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有机化学专业英语.docx

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有机化学专业英语.docx

有机化学专业英语1Angularmethylgroup角甲基Alkylidenegroup亚烷基Allylgroup烯丙基Allylic烯丙型的Phenylgroup苯基Arylgroup芳基Benzylgroup苄基Benzylic苄型的Activatinggroup活化基团Chromophore生色团Auxochrome助色团Magneticallyanisotropicgroup磁各向异性基团Smallyring小环Commonring普通环Mediumrimg中环Largering大环Bridgedringsystem桥环体系Spirocompound螺环化合物Helicalmolecule螺旋型分子Octahedralcompound八面体化合物Conjugation共轭Conjugatedsystem共轭体系Acylcation酰基正离子Benzyliccation苄基正离子Arenirmion芳基正离子Ketylradical羰自由基Radicalion自由基离子Radicalcation自由基正离子Radicalanion自由基负离子Isomerism异构现象Aciform酸式Fluxionalstructure循变结构Stereochemistry立体化学Opticalactivity光学活性Dextroisomer右旋异构体Laevoisomer左旋异构体Tetrahedralconfiguration四面体构型Stereoisomerism立体异构现象Asymmetricatom不对称原子Asymmetriccarbon不对称碳Pseudoasymmetriccarbon假不对称碳Phantomatom虚拟原子Homotopic等位的Heterotopic异位的Enantiotopic对映异位腯Diastereotopic非对映异位的Configuration构型Absoluteconfiguration绝对构型Chirality手性Chiral手性的Chiralcenter手性中心Chiralmolecule手性分子Achiral非手性的Fischerprojection费歇尔投影式Neomanprojection纽曼投影式DLsystemofnomenclatureDL命名体系RSsyytemofnomenclatureRS命名体系CahnIngoldPrelonsequence顺序规则Symmetryfactor对称因素Planeofsymmetry对称面Mirrorsymmetry镜面对称Enantiomer对映异构体Diastereomer非对映异构体Epimer差向异构体Anomer端基差向异构体Erythroconfiguration赤型构型Erythroisomer赤型异构体Threoconfiguration苏型构型Threoisomer苏型异构体Trigonalcarbon三角型碳Cistransisomerism顺反异构EisomerE异构体ZisomerZ异构体Endoisomer内型异构体Exoisomer外型异构体Prochirality前手性ProRgroup前R基团ProSproup前S基团RefaceRe面SifaceSi面Racemicmixture外消旋混合物Racemiccompound外消旋化合物Racemicsolidsolution外消旋固体溶液Mesocompound内消旋化合物Quasirecemate准外消旋体有机化学专业英语2Conformation构象Conformational构象分析Torsionangle扭转角Rotamer旋转异构体Anticonformation反式构象Bisectingconformation等分构象Antiperiplanarconformation反叠构象Synperiplanarconformation顺叠构象Synclinalconformation反错构象Synclinalconformation顺错构象Eclipsedconformation重叠构象Gaucheconformation,skewconformation邻位交叉构象Staggeredconformation对位交叉构象Stericeffect空间效应Sterichindrance位阻Atropismer阻转异构体Puckeredring折叠环Conformationalinversion构象反转Chairconformation椅型构象Boatconformation船型构象Twistconformation扭型构象Skewboatconformation扭船型构象Halfchairconformation半椅型构象Pseudorotation假旋转Envelopeconformation信封型构象Axialbond直立键Equatorialbond平伏键Cisoidconformation顺向构象Transoidconformation反向构象Retentionofconfiguration构型保持Regioselectivity区域选择性Regiospecificity区域专一性Stereocelectivity立体选择性Stereospecificty立体专一性Conformer构象异构体Conformationaleffect构象效应Cramsrube克拉姆规则Prelogrule普雷洛格规则Stereochemicalorientation立体化学取向Conformationaltransmission构象传递Homolog同系物Ipsoposition本位Orthoposition邻位Metaposition间位Paraposition对位Amphiposition远位Periposition近位Trigonalhybridization三角杂化Molecularorbiralmethod分子轨道法Valencebondmethod价键法Delocalezedbond离域键Crossconjugation交叉共轭Vinylog插烯物Mesomericeffect中介效应Resonance共振Resonanceeffect共振效应Hyperconjugation超共轭Isovalenthyperconjugation等价超共轭Nobondresonance无键共振Aromaticity芳香性Aromaticsexter芳香六隅Huckelrule休克尔规则Paramagneticringcurrent顺磁环电流Diamagneticringcruuent抗磁环电流Homoaromaticity同芳香性Antiaromaticity反芳香性Alternanthydrocarbon交替烃Nonalternanthydrocarbon非交替烷Pericyclicreaction周环反应Electrocyclicrearrangement电环化重排Conrotatory顺旋Disroatatory对旋Cycloaddition环加成Symmetryforbiddenreaction对称禁阻反应Synfacialreaction同面反应Antarafacialreaction异面反应Mobiussystem默比乌斯体系Leoisstructure路易斯结构Coordinatecovalentbond配位共价键Bananabond香蕉键Paulingelectronegativityscale鲍林电负性标度Polarizability可极化性Inductiveeffect诱导效应Fieldeffect场效应有机化学专业英语3Electricaleffect电场效应tautomerism互变异构Tautomerization互变异构化Ketoenoltautomerism酮烯醇互变异构Phenolketotautomerism酚酮互变异构Imineenamineatutomerism亚胺烯胺互变异构Ringchaintautomerism环链互变异构Valencetautomerism价互变异构Ambident两可的Solventeffect溶剂效应Acidbasecatalyxedreaction酸性溶剂Basicsolvent碱性溶剂Dielectricconstant介电常数Solvatedelectron溶剂化电子Acidbasecatalyzedreaction酸碱催化反应Conjugatebase共轭酸Conjugatebase共轭碱Thermodynamicacidity热力学酸度Kineticacidity动力学酸度Electrondonofacceptorcomplex,EDAcomplex电子给体受体络合物Host主体Guest客体Primaryisotopeeffect一级同位素效应Secondaryisotopeeffect二级同位数效应Inverseisotopeeffect逆同位素效应Kineticcontrol动力学控制Thermodynamiccontrol热力学控制Substrate底物Intermediate中间体Reactiveintermediate活泼中间体Microscopicreversibility微观可逆性Hammondpostulate哈蒙德假说Linearfreeenergy线性自由能Nonbondedinteraction非键相互作用Torsionaleffect扭转效应Pitzerstrain皮策张力Restrictedrotation阻碍旋转Eclipsingeffect重叠效应Eclipsingstrain重叠张力Smallanglestrain小角张力Largeanglestrain大角张力Transannularinteraction跨环相互作用Transannularstrain跨环张力Istrain内张力Fstrain前张力Bstrain后张力Anomericeffect端基异构效应Waldeninversion瓦尔登反转Racemization外消旋化Isoinversion等反转Isoracemization等消旋Homochiral纯手性的Mechanism机理Unimolecularnucleophilic单分子亲核取代Bimolecularnucleophilicsubstitution双分子亲核取代Bimolecularnucleophilicsubstitutionwithallylicrearrangement双分子亲核取代(含烯丙型重排)Internalnucleophilicsubstirution分子内亲核取代Aromaticnucleophilicsubstitution芳香亲核取代Unimolecularelectrophilicsubstitution单分子亲电取代Bimolecularelectrophilicsubstitution双分子亲电取代Nucleophileassistedunimolecularelectrophilicsubstitution亲核体协助单分子亲电取代Unimolecularelimination单分子消除Bimolecularelimination双分子消除Unimoleculareliminationthroughtheconjugatebase单分子共轭碱消除Bimoleculareliminationthroughtheconjugatebase双分子共轭碱消除Bimoleculareliminationwithformationofacarbonylgroup双分子羰基形成消除Unimolecularacidcatalyzedacyloxygencleavage单分子酸催化酰氧断裂Bimolecularbasecatalyzedacyloxygencleavage双分子碱催化酰氧断裂Unimolecularacidcatalyzedalkyloxygencleavage单分子酸催化烷氧断裂Bimllecularbasecatalyzedalkyloxygencle有机化学专业英语4avage双分子碱催化烷氧断裂πallylcomplexmechanismπ烯丙型络合机理Borderlinemechanism边理机理Homolysis均裂Heterolysis异裂Heterolyticmichanism异裂机理Counrergegenion反荷离子Ionpair离子对Carbocation碳正离子Nonclassicalcarbocation非经典碳正离子Carbanion碳负离子Maskedcarbanion掩蔽碳负离子Carbenoid卡宾体Carbene卡宾Nitrene氮宾Carbine碳炔Electrophilicaddition亲电加成Electrophile亲电体Diaxialaddition双直键加成Markovnikovsrube马尔科夫尼科规则AntiMarkovnikovaddition反马氏加成Michaeladdition迈克尔加成Substitution取代Electrophilicsubstitution亲电取代Additioneliminationmechanism加成消除机理Electrophilicaromaticsubstitution亲电芳香取代Electrontransfer电子转移Electrondonatinggroup给电子基团ElectronWithdrawinggroup吸电子基团Deactivatinggroup钝化基团Orinentation取向Orthoparadirectinggroup邻对位定位基Metadirectinggroup间位定位基Orthoeffect邻位效应Partialratefactor分速度系数Nucleophilicreaction亲核反应Internalreturn内返Nucleophilicity亲核体Nucleophilicity亲核性αeffectα效应Backsideattack背面进攻Inversion反转Umbrellaeffect伞效应Pushpulleffect推拉效应Leavinggroup离去基团Electrofuge离电体Nucleofuge离核体Phasetransfercatalysis相转移催化Neighboringgroupparticipation邻基基参与Neighboringproupassistance,anchimericassistance邻助作用Neighboringgroupeffect邻基效应Apofacialreaction反面反应Briddgeheaddisplacement桥头取代Arylaction芳正离子Benzyne苯炔Zaitsevrule札依采夫规则AntiZaitsevorientation反札依采夫定向Hofmannsrule霍夫曼规则Bredtrule布雷特规则Initiation引发Anioniccleavage负离子裂解Partialbondfixation键的部分固定化02.3有机化学反应Alkylation烷基化CalkylationC烷基化OalkylationO烷基化NalkylationN烷基化Silylation硅烷基化Exhaustivemethylation彻底甲基化Secoalkylation断裂烷基化Demethylation脱甲基化Ethylation乙基化Arylation芳基化Acylation酰化Formylation甲酰化Carbalkoxylation烷氧羰基化Carboamidation氨羰基化Carboxylation羧基化Amination氨基化Bisamination双氨基化Cinesubstitution移位取代Transamination氨基交换有机化学专业英语5Hydroxylation羟基化acyloxyation酰氧基化Decarboxylativenitration脱羧卤化Allylichalogenation烯丙型卤化Dehalogenation脱卤Nitration硝化Decarboxylativenitration脱羧硝化Nitrosation亚硝化Sulfonation磺化Chlorosulfonation氯磺酰化Desulfonation脱磺酸基Sulfenylation亚磺酰化Sulfonylation磺酰化Chlorosulfenation氯亚磺酰化Chlorocarbonylation氯羰基化Diazotization重氮化Diazotransfer重氮基转移Couplingreaction偶联反应Diazoniumcoupling重氮偶联Crosscouplingreaction交叉偶联反应1,4addition1,4加成Conjugateaddition共轭加成Dimerization二聚Trimefization三聚Additivedimerization加成二聚sulfurization硫化Selenylation硒化Hydroboration硼氢化Oxyamination羟氨基化Insertion插入carbonylation羧基化Hydroformylation加氢甲酰基化Hydroacylation加氢酰化Oxoprocess羰基合成Decarbonylation脱羰Hydrocarboxylation氢羧基化Homologization同系化Cyanoethylation氰乙基化Decyanoethylation脱氰乙基Ringclsure环合Dienesynthesis双烯合成Dienophile亲双烯体Endoaddition内型加成Exoaddition外型加成DielsAlderreaction第尔斯尔德反应RetroDielsAlderreaction逆第尔斯阿尔德反应Enesynthesis单烯合成Anioniccycloaddition负离子环加成Dipolaraddition偶极加成elimination消除elimination消除elimination消除elimination消除Dehydrohalogenation脱卤化氢Deamination脱氨基Pyrolyticelimination热解消除Eliminationaddition消除加成Decarboxylation脱羧Decarboxamidation脱酰胺Decyanation脱氰基Alkylolysis,alkylcleavage烷基裂解Acylolysis,acylcleavage酰基裂解Flashpyrolysis闪热裂Fragmentation碎裂Chiletropicreaction螯键反应Chelation螯环化Esterification酯化Transesterification酯交换Saponification皂化Alcoholysis醇解Ethanolysis乙醇解Cyanomethylation氰甲基化Aminomethylation氨甲基化Hydroxymethylation羟甲基化Hydroxyalkylation羟烷基化Cholromethylation氯甲基化Haloalkylation卤烷基化Transacetalation缩醛交换Enolization烯醇化Haloformreaction卤仿反应Condensation缩合Aldolcondensation羟醛缩合Crossaldolcondensation交叉羟醛缩合Retrogradealdolcondensation逆羟醛缩合Acyloincondensation偶姻缩合有机化学专业英语6Cyclization环化Annulation,annelation增环反应Spiroannulation螺增环Autoxidation自氧化Allylichydroperoxylation烯丙型氢过氧化Epoxidation环氧化Oxonolysis臭氧解Electrochemicaloxidation电化学氧化Oxidativedecarboxylation氧化脱羧Aromatization芳构化Catalytichydrogenation催化氢化Heterogeneoushydrogenation多相氢化Homogeneoushydrogenation均相氢化Catalyticdehydrogenation催化脱氢Transferhydrogenation转移氢化Hydrogenolysis氢解Dissolvingmetalreduction溶解金属还原Singleelectrontransfer单电子转移Bimolecularreduction双分子还原Electrochemicalreduction电化学还原Reductivealkylation还原烷基化Reductiveacylation还原酰化Reductivedimerization还原二聚Deoxygenation脱氧Desulfurization脱硫Deselenization脱硒Mitallation金属化Lithiation锂化Hydrometallation氢金属化Mercuration汞化Oxymercuration羟汞化Aminomercuration氨汞化Abstraction夺取反应Internalabstraction内夺取反应Rearrangement重排Prototropicrearrangement质了转移重排Doublebondmigration双键移位Allylicmigration烯丙型重排Allylicmigration烯丙型迁移Ringcontraction环缩小反应Ringexpansion,ringenlargement扩环反应ketolrearrangement酮醇重排Pinacolrearrangement频哪醇重排Retropinacolrearrangement逆频哪醇重排Semipinacolrearrangement半频哪醇重排Benzilicrearrangement二苯乙醇酸重排Acylrearrangement酰基重排Migratoryaptitude迁移倾向Transannularinsertion跨环插入Transannularrearrangement跨环重排Migration迁移Prototropy质子转移Cationotropicrearrangement正离子转移重排Anionotropy负离子转移Anionotropicrearrangement负离子转移重排Sigmatropicrearrangement迁移重排Homosigmatropicrearrangement同迁移重排Electrophilicrearrangement亲电重排Photosensitization光敏化Forbiddentransition禁阻跃迁photooxidation光氧化Photoisomerization光异构化Photochemicalrearrangement光化学重排有机化合物类名Aliphaticcompound脂肪族化合物Hpdrocarbon碳氢化合物Alkane烷Wax蜡Paraffinwax石蜡Alkene烯Alkyen炔Acetylide炔化物Activehydrogencompounds活泼氢化合物Carbonacid碳氢酸Superacid超酸Diene双烯Triene三烯Allene丙二烯Ccumulene累积多烯Enyne烯炔Diyne二炔Alkylhalide卤代烷Alcohol醇Homoallylicalcohol高烯丙醇Ether醚有机化学专业英语7Epoxide环氧化物Cellosolve溶纤剂Crownether冠醚Netrocompound硝基化合物Amine胺Quaternaryammoniumcompound季铵化合物Amineoxide氧化胺Diazoalkane重氮烷Mercaptan硫醇Sulfonicacid磺酸Sulfoxide亚砜Sulfone砜Aldehyde醛Detone酮Aldehydehydrate醛水合物Ketonehydrate酮水合物Hemiacetal半缩醛Acetal缩醛acetal化乙缩醛,乙缩醛二乙醇Ketal缩酮Dithiane二噻烷Aminal缩醛胺imine亚胺Aldimine醛亚胺Oxime肟Aldimine醛肟Oxime亚硝基化合物aldoxime硝酮Hydrazone腙Azine嗪Semicarbazone缩氯基脲Cyanohydrin羟腈Pinacol频哪醇Enol烯醇Enolether烯醇醚Enolester烯醇酯Enamine烯胺Ynamine炔胺Mannichbase曼尼希碱Carboxylicacid羧酸Ester酯orthoester原酸酯Acylhalide酰卤Acylfluoride酰氟Acylchloride酰氯Acylrtomide酰溴Acyliodide酰碘Carbobenzoxychloride苄氧甲酰氯Acyltosylate酰基对甲苯磺酸酐Ketene乙烯酮Peracid过酸Perester过酸酯Acylperoxide酰基过氧化物Nitrile腈Nitrileoxide氧化腈Isonitrile异腈Amide酰胺Imide二酰亚胺NbromocompoundN溴化物Hydrazide酰肼Acylazide酰叠氮Amidine脒Ketoester酮酸酯Acylcyanide酰腈Carbonsuboxide二氧化三碳Glycidicacid环氧丙酸Carbammicacid氨基甲酸Carbamate氨基甲酸酯Urea脲Cyanamide氨腈Carbodiimide碳二亚胺Allophanate脲基甲酸酯Thioester硫代酸酯Thiolacid硫羰酸Lactone内酯Lactol内半缩醛Macrolide大环内酯Aminoacid氨基酸Zwitterions两性离子Innersalt内盐Betaine甜菜碱Lactam内酰胺Hydantion乙内酰脲Peptide肽Glycol二醇有机化学专业英语8Aldol羟醛Acyloin偶姻Carbohydrate碳水化合物Aldose醛糖Ketose酮糖Furanose呋喃糖Pyranose吡喃糖Glycoside糖苷Glucoside葡萄糖苷Aglycon苷元Saccharide糖类Oligosaccharide寡糖Polysaccharide多糖Alditol糖醇Osazone脎Alicycliccompound脂环化合物Cycloalkene环烷Spirane环烯Cagecompound螺烷Propellane笼型化合物Rotazane螺桨烷Catenane轮烷Rusedring索烃化学专业英语词汇常用前后缀acetal醛缩醇acetal乙酰acid酸al醛alcohol醇aldehyde醛alkali碱allyl丙烯基alkoxy烷氧基amide酰胺amino氨基的amidine脒amine胺ane烷anhydride酐anilino苯胺基aquo含水的ase酶ate含氧酸的盐、酯atriyne三炔azo偶氮benzene苯bi在盐类前表示酸式盐bis双borane硼烷bromo溴butyl丁基.carbinol甲醇carbonyl羰基caboxylicacid羧酸centi102chloro氯代cis顺式condensed缩合的、冷凝的cyclo环deca十deci101二dine啶dodeca十二ene烯epi表epoxy环氧ester酯ether醚ethoxy乙氧基ethyl乙基fluoro氟代form仿glycol二醇hemi半hendeca十一hepta七heptadeca十七hexa六hexadeca十六hydrin醇hydro氢或水hydroxyl羟基hypo低级的,次ic酸的,高价金属ide无氧酸的盐,酰替胺,酐有机化学专业英语9il偶酰imine亚胺iodine碘iodo碘代iso异,等,同ite亚酸盐keto酮ketone酮lactone内酯mega106meta间,偏methoxy甲氧基methyl甲基micro106milli103monomon一,单nano109nitro硝基nitroso亚硝基nona九nonadeca十九octa八octadeca十八oic酸的ol醇9afQ,H5nGone酮ortho邻,正,原ous亚酸的,低价金属oxa氧杂oxide氧化合物oxime肟oxo酮oxy氧化oyl酰para对位,仲penta五pentadeca十五per高,过petro石油phenol苯酚phenyl苯基pico1012poly聚,多quadri四quinque五semi半septi七sesqui一个半i六sulfa磺胺sym对称syn顺式,同,共ter三tetra四tetradeca十四tetrakis四个thio硫代trans反式,超,跨tri三thio硫代trans反式,超,跨tri三trideca十三tris三个undeca十一.uni单,一unsym不对称的,偏位yl基ylene撑二价基,价在不同原子上yne炔活化剂的中英文名称Bis2ethylhexylsebacate(癸二酸二仲辛酯癸二酸二2乙基己酯)Zincstearate(硬脂酸锌)Subericacid(辛二酸)Adipicacid,(己二酸)Hexanedioicacid,(己二酸)Sebacicacid,dibutylester(癸二酸二丁酯)Abieticacid(松香酸)Lacticacid(乳酸)Polyethyleneglycol(聚乙二醇)Glycerolstearate(硬脂酸甘油酯)Imidazoline(咪唑啉,间二氮杂环戊烯)Pinene(β蒎烯,β松油二环烯)Adipicacid(脂肪酸)Butylacetate(乙酸丁酯)

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