approximately1barat90°CDIN12806Hubbardpycnometerforviscousliquidsofalltypeswhichdonothavetoohighavapourpressure,inparticularalsoforpaints,varnishesandbitumenDIN12807Binghampycnometerforliquids,asinDIN12801PleasenoticethatonlyEuropeanCommunityslegislationpublishedinthepapereditionsoftheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesisdeemedauthentic.Whenpreparingthisdocument,carehasbeentakentoensurecorrectnessofthetextneverthelesspossibilityoferrorscannotbecompletelyexcluded,sodifferencesmayexistbetweenthisversionandtheoneagreedandpublishedinthepapereditionoftheOfficialJournal.IncaseofdoubtthereaderisadvisedtoconsulttheOfficialJournal.ThismethodcanbefoundinDir92/69/EECO.J.L383AAcompletelistofAnnexVTestingMethodsandthecorrespondingOJcanbedownloadedfromapreviouspageinthissite.DIN12808JaulmespycnometerinparticularforethanolwatermixtureDIN12809PycnometerwithgroundinthermometerandcapillarysidetubeforliquidswhicharenottooviscousDIN53217Testingofpaints,varnishesandsimilarproductsdeterminationofdensitybypycnometerDIN51757Point7TestingofmineraloilsandrelatedmaterialsdeterminationofdensityASTMD297Section15RubberproductschemicalanalysisASTMD2111MethodCHalogenatedorganiccompoundsBS4699MethodfordeterminationofspecificgravityanddensityofpetroleumproductsgraduatedbicapillarypycnometermethodBS5903MethodfordeterminationofrelativedensityanddensityofpetroleumproductsbythecapillarystopperedpycnometermethodNFT20053ChemicalproductsforindustrialuseDeterminationofdensityofsolidsinpowderandliquidsPyknometricmethod2.2.ForsolidsubstancesISO1183MethodBMethodsfordeterminingthedensityandrelativedensityofplasticsexcludingcellularplastics.NFT20053ChemicalproductsforindustrialuseDeterminationofdensityofsolidsinpowderandliquidsPyknometricmethodDIN19683Determinationofthedensityofsoils3.AIRCOMPARISONPYCNOMETERDIN55990Part3PrüfungvonAnstrichstoffenundähnlichenBeschichrungsstoffenPulverlackBestimmungderDichteDIN53243AnstrichstoffeChlorhaltigePolymerePrüfung

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