会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载

HeatPproductivity_NASA.pdf

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:33.10KB   全文页数:5页
  • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

HeatPproductivity_NASA.pdf

NASACR12051,ACompendiumofHumanResponsestotheAerospaceEnvironment.Thereportshowsthatwheninplanttemperaturesriseover85°,outputdropsby18andaccuracysuffersfroma40increaseinerrors.Productivitylossesfromhightemperaturesmaybedocumentedbyyourownproductionrecords.EffectiveTemp.75º80º85º90º95º100º105ºLossinOutput381829456279LossinAccuracyNegligible540300700EffectiveTemperatureisthecombinedeffectoftemperature,humidity,andairmotiononthebody.StudyforNASA.ComfortConditioningthePlantwithEvaporativeCoolingPlantEngineeringJuly8,1976Pg76JosephMargEvaporativeAirConditioningHandbookJohnWatt,PEandWillBrownPE3rdEditionPg201U.S.DepartmentofLaborProgramHighlightsFactSheetNo.OSHA9516PROTECTINGWORKERSINHOTENVIRONMENTSManyworkersspendsomepartoftheirworkingdayinahotenvironment.Workersinfoundries,laundries,constructionprojects,andbakeriestonameafewindustriesoftenfacehotconditionswhichposespecialhazardstosafetyandhealth.HEATSTRESSCAUSESBODYREACTIONSFourenvironmentalfactorsaffecttheamountofstressaworkerfacesinahotworkareatemperature,humidity,radiantheatsuchasfromthesunorafurnaceandairvelocity.Perhapsmostimportanttothelevelofstressanindividualfacesarepersonalcharacteristicssuchasage,weight,fitness,medicalconditionandacclimatizationtotheheat.Thebodyreactstohighexternaltemperaturebycirculatingbloodtotheskinwhichincreasesskintemperatureandallowsthebodytogiveoffitsexcessheatthroughtheskin.However,ifthemusclesarebeingusedforphysicallabor,lessbloodisavailabletoflowtotheskinandreleasetheheat.Sweatingisanothermeansthebodyusestomaintainastableinternalbodytemperatureinthefaceofheat.However,sweatingiseffectiveonlyifthehumiditylevelislowenoughtopermitevaporationandifthefluidsandsaltslostareadequatelyreplaced.Ofcoursetherearemanystepsapersonmightchoosetotaketoreducetheriskofheatstress,suchasmovingtoacoolerplace,reducingtheworkpaceorload,orremovingorlooseningsomeclothing.Butifthebodycannotdisposeofexcessheat,itwillstoreft.Whenthishappens,thebodyscoretemperaturerisesandtheheartrateincreases.Asthebodycontinuestostoreheat,theindividualbeginstoloseconcentrationandhasdifficultyfocusingonatask,maybecomeirritableorsickandoftenlosesthedesiretodrink.ThenextstageIsmostoftenfaintinganddeathispossibleifthepersonisnotremovedfromtheheatstress.HEATDISORDERSHeatstroke,themostserioushealthproblemforworkersinhotenvironments,iscausedbythefailureofthebodysinternalmechanismtoregulateitscoretemperature.Sweatingstopsandthebodycannolongerriditselfofexcessheat.Signsinclude1mentalconfusion,delirium,lossofconsciousness,convulsionsorcoma2abodytemperatureof106degreesForhigherand3hotdryskinwhichmaybered,mottled,orbluish.Victimsofheatstrokewilldieunlesstreatedpromptly.Whileawaitingmedicalhelp,thevictimmustberemovedtoacoolareaandhisorherclothingsoakedwithcoolwater.Heorsheshouldbefannedvigorouslytoincreasecooling.Promptfirstaidcanpreventpermanentinjurytothebrainandothervitalorgans.Heatexhaustionresultsfromlossoffluidthroughsweatingwhenaworkerhasfailedtodrinkenoughfluidsortakeinenoughsaltorboth.Theworkerwithheatexhaustionstillsweatsbutexperiencesextremeweaknessorfatigue,giddiness,nausea,orheadache.Theskinisclammyandmoist,thecomplexionpaleorflushed,andthebodytemperaturenormalorslightlyhigher.Treatmentisusuallysimplethevictimshouldrestinacoolplaceanddrinkwateroranelectrolytesolutionabeverageusedbyathletestoquicklyrestorepotassium,calcium,andmagnesiumsalts.Severecasesinvolvingvictimswhovomitorloseconsciousnessmayrequirelongertreatmentundermedicalsupervision.Heatcramps,painfulspasmsofthemuscles,arecausedwhenworkersdrinklargequantitiesofwaterbutfailtoreplacetheirbodiessaltloss.Tiredmusclesthoseusedforperformingtheworkareusuallytheonesmostsusceptibletocramps.Crampsmayoccurduringorafterworkinghoursandmayberelievedbytakingliquidsbymouthorsalinesolutionsintravenouslyforquickerrelief,ifmedicallydeterminedtoberequired.Faintingheatsyncopemaybeaproblemfortheworkerunacclimatizedtoahotenvironmentwhosimplystandsstillintheheat.Victimsusuallyrecoverquicklyafterabriefperiodoflyingdown.Movingaround,ratherthanstandingstill,willusuallyreducethepossibilityoffainting.Heatrash,alsoknownaspricklyheat,mayoccurinhotandhumidenvironmentswheresweatisnoteasilyremovedfromthesurfaceoftheskinbyevaporation.Whenextensiveorcomplicatedbyinfection,heatrashcanbesouncomfortablethatitinhibitssleep,impedesaworkersperformance,orevenresultsintemporarytotaldisability.Itcanbepreventedbyrestinginacoolplaceandallowingtheskintodry.PREVENTINGHEATSTRESSMostheatrelatedhealthproblemscanbepreventedortheriskofdevelopingthemreduced.Followingafewbasicprecautionsshouldlessenheatstress.1.Avarietyofengineeringcontrolsincludinggeneralventilationandspotcoolingbylocalexhaustventilationatpointsofhighheatproductionmaybehelpful.Shieldingisrequiredasprotectionfromradiantheatsources.Evaporativecoolingandmechanicalrefrigerationareotherwaystoreduceheat.Coolingfanscanalsoreduceheatinhotconditions.Eliminatingsteamleakswillalsohelp.Equipmentmodifications,theuseofpowertoolstoreducemanuallaborandpersonalcoolingdevicesorprotectiveclothingareotherwaystoreducethehazardsofheatexposureforworkers.2.Workpracticessuchasprovidingplentyof,drinkingwaterasmuchasaquartperworkerperhourattheworkplacecanhelpreducetheriskofheatdisorders.Trainingfirstaidworkerstorecognizeandtreatheatstressdisordersandmakingthenamesoftrainedstaffknowntoallworkersisessential.EmployersshouldalsoconsideranindividualworkersphysicalconditionwhendetermininghisorherfitnessforworkingInhotenvironments.Olderworkers,obeseworkersandpersonnelonsometypesofmedicationareatgreaterrisk.3.Alternatingworkandrestperiodswithlongerrestperiodsinacoolareacanhelpworkersavoidheatstress.Ifpossible,heavyworkshouldbescheduledduringthecoolerpartsofthedayandappropriateprotectiveclothingprovided.Supervisorsshouldbetrainedtodetectearlysignsofheatstressandshouldpermitworkerstointerrupttheirworkiftheyareextremelyuncomfortable.4.Acclimatizationtotheheatthroughshortexposuresfollowedbylongerperiodsofworkinthehotenvironmentcanreduceheatstress.Newemployeesandworkersreturningfromanabsenceoftwoweeksormoreshouldhavea5dayperiodofacclimatization.Thisperiodshouldbeginwith50percentofthenormalworkloadandtimeexposurethefirstdayandgraduallybuildingupto100percentonthefifthday.5.Employeeeducationisvitalsothatworkersareawareoftheneedtoreplacefluidsandsaltlostthroughsweatandcanrecognizedehydration,exhaustion,fainting,heatcramps,saltdeficiency,heatexhaustion,andheatstrokeasheatdisorders.Workersshouldalsobeinformedoftheimportanceofdailyweighingbeforeandafterworktoavoiddehydration.Safetyisamajoreconomicconsiderationinallworkingareas.Safeworkingconditionsareimportantinkeepinginsurancecostsdownandavoidingemployeedisruptions.Thehot,uncomfortableworkerismoreliabletoignoregoodsafetypracticeandallowaccidentcausingsituationstooccur.HeatStressrelatedproductivitylossesduetohightemperaturesinyourplantareprobablydocumentedbyyourownrecords.Accuracyissimilarlyaffectedastemperaturesabove85degreescausea300increaseinerrors.LowMoralecausedbyanuncomfortableworkenvironmentresultsintardiness,absenteeism,andturnover.Thesummerincreaseinnegativeemployeereactionsduetoheatstressisalsodocumentedthroughproductionrecords.Vacantworkstationsresultinloweredefficiency,inovertimepaidtomeetschedules,andinhiringandtrainingcostsforreplacements.HealthFactorsrelatingtoheatstressintheworkingenvironmentisanincreasingconcernofregulatoryagencies.TheNationalInstituteofOccupationalSafetyHealthNIOSHhasdevelopedapreliminarystandardforallowableheatstresslevels.Thestandarddefinesenvironmentaltemperaturerequirementsandworktime/resttimepercentagestolerableforemployees.Paybackisanimportantfactorindeterminingthepurchaseofequipment.Aswagesinflate,itbecomesincreasinglyimportanttogetthefullproductivityyouarepayingforfromyouremployeesbykeepingtheirworkingconditionscomfortable.MOREINFORMATIONA15pagebooklet,WorkinginHotEnvironments,isavailablefreefromNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthPublications,4676ColumbiaParkway,Cincinnati,Ohio45226telephone5135338287.U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice1995387186,22971ThisisoneofaseriesoffactsheetshighlightingU.S.DepartmentofLaborprograms.Itisintendedasageneraldescriptiononlyanddoesnotcarrytheforceoflegalopinion.Thisinformationwillbemadeavailabletosensoryimpairedindividualsuponrequest.Voicephone2022198151.TDDmessagereferralphone18003262577.documentwasscannedandmodifiedforformattingpurposesonlyfromitsoriginalform

注意事项

本文(HeatPproductivity_NASA.pdf)为本站会员(仙人指路)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5