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有机化学专业英语.docx

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有机化学专业英语.docx

有机化学专业英语1ANGULARMETHYLGROUP角甲基ALKYLIDENEGROUP亚烷基ALLYLGROUP烯丙基ALLYLIC烯丙型的PHENYLGROUP苯基ARYLGROUP芳基BENZYLGROUP苄基BENZYLIC苄型的ACTIVATINGGROUP活化基团CHROMOPHORE生色团AUXOCHROME助色团MAGNETICALLYANISOTROPICGROUP磁各向异性基团SMALLYRING小环COMMONRING普通环MEDIUMRIMG中环LARGERING大环BRIDGEDRINGSYSTEM桥环体系SPIROCOMPOUND螺环化合物HELICALMOLECULE螺旋型分子OCTAHEDRALCOMPOUND八面体化合物CONJUGATION共轭CONJUGATEDSYSTEM共轭体系ACYLCATION酰基正离子BENZYLICCATION苄基正离子ARENIRMION芳基正离子KETYLRADICAL羰自由基RADICALION自由基离子RADICALCATION自由基正离子RADICALANION自由基负离子ISOMERISM异构现象ACIFORM酸式FLUXIONALSTRUCTURE循变结构STEREOCHEMISTRY立体化学OPTICALACTIVITY光学活性DEXTROISOMER右旋异构体LAEVOISOMER左旋异构体TETRAHEDRALCONFIGURATION四面体构型STEREOISOMERISM立体异构现象ASYMMETRICATOM不对称原子ASYMMETRICCARBON不对称碳PSEUDOASYMMETRICCARBON假不对称碳PHANTOMATOM虚拟原子HOMOTOPIC等位的HETEROTOPIC异位的ENANTIOTOPIC对映异位腯DIASTEREOTOPIC非对映异位的CONFIGURATION构型ABSOLUTECONFIGURATION绝对构型CHIRALITY手性CHIRAL手性的CHIRALCENTER手性中心CHIRALMOLECULE手性分子ACHIRAL非手性的FISCHERPROJECTION费歇尔投影式NEOMANPROJECTION纽曼投影式DLSYSTEMOFNOMENCLATUREDL命名体系RSSYYTEMOFNOMENCLATURERS命名体系CAHNINGOLDPRELONSEQUENCE顺序规则SYMMETRYFACTOR对称因素PLANEOFSYMMETRY对称面MIRRORSYMMETRY镜面对称ENANTIOMER对映异构体DIASTEREOMER非对映异构体EPIMER差向异构体ANOMER端基差向异构体ERYTHROCONFIGURATION赤型构型ERYTHROISOMER赤型异构体THREOCONFIGURATION苏型构型THREOISOMER苏型异构体TRIGONALCARBON三角型碳CISTRANSISOMERISM顺反异构EISOMERE异构体ZISOMERZ异构体ENDOISOMER内型异构体EXOISOMER外型异构体PROCHIRALITY前手性PRORGROUP前R基团PROSPROUP前S基团REFACERE面SIFACESI面RACEMICMIXTURE外消旋混合物RACEMICCOMPOUND外消旋化合物RACEMICSOLIDSOLUTION外消旋固体溶液MESOCOMPOUND内消旋化合物QUASIRECEMATE准外消旋体有机化学专业英语2CONFORMATION构象CONFORMATIONAL构象分析TORSIONANGLE扭转角ROTAMER旋转异构体ANTICONFORMATION反式构象BISECTINGCONFORMATION等分构象ANTIPERIPLANARCONFORMATION反叠构象SYNPERIPLANARCONFORMATION顺叠构象SYNCLINALCONFORMATION反错构象SYNCLINALCONFORMATION顺错构象ECLIPSEDCONFORMATION重叠构象GAUCHECONFORMATION,SKEWCONFORMATION邻位交叉构象STAGGEREDCONFORMATION对位交叉构象STERICEFFECT空间效应STERICHINDRANCE位阻ATROPISMER阻转异构体PUCKEREDRING折叠环CONFORMATIONALINVERSION构象反转CHAIRCONFORMATION椅型构象BOATCONFORMATION船型构象TWISTCONFORMATION扭型构象SKEWBOATCONFORMATION扭船型构象HALFCHAIRCONFORMATION半椅型构象PSEUDOROTATION假旋转ENVELOPECONFORMATION信封型构象AXIALBOND直立键EQUATORIALBOND平伏键CISOIDCONFORMATION顺向构象TRANSOIDCONFORMATION反向构象RETENTIONOFCONFIGURATION构型保持REGIOSELECTIVITY区域选择性REGIOSPECIFICITY区域专一性STEREOCELECTIVITY立体选择性STEREOSPECIFICTY立体专一性CONFORMER构象异构体CONFORMATIONALEFFECT构象效应CRAM’SRUBE克拉姆规则PRELOG’RULE普雷洛格规则STEREOCHEMICALORIENTATION立体化学取向CONFORMATIONALTRANSMISSION构象传递HOMOLOG同系物IPSOPOSITION本位ORTHOPOSITION邻位METAPOSITION间位PARAPOSITION对位AMPHIPOSITION远位PERIPOSITION近位TRIGONALHYBRIDIZATION三角杂化MOLECULARORBIRALMETHOD分子轨道法VALENCEBONDMETHOD价键法DELOCALEZEDBOND离域键CROSSCONJUGATION交叉共轭VINYLOG插烯物MESOMERICEFFECT中介效应RESONANCE共振RESONANCEEFFECT共振效应HYPERCONJUGATION超共轭ISOVALENTHYPERCONJUGATION等价超共轭NOBONDRESONANCE无键共振AROMATICITY芳香性AROMATICSEXTER芳香六隅HUCKEL’RULE休克尔规则PARAMAGNETICRINGCURRENT顺磁环电流DIAMAGNETICRINGCRUUENT抗磁环电流HOMOAROMATICITY同芳香性ANTIAROMATICITY反芳香性ALTERNANTHYDROCARBON交替烃NONALTERNANTHYDROCARBON非交替烷PERICYCLICREACTION周环反应ELECTROCYCLICREARRANGEMENT电环化重排CONROTATORY顺旋DISROATATORY对旋CYCLOADDITION环加成SYMMETRYFORBIDDENREACTION对称禁阻反应SYNFACIALREACTION同面反应ANTARAFACIALREACTION异面反应MOBIUSSYSTEM默比乌斯体系LEOISSTRUCTURE路易斯结构COORDINATECOVALENTBOND配位共价键BANANABOND香蕉键PAULINGELECTRONEGATIVITYSCALE鲍林电负性标度POLARIZABILITY可极化性INDUCTIVEEFFECT诱导效应FIELDEFFECT场效应有机化学专业英语3ELECTRICALEFFECT电场效应TAUTOMERISM互变异构TAUTOMERIZATION互变异构化KETOENOLTAUTOMERISM酮烯醇互变异构PHENOLKETOTAUTOMERISM酚酮互变异构IMINEENAMINEATUTOMERISM亚胺烯胺互变异构RINGCHAINTAUTOMERISM环链互变异构VALENCETAUTOMERISM价互变异构AMBIDENT两可的SOLVENTEFFECT溶剂效应ACIDBASECATALYXEDREACTION酸性溶剂BASICSOLVENT碱性溶剂DIELECTRICCONSTANT介电常数SOLVATEDELECTRON溶剂化电子ACIDBASECATALYZEDREACTION酸碱催化反应CONJUGATEBASE共轭酸CONJUGATEBASE共轭碱THERMODYNAMICACIDITY热力学酸度KINETICACIDITY动力学酸度ELECTRONDONOFACCEPTORCOMPLEX,EDACOMPLEX电子给体受体络合物HOST主体GUEST客体PRIMARYISOTOPEEFFECT一级同位素效应SECONDARYISOTOPEEFFECT二级同位数效应INVERSEISOTOPEEFFECT逆同位素效应KINETICCONTROL动力学控制THERMODYNAMICCONTROL热力学控制SUBSTRATE底物INTERMEDIATE中间体REACTIVEINTERMEDIATE活泼中间体MICROSCOPICREVERSIBILITY微观可逆性HAMMONDPOSTULATE哈蒙德假说LINEARFREEENERGY线性自由能NONBONDEDINTERACTION非键相互作用TORSIONALEFFECT扭转效应PITZERSTRAIN皮策张力RESTRICTEDROTATION阻碍旋转ECLIPSINGEFFECT重叠效应ECLIPSINGSTRAIN重叠张力SMALLANGLESTRAIN小角张力LARGEANGLESTRAIN大角张力TRANSANNULARINTERACTION跨环相互作用TRANSANNULARSTRAIN跨环张力ISTRAIN内张力FSTRAIN前张力BSTRAIN后张力ANOMERICEFFECT端基异构效应WALDENINVERSION瓦尔登反转RACEMIZATION外消旋化ISOINVERSION等反转ISORACEMIZATION等消旋HOMOCHIRAL纯手性的MECHANISM机理UNIMOLECULARNUCLEOPHILIC单分子亲核取代BIMOLECULARNUCLEOPHILICSUBSTITUTION双分子亲核取代BIMOLECULARNUCLEOPHILICSUBSTITUTIONWITHALLYLICREARRANGEMENT双分子亲核取代(含烯丙型重排)INTERNALNUCLEOPHILICSUBSTIRUTION分子内亲核取代AROMATICNUCLEOPHILICSUBSTITUTION芳香亲核取代UNIMOLECULARELECTROPHILICSUBSTITUTION单分子亲电取代BIMOLECULARELECTROPHILICSUBSTITUTION双分子亲电取代NUCLEOPHILEASSISTEDUNIMOLECULARELECTROPHILICSUBSTITUTION亲核体协助单分子亲电取代UNIMOLECULARELIMINATION单分子消除BIMOLECULARELIMINATION双分子消除UNIMOLECULARELIMINATIONTHROUGHTHECONJUGATEBASE单分子共轭碱消除BIMOLECULARELIMINATIONTHROUGHTHECONJUGATEBASE双分子共轭碱消除BIMOLECULARELIMINATIONWITHFORMATIONOFACARBONYLGROUP双分子羰基形成消除UNIMOLECULARACIDCATALYZEDACYLOXYGENCLEAVAGE单分子酸催化酰氧断裂BIMOLECULARBASECATALYZEDACYLOXYGENCLEAVAGE双分子碱催化酰氧断裂UNIMOLECULARACIDCATALYZEDALKYLOXYGENCLEAVAGE单分子酸催化烷氧断裂BIMLLECULARBASECATALYZEDALKYLOXYGENCLE有机化学专业英语4AVAGE双分子碱催化烷氧断裂ΠALLYLCOMPLEXMECHANISMΠ烯丙型络合机理BORDERLINEMECHANISM边理机理HOMOLYSIS均裂HETEROLYSIS异裂HETEROLYTICMICHANISM异裂机理COUNRERGEGENION反荷离子IONPAIR离子对CARBOCATION碳正离子NONCLASSICALCARBOCATION非经典碳正离子CARBANION碳负离子MASKEDCARBANION掩蔽碳负离子CARBENOID卡宾体CARBENE卡宾NITRENE氮宾CARBINE碳炔ELECTROPHILICADDITION亲电加成ELECTROPHILE亲电体DIAXIALADDITION双直键加成MARKOVNIKOV’SRUBE马尔科夫尼科规则ANTIMARKOVNIKOVADDITION反马氏加成MICHAELADDITION迈克尔加成SUBSTITUTION取代ELECTROPHILICSUBSTITUTION亲电取代ADDITIONELIMINATIONMECHANISM加成消除机理ELECTROPHILICAROMATICSUBSTITUTION亲电芳香取代ELECTRONTRANSFER电子转移ELECTRONDONATINGGROUP给电子基团ELECTRONWITHDRAWINGGROUP吸电子基团DEACTIVATINGGROUP钝化基团ORINENTATION取向ORTHOPARADIRECTINGGROUP邻对位定位基METADIRECTINGGROUP间位定位基ORTHOEFFECT邻位效应PARTIALRATEFACTOR分速度系数NUCLEOPHILICREACTION亲核反应INTERNALRETURN内返NUCLEOPHILICITY亲核体NUCLEOPHILICITY亲核性ΑEFFECTΑ效应BACKSIDEATTACK背面进攻INVERSION反转UMBRELLAEFFECT伞效应PUSHPULLEFFECT推拉效应LEAVINGGROUP离去基团ELECTROFUGE离电体NUCLEOFUGE离核体PHASETRANSFERCATALYSIS相转移催化NEIGHBORINGGROUPPARTICIPATION邻基基参与NEIGHBORINGPROUPASSISTANCE,ANCHIMERICASSISTANCE邻助作用NEIGHBORINGGROUPEFFECT邻基效应APOFACIALREACTION反面反应BRIDDGEHEADDISPLACEMENT桥头取代ARYLACTION芳正离子BENZYNE苯炔ZAITSEVRULE札依采夫规则ANTIZAITSEVORIENTATION反札依采夫定向HOFMANN’SRULE霍夫曼规则BREDTRULE布雷特规则INITIATION引发ANIONICCLEAVAGE负离子裂解PARTIALBONDFIXATION键的部分固定化02.3有机化学反应ALKYLATION烷基化CALKYLATIONC烷基化OALKYLATIONO烷基化NALKYLATIONN烷基化SILYLATION硅烷基化EXHAUSTIVEMETHYLATION彻底甲基化SECOALKYLATION断裂烷基化DEMETHYLATION脱甲基化ETHYLATION乙基化ARYLATION芳基化ACYLATION酰化FORMYLATION甲酰化CARBALKOXYLATION烷氧羰基化CARBOAMIDATION氨羰基化CARBOXYLATION羧基化AMINATION氨基化BISAMINATION双氨基化CINESUBSTITUTION移位取代TRANSAMINATION氨基交换有机化学专业英语5HYDROXYLATION羟基化ACYLOXYATION酰氧基化DECARBOXYLATIVENITRATION脱羧卤化ALLYLICHALOGENATION烯丙型卤化DEHALOGENATION脱卤NITRATION硝化DECARBOXYLATIVENITRATION脱羧硝化NITROSATION亚硝化SULFONATION磺化CHLOROSULFONATION氯磺酰化DESULFONATION脱磺酸基SULFENYLATION亚磺酰化SULFONYLATION磺酰化CHLOROSULFENATION氯亚磺酰化CHLOROCARBONYLATION氯羰基化DIAZOTIZATION重氮化DIAZOTRANSFER重氮基转移COUPLINGREACTION偶联反应DIAZONIUMCOUPLING重氮偶联CROSSCOUPLINGREACTION交叉偶联反应1,4ADDITION1,4加成CONJUGATEADDITION共轭加成DIMERIZATION二聚TRIMEFIZATION三聚ADDITIVEDIMERIZATION加成二聚SULFURIZATION硫化SELENYLATION硒化HYDROBORATION硼氢化OXYAMINATION羟氨基化INSERTION插入CARBONYLATION羧基化HYDROFORMYLATION加氢甲酰基化HYDROACYLATION加氢酰化OXOPROCESS羰基合成DECARBONYLATION脱羰HYDROCARBOXYLATION氢羧基化HOMOLOGIZATION同系化CYANOETHYLATION氰乙基化DECYANOETHYLATION脱氰乙基RINGCLSURE环合DIENESYNTHESIS双烯合成DIENOPHILE亲双烯体ENDOADDITION内型加成EXOADDITION外型加成DIELSALDERREACTION第尔斯尔德反应RETRODIELSALDERREACTION逆第尔斯阿尔德反应ENESYNTHESIS单烯合成ANIONICCYCLOADDITION负离子环加成DIPOLARADDITION偶极加成ELIMINATION消除ELIMINATION消除ELIMINATION消除ELIMINATION消除DEHYDROHALOGENATION脱卤化氢DEAMINATION脱氨基PYROLYTICELIMINATION热解消除ELIMINATIONADDITION消除加成DECARBOXYLATION脱羧DECARBOXAMIDATION脱酰胺DECYANATION脱氰基ALKYLOLYSIS,ALKYLCLEAVAGE烷基裂解ACYLOLYSIS,ACYLCLEAVAGE酰基裂解FLASHPYROLYSIS闪热裂FRAGMENTATION碎裂CHILETROPICREACTION螯键反应CHELATION螯环化ESTERIFICATION酯化TRANSESTERIFICATION酯交换SAPONIFICATION皂化ALCOHOLYSIS醇解ETHANOLYSIS乙醇解CYANOMETHYLATION氰甲基化AMINOMETHYLATION氨甲基化HYDROXYMETHYLATION羟甲基化HYDROXYALKYLATION羟烷基化CHOLROMETHYLATION氯甲基化HALOALKYLATION卤烷基化TRANSACETALATION缩醛交换ENOLIZATION烯醇化HALOFORMREACTION卤仿反应CONDENSATION缩合ALDOLCONDENSATION羟醛缩合CROSSALDOLCONDENSATION交叉羟醛缩合RETROGRADEALDOLCONDENSATION逆羟醛缩合ACYLOINCONDENSATION偶姻缩合有机化学专业英语6CYCLIZATION环化ANNULATION,ANNELATION增环反应SPIROANNULATION螺增环AUTOXIDATION自氧化ALLYLICHYDROPEROXYLATION烯丙型氢过氧化EPOXIDATION环氧化OXONOLYSIS臭氧解ELECTROCHEMICALOXIDATION电化学氧化OXIDATIVEDECARBOXYLATION氧化脱羧AROMATIZATION芳构化CATALYTICHYDROGENATION催化氢化HETEROGENEOUSHYDROGENATION多相氢化HOMOGENEOUSHYDROGENATION均相氢化CATALYTICDEHYDROGENATION催化脱氢TRANSFERHYDROGENATION转移氢化HYDROGENOLYSIS氢解DISSOLVINGMETALREDUCTION溶解金属还原SINGLEELECTRONTRANSFER单电子转移BIMOLECULARREDUCTION双分子还原ELECTROCHEMICALREDUCTION电化学还原REDUCTIVEALKYLATION还原烷基化REDUCTIVEACYLATION还原酰化REDUCTIVEDIMERIZATION还原二聚DEOXYGENATION脱氧DESULFURIZATION脱硫DESELENIZATION脱硒MITALLATION金属化LITHIATION锂化HYDROMETALLATION氢金属化MERCURATION汞化OXYMERCURATION羟汞化AMINOMERCURATION氨汞化ABSTRACTION夺取反应INTERNALABSTRACTION内夺取反应REARRANGEMENT重排PROTOTROPICREARRANGEMENT质了转移重排DOUBLEBONDMIGRATION双键移位ALLYLICMIGRATION烯丙型重排ALLYLICMIGRATION烯丙型迁移RINGCONTRACTION环缩小反应RINGEXPANSION,RINGENLARGEMENT扩环反应KETOLREARRANGEMENT酮醇重排PINACOLREARRANGEMENT频哪醇重排RETROPINACOLREARRANGEMENT逆频哪醇重排SEMIPINACOLREARRANGEMENT半频哪醇重排BENZILICREARRANGEMENT二苯乙醇酸重排ACYLREARRANGEMENT酰基重排MIGRATORYAPTITUDE迁移倾向TRANSANNULARINSERTION跨环插入TRANSANNULARREARRANGEMENT跨环重排MIGRATION迁移PROTOTROPY质子转移CATIONOTROPICREARRANGEMENT正离子转移重排ANIONOTROPY负离子转移ANIONOTROPICREARRANGEMENT负离子转移重排SIGMATROPICREARRANGEMENT迁移重排HOMOSIGMATROPICREARRANGEMENT同迁移重排ELECTROPHILICREARRANGEMENT亲电重排PHOTOSENSITIZATION光敏化FORBIDDENTRANSITION禁阻跃迁PHOTOOXIDATION光氧化PHOTOISOMERIZATION光异构化PHOTOCHEMICALREARRANGEMENT光化学重排有机化合物类名ALIPHATICCOMPOUND脂肪族化合物HPDROCARBON碳氢化合物ALKANE烷WAX蜡PARAFFINWAX石蜡ALKENE烯ALKYEN炔ACETYLIDE炔化物ACTIVEHYDROGENCOMPOUNDS活泼氢化合物CARBONACID碳氢酸SUPERACID超酸DIENE双烯TRIENE三烯ALLENE丙二烯CCUMULENE累积多烯ENYNE烯炔DIYNE二炔ALKYLHALIDE卤代烷ALCOHOL醇HOMOALLYLICALCOHOL高烯丙醇ETHER醚有机化学专业英语7EPOXIDE环氧化物CELLOSOLVE溶纤剂CROWNETHER冠醚NETROCOMPO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